Documenting and Evaluating Traditional Conservation Practice between the Ethnic Groups in Four Districts of Greater Mymensingh Region


Master's Thesis, 2006
55 Pages, Grade: 01

Excerpt

CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

1. INTRODUCTION
1.1. General
1.2. Review of literature
1.3. Aims and objectives

2. STUDY AREA
2.1. Bangladesh
2.2. Study site

3. METHOD

4. RESULTS
4.1. Overall Documentation
4.2. Documentation of animal use for the conservation purpose by different ethnic communities
4.3. Documentation of plant use for the conservation purpose by different ethnic communities
4.4. Documented dominant animal species in different sacred groves
4.5. Documented plant species in different sacred groves

5. DISCUSSION

6. RECOMMENDATION

7. REFERENCES

APPENDIX

DEDICATION

TO THE FOREST PEOPLE, WHO CONSERVE FOREST FROM THE ANCIENT TIME

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I express my heartful gratitude to Dr. Mofizul Kabir, Associate Professor, Department of Zoology, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka for suggesting the problems and for his untiring guidance.

I express my gratitude to Dr. Anwarul Islam, Professor, Department of Zoology, University of Dhaka for his valuable advices during the study period.

I am grateful to Dr. Mostafa Feeroz, Professor, Department of Zoology, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka.

I am grateful to Dr. Sajeda Begum, Associate Professor, Department of Zoology, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka for her valuable suggestions.

I am grateful to Mrs. Sanjida Mobaswara, Lecturer, Dept. of Botany, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka.

I am also grateful to Dr. Monirul H. Khan, Md. Abdul Aziz, Md. Kamrul Hasan for their advices during the study.

I express my reverence to Philip Gain, Director, Society for environment and Human Development, Dhaka and Sukanto Sen, Director, BARCIK, Dhaka.

My sincere thanks to Pavel Partha, Program Officer, BARCIK, Dhaka and Partha Sankor Saha, Cultural co-ordinator, Society for environment and Human Development, Dhaka.

I am grateful to Forest Department, Government ob Bangladesh for permitting me to work in the forest of greater Mymensingh region.

I am also indebted to all my adorable teachers of Zoology and Botany department for their encouragement and advice.

My special thanks to Porag Ritchil, Juel bin Johir, Suvas Kuzur, Ripon Chakma, Mukta Raksam, Silderstar Chiran and all of my friends.

I have no words of thankfulness for their help in providing special information and encouragement .I would like to thanks Hajong Aswani Kumar Roy ( Defulia, Dhubaura Mymensingh), Rajmohon Dalu ( Hatibanda, Nalitabari, Sherpur), Avoy Dalu ( Joyram kura ,Haluaghat ,Mymensingh), Neta Nokrek ( Haluaghat, Mymensingh ), Janik Nakrek ( Chunia, Modhupur, Tangail), Srijon Sangma (Research Officer, Academy of Tribal Culture , Birisiri, Netrokona), Babul Nokrek ( Regional Education Officer, CARITAS, Mymensingh).

FEBRUARY, 2006

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1. General

The term indigenous knowledge (IK) is broadly defined as the local knowledge held by indigenous peoples or local knowledge unique to a given culture or society and is used here interchangeably with traditional knowledge. More specifically, we use the term traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) as a sub set of Indigenous Knowledge. It is defined here as a cumulative body of knowledge and believes, handed down through generation by cultural transmission, about the relationship of living beings (including humans) with one another and with their environment. Indigenous knowledge or Traditional Ecological Knowledge is an attribute of societies with historical continuity in resource use practices; by and large, these are non-traditional societies, many of them indigenous or tribal (Warren et al., 1993).

Traditional knowledge is important for its own sake and for its social and cultural value. But, it is also significant for a number of practical reasons, many of them relevant to biodiversity conservation .The following list is adapted from the IUCN Programme on Traditional knowledge for conservation.

1. TEK offers new biological knowledge and ecological insights;
2. Some TEK systems provide models for sustainable resource management;
3. TEK is relevant for protected areas and conservation education;
4. The use of TEK is often crucial for development planning; and
5. TEK may be used in environmental assessment

Towards the end of the 19th century, academics began to use the prefix to refer to the way of interpreting nature through the indigenous people. Ethnozoology is the term that requires the understanding of traditional knowledge. This subject has adopted more scientific knowledge, arrived at on the basis of practical experience, without having undergone any rigorous experimental verification, and often handed down orally from generation to generation, is termed as traditional knowledge (Gadgil, 2003).

In particular, indigenous knowledge differs from scientific knowledge in it’s:

- restricted geographical scale of observations
- Reliance on mainly qualitative (rather than quantitative) informations;
- Lack of a built in drive to accumulate more and more facts;
- slower speed in the accumulation of facts;
- More reliance on trial and error, rather than on systematic experimentation;
- Limited scope for the verification of predictions; and
- Lack of interest in general principles or theory building

Indigenous knowledge is often considered as informal knowledge that exists in local societies in comparison with formal knowledge developed by universities and research institutions in modern societies. The indigenous knowledge system of a local society covers a wide range of its member’s perceptions on universal phenomena occurring in their immediate environment and practices on every social, economic and cultural activities taking place within the society (Shengji, 1996).

Ethno-biologists play an important role in recording traditional knowledge before it’s disappears through cultural assimilation or environmental change. These records are important for their cultural value as well as for the ecological insight traditional knowledge provides into ecosystem functioning & resource management (Cunningham, 1996).

The term “indigenous knowledge” has many synonyms: indigenous technical knowledge (ITK), people’s science, indigenous agricultural knowledge (IAK), Local knowledge, traditional knowledge, ethnoscience and indigenous ecological knowledge (Ahmed, 1974).

Traditional knowledge may indeed complement scientific knowledge by providing practical experience in living within ecosystems not responding to ecosystem change (Pandey, 2001).

Traditional knowledge is vital for sustainability of natural resources, including forests, water and agro- ecosystems across landscape continuum spanning from households through farms, village, commons, and wilderness. The concept recognizes that the well-being of human society is closely related to the well being of natural ecosystems. The intellectual resources on which the sustainability science that draw on the collective intellectual resources of both formal sciences and local knowledge systems of knowledge (Pandey, 2001).

In India these systems can be classified in several ways:

- Religious traditions: temple forests, monastery forests, sanctified, deified trees
- Traditional tribal traditions: sacred groves, sacred forests, sacred trees
- Royal traditions: royal hunting preserves, elephant forests, royal gardens etc
- Livelihood traditions: forests and groves serving as cultural and social space and source of livelihood products.

In Bangladesh recent figures from the International Union of Conservation on Nature and Natural resources showed that only 6% of the country natural vegetation remains. With the natural resources of the country under such threat it is time indigenous knowledge was seen as valuable resources in development thinking before more it lost. Local people have lived with their environment and adapted to it over hundreds of years and know more about their life styles than those looking in from the outside over could. It would be foolish not to use this wealth of knowledge instigating development programmers. The need for the inclusion of indigenous knowledge in the development process to achieve sustainability is gaining recognition. Its importance in Bangladesh has not been overlooked and interest in indigenous knowledge is growing. (Sen et al, 2000)

Traditionally, most of the indigenous people of Bangladesh live in the forest regions of the country and made a living out fishing, herding, hunting and gathering and shifting cultivation. Traditional knowledge provides rules and regulation in conservation. But there is a gap in our knowledge about ethno-biological data and information although we have rich and diverse ethnic groups, hence the present study.

This research of various uses and conservation of animals may be identified for exploitation and scientific improvement.This will be helpful for state-economy. Traditional conservation practice is the main factor to protect bio-diversity. In our modern society, traditional cultures are disappearing at an increasing rate. As for example maximum ethnic peoples are being converted.

Traditional sal forest has now become the history. Available information suggest that currently only 10% of the 1,20,000 hectare sal forest in Dhaka, Rangpur, Mymensingh, Tangail, Dinajpur and Rajshahi districts are truly covered with sal trees. Most of the ethnic groups lived in the past in a subsistence economy, but a market economy emerged in the process of their integration into the mainstream society. Both external and internal factors had been responsible for such a shift in economy. The external factors are the imposition of external political control, settlement of non-tribal outsiders in the ethnic areas, external market forces, and so on and the internal factors are the adoption of wet rice cultivation, knowledge of the outside world, changes in property relations, introduction of modern education, changes in the attitude towards life, ideas of value, exploitation for money, importance of financial investment, return, and profit, and so on (Khaleque, 1998).

We are passing the crucial time to protect the wildlife and its environment. Biodiversity can be conserved only when people of the grass-root level participate and when strategies are formulated on the basis of an understanding of the indigenous, hence the present work.

So it is now necessary to know more information about indigenous knowledge which will help us to conserve the animals and to make conservation policy. But no work has yet been done .It would be a preliminary research work in the field of conservation biology.

Remote villages, border and forest areas of five districts Sherpur, Jamalpur, Tangail, Netrokona and Mymensingh were surveyed between November 2004 and November 2005 and informations were collected by participant observations and interviews of local people. Ethnic groups are Mandi, Hajong, Banai, Barman, Rajbongshi, koch, Hodi, Dalu. All the documentation was taken to investigate how biodiversity is conserved by traditional knowledge and culture.

1.2. Review of literature

Indigenous knowledge (IK) means the functional knowledge of local people inhibiting in a particular ethno-cultural and agro-ecological condition. IK develops through experience sharing and normally passes on through generations by oral expressions and it operates in all aspects of community life and persists there in as unwritten form. Although it is often said that unwritten knowledge is vulnerable to being lost, local wisdom has a habit of persisting in the villages, old town, markets and other places where people continue to it into practice (Martin & Hoare, 1997).

The Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council (BARC) undertook one of the earliest extensive works on indigenous technological knowledge in Bangladesh. The book entitled Indigenous Agricultural Tools and Equipment of Bangladesh, published on 1982, describes the various agricultural tools traditional appliances that have been used and are still being used in many parts of the country. The book provides detailed descriptions of equipment including local names, size, mode of operations, and the materials romp which each is made. Recently, Choudhury et al (1996) compiled one of the most extensive works on indigenous technological knowledge, their nationwide study they reported on knowledge relating to cropping, seed preservation, and pest control and so on .Approximately two hundred different indigenous techniques and practices used in agriculture, fisheries and healthcare were documented.

Islam (1996) identifies a number of indigenous techniques that are still used in agriculture in the north-western part of the country particularly in Dinajpur district. He explores the relationship between farmers’ preferences for different indigenous technologies and the extent to which they are used. Of the indigenous techniques documented, 19% were used regularly and a further 46% were utilized only occasionally; the remaining 35% were rarely employed. It was also found that farmer’s ages, family size, farm size and family income were correlated with their use of identified technologies. Furthermore, media exposure related positively to farmer’ attitudes towards the use of indigenous technological knowledge.

In 1997 Bangladesh Academy of Agriculture (BAA) published a book entitled Indigenous Technologies of Agriculture in Bangladesh that includes information 147 of indigenous technologies used in agriculture. Practices relation to community production, harvest post-harvest operation in crops, animal’s forest and fisheries were documented. Efforts were also made to depict the background in which the technologies emerged and in which they are still being used today.

A study on indigenous Technology for watershed management by a group of researchers identified 52 local technologies and practices (Sharma, 1998). Most of the technologies were used for forest, water and soil conservation and intensive production systems. The tribal people residing in upland areas have employed such technologies to sustain their livelihoods for generations. The report contains descriptions of some of the tools used by upland people that differ in size, shape and function from those of plain land people. But technologies are being transferred from the upland people to the plain land people. It was also suggested that technologies being used today should in many cases be refined, revitalized and improved to effectively contribute to watershed management and improve productivity of local resources.

Ullah (1996) in his study Land, livelihood and change in rural Bangladesh documents aspects of the survival and livelihood strategies of small farmers in rural areas. He examines the dynamics of changes in land ownership patterns. Although not directly related to indigenous knowledge; this book is useful for gaining an understanding of the livelihood strategies of rural people.

In 1996 Unnayaner Bikalpa Nirdharani Gabeshana (Policy Research for Development Alternative) published a booklet on Nayakrishi Andolon (The new agricultural Movement) describing a recent initiative by peasants to innovate using indigenous technology. Farmers draw on indigenous knowledge to grow crops in an environmentally-friendly sustainable way.

Islam (1990) in Folk literature of Tangail Districts describes the seasonal rhythm and variation in the pattern of rural life over twelve months known as Baromashi. It includes a depiction of how traditional cropping patterns change over the year.

Ahmed (1974) records many such rhymes that describe how people traditionally cultivated their land their cropping patterns how seeds were selected and preserved and how people responded to natural event.

1.3. Aims and objectives

Bangladesh has for long been engaged in a variety of initiatives in Botanical and Zoological surveys. But it also needs to-

1) Organize a conservation science that will aid in effective conservation action within the country.
2) Involve a wide cross-section of taxonomists, ecologists, computer scientists and social scientists
3) Develop conservation science as an effective device for involving masses of people in a scientific culture
4) Encourage in Bangladesh development of conservation science related enterprises such as software for multiledia biodiversity data bases or chemicals for DNA fingerprinting.

This present documentation has done mainly based on following objectives-

1. To find out the uses of different animals and plants used by the ethnic people for conservation purposes.
2. To find out the local interests on target species
3. To find out the local name and significance of animal and plant species.
4. To find out the conservation value by ethnic people.

2. STUDY AREA

2.1. Bangladesh

Zoogeographically, Bangladesh is located at the interface between the Indian subregion and Malayan subregion of the oriental region, thus homing a very impressive, diverse and abundant wildlife. But with a small area of only 1,44,054 sq.km. He has to support a human population of more than 90 million, which makes her one of the most densely populated country in the world. So it leaves very small room for the wildlife conservation and management activities. Among the varied habitats of Bangladesh are 8300 km sq of rivers, canals and streams; 1828 km. sq. of brackish water, 794 sq. km. of ponds and tanks and 2930 sq.km of wetlands which are the abode of wildlife.

The importence of local peoples participation in the development programmes is now being increasingly emphasized in the policy papers of both the govern ment of the less develop countries as well as by the foreign donor agencies that support the development programmes. Accordingly, the policy planners at both levels realized the need for including the ethnic communities in the development projects.

According to the census of 1991, the ethnic population of is 1.2 million, which constitutes 1.13% of the countrys total population and the name of the ethnic groups are mainly Bawm, Buna, Chakma, Garo, Hajong, Harijon, Khami, Khasi, Khayng, Koch, Lushai, Mahat, Manipuri, Marma, Meu, Murong, Munda, Oraon, Paharia, Pankho, Rajbongshi, Rakhine, Sak, Santal, Tanchagya, Tipra, Uraua, and others. They have a great role on conservation practice.

2.2. Study site

For the present study four districts have been selected (Table 1-4).

2.2.1. Land scape

Land and aqua region consisting of ecosystem characterized by recurring mutual adjustment on all times is considered as a land scape. To record the PBR resource areas have been classified into landscape elements. Land scape element means a small piece of land within the land scape but which is typical in appearance. These elements may belong to landscape types like tank, road, forest, habit etc.

Forest: Tangail forest division is about 67,960.26 acre. It includes Tangail, Mirzapur, Nagarpur, Basail, Kalihati, Ghatail, Gopalpur etc. In Mymensingh Acquired forest is 329.97 sq km and vested forest is 20.20 sq km. There are 3 forests in Mymensingh district. These are Joyashahi, Bhawal, and Susong. In Sherpur it is 86.33 sq km. In Netrokona the name of some forest area is Farangara, Gopalpur, Menkibanda, Bijoypur etc (Table-1, 2, 3, 4).

Plantation: Trees grown with commercial purposes are considered as plantations. These may be either in private land or in public land. Prominent trees are Sal (Shorea robusta), Ajuli (Dillenia pentagy), Kundi (Careya arborea), Keli kodombo (Adina arborea), Cham (Artocarpus chapalasha), Simul (Bombax ceiba), Aswatha (Ficus religiosa), Koroi (Albizia procera). Available planted trees are Aam (Mangifera indica), Kanthal (Artocarpus heterophylla), Tetul (Tamarindus indica) and Peyara (Psidium guava).

Paddy fields: Usually paddy is grown in horizontal and water logged planes. These are called paddy fields. According to 1987-1988 total paddy field in Mymensingh region is 11,56,000 acre. In Jamalpur district 752000 acre (1988-1989) area is under paddy field area.

Rivers: There are many rivers in the study area. These are Jamuna, Bongshi, Louhojong, Khir, Nangail, Atai, Jhinai, Kongso, Brahmaputra, Somaswