Antibacterial and Antifungal Properties of Brahmi

Scientific Study, 2016

22 Pages, Grade: 1.5


Table of contents

Table of figures

Table of tables

List of abbreviations

Studies on antibacterial and antifungal properties of Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri (Linn) Pennell)


1. Introduction
1.1 Objectives
1.2 Scope of the study
1.3 Taxonomical classification

3. Hypothesis

4. Materials and Methods
4.1 Study area
4.2 Plant sample collection
4.3 Preparation of extract
4.4 Microorganism
4.5 Agar well diffusion tests
4.8 Statistical analysis

5. Results

5. Discussion

6. Conclusions

Conflict of interest statement




Firstly we thank God Almighty whose blessing were always with us and helped us to complete this project work successfully.

We wish to thank our beloved Manager Rev. Fr. Dr. George Njarakunnel, Respected Principal Dr. Joseph V. J, Vice Principal Fr. Joseph Allencheril, Bursar Shaji Augustine and the Management for providing all the necessary facilities in carrying out the study. We express our sincere thanks to Mr. Binoy A Mulanthra (lab in charge, Department of Biotechnology) for the support. This research work will not be possible with the co-operation of many farmers.

We are gratefully indebted to our teachers, parents, siblings and friends who were there always for helping us in this project.

Prem Jose Vazhacharickal*, Jiby John Mathew, Sajeshkumar N.K, Sherin Peter and Riny Susan Thomas

Table of figures

Figure 1. Mean monthly rainfall (mm), maximum and minimum temperatures (°C) in Kerala, India (1871-2005; Krishnakumar et al., 2009)

Figure 2. Map of Ramapuram showing the location of the sample collection point

Figure 3. Inhibition zone produced by Bacopa monnieri (Linn) Pennell (Brahmi) on different bacterial and fungal strains (leaf and stem respectively), a) and b) Aspergillus niger, c) and d) Candida albicans, e) and f) Staphylococcus species, g) Brahmi leaves powder, h) Brahmi stem powder

Table of tables

Table 1. Different vernacular names of Annona reticulata around the globe and India

Table 2. Inhibition zone of various control treatments (petroleum ether, chloroform, acetone, methanol and water) against various microorganisms using Muller Hinton Agar and Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (n=3, values in mm)

Table 3. Inhibition zone of Bacopa monnieri (Linn) Pennell (Brahmi) leaves treatments (petroleum ether, chloroform, acetone, methanol and water) against various microorganisms using Muller Hinton Agar and Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (n=3, values in mm)

Table 4. Inhibition zone of Bacopa monnieri (Linn) Pennell (Brahmi) shoot treatments (petroleum ether, chloroform, acetone, methanol and water) against various microorganisms using Muller Hinton Agar and Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (n=3, values in mm)

List of abbreviations

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Studies on antibacterial and antifungal properties of Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri (Linn) Pennell)

Prem Jose Vazhacharickal1 *, Jiby John Mathew1, Sajeshkumar N.K1, Sherin Peter1 and Riny Susan Thomas1

1 Department of Biotechnology

Studies on antibacterial and antifungal properties of Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri (Linn) Pennell)

Prem Jose Vazhacharickal, Jiby John Mathew, Sajeshkumar N.K, Sherin Peter and Riny Susan Thomas


Fungal and bacterial infections have increased rapidly and the wide uses of synthetic medicines have cytotoxicity on host and made drug resistance among the pathogen. The Antifungal and antibacterial analysis of Bacopa monnieri (Linn) Pennell (Brahmi) was conducted in the present investigation. Various extracts (water, methanol, acetone, petroleum ether and chloroform) of dried Brahmi leaves and stem were tested against two strains of fungi- Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans as well as bacterial strains. The antibacterial and antifungal activity of different plant extracts was determined by agar well-diffusion method using Muller hinton agar and Sabouraud dextrose agar. The methanol extracts of Brahmi leaves shows inhibition zones on Aspergillus niger (12.3 ± 0.6), Candida albicans (12.3 ± 0.6), Staphylococcus species (12.3 ± 0.6) and Bacillus species (12.3 ± 0.6). Water extract does not seem to have any good antimicrobial activity against all above mentioned the test microorganisms. The present in vitro investigation results shows that the extracts of Brahmi leaves and stems show good antifungal and antibacterial activity. The study also concludes that methanol and acetone extracts showed good higher efficacy of the bioactive compounds.

1. Introduction

Invasive fungal infections have increased in frequency and severity over the last two decades as a result of an increasing number of immunocompromised hosts 1. Widespread use of antibacterial and antifungal therapies for curative and prophylactic purposes has serious drawbacks such as the development of fungal resistance and toxic side effects. Because of the eukaryotic properties of fungi, many antifungal compounds exhibit a potent cytotoxic effect on humans which is a significant limitation for the application of these compounds as a practical drug 2. In search of new antifungal compounds with low side effects such as cytotoxicity, recent efforts have focused on natural resources to obtain a novel bioactive substance, especially from plants. Due to the high costs, adulterations and possible side effects of synthetic drugs the search for alternative cheap medicinal plants is of top priority in developing and under developed countries 3.

Medicinal plants represent a rich source of antimicrobial agents and used widely in Ayurvedic and other traditional medicinal systems 3, 4, 5, 6. A wide range of medicinal plant parts used for extract as raw drugs and they possess varied medicinal properties. The different parts used include root, stem, flower, fruit, twigs exudates and modified plant organs. While some of these raw drugs are collected in smaller quantities by the local communities and folk healers for local used, many other raw drugs are collected in larger quantities and traded in the market as the raw material for many herbal industries 7. Although hundreds of plant species have been tested for antimicrobial properties, the vast majority of have not been adequately evaluated 8.

The common medicinal plant Bacopa monnieri (Linn) Pennell, is a well-known herb in Indian system of medicine commonly called as Brahmi. The plant is commonly found in wet, damp and marshy areas. The active ingredients of the plants were used as brain tonic, which is effective in maintaining the vigour and intellect 9, 10 contcoid saponin called bacosides 11, 12. The bacosides enhance the efficiency of transmission of nerve impulse and also used as a laxative and curative for ulcers, inflammation, anaemia, scabies, leucoderma, epilepsy and asthma 13, 14. The plant is also reported to show sedative 15, hyperthyroidism, vasoconstrictor and anti-inflammatory property 16.

1.1 Objectives

Given lacking qualitative and quantitative data on antimicrobial and antifungal properties Bacopa monnieri (Linn) Pennellplant extracts, our objectives were to (1) Determination of the extraction of Brahmi using various extractants and (2) validation of the various extractants using zone of inhibition studies on major bacterial and fungal strains causing food spoilage and food borne diseases.

1.2 Scope of the study

The study using the extracts of Bacopa monnieri (Linn) Pennellcould develop new drug formulations to combat various diseases. Moreover such studies could improve the potential value of the underutilized plants especially Bacopa monnieri (Linn) Pennell.

1.3 Taxonomical classification Kingdom: Plantae-- planta, plantes, plants, vegetal Subkingdom: Viridiplantae Division: Tracheophyta – vascular plants, tracheophytes Class: Magnoliopsida -- dicots, dicotyledones, dicotyledons Order: Lamiales Family: Plantaginaceae – plantains Genus: Bacopa Aubl. Species: Bacopa monnieri (Linn) Pennell

Table 1. Different vernacular names of Annona reticulata around the globe and India.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

3. Hypothesis

The current research work is based on the following hypothesis

1) The Bacopa monnieri (Linn) Pennell extracts vary in their antimicrobial and antifungal activities.

4. Materials and Methods

4.1 Study area

Kerala state covers an area of 38,863 km2 with a population density of 859 per km2 and spread across 14 districts. The climate is characterized by tropical wet and dry with average annual rainfall amounts to 2,817 ± 406 mm and mean annual temperature is 26.8°C (averages from 1871-2005; 19 ). Maximum rainfall occurs from June to September mainly due to South West Monsoon and temperatures are highest in May and November (Figure 1).

4.2 Plant sample collection

Fresh plant materials of Bacopa monnieri (Linn) Pennell (Brahmi) was collected from the herbal garden of MarAugusthinose college, Kerala, India (Figure 2). The herbal garden was established on 2006 as a central government scheme form Medicinal Plant Board to educate the students about the local medicinal plants. The garden has a size of 0.1 ha with more than 200 species of medicinal plants which were mainly maintained by the students. The leaves and stems were collected separately. The plant materials were thoroughly washed with distilled water and fresh weight were determined. The samples are then oven dried (KOA4, KEMI lab equipments, Ernakulam, India) at 60°C for 24 h. The dried samples were powdered using a waring blender (Magic V2, Preethi Kitchen Appliances Pvt Ltd, Chennai, India) and stored in air-tight polyethylene bottles until further analysis.


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Excerpt out of 22 pages


Antibacterial and Antifungal Properties of Brahmi
Mar Augusthinose College
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ISBN (eBook)
ISBN (Book)
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Authors: Prem Jose Vazhacharickal, Jiby John Mathew, Sajeshkumar N.K, Sherin Peter and Riny Susan Thomas
Funghi, Antibacterial, infection, medicine, antifungal, brahmi, bacopa, monnieri, pennell, linn, microorganism
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Dr. Prem Jose Vazhacharickal et al. (Author), 2016, Antibacterial and Antifungal Properties of Brahmi, Munich, GRIN Verlag,


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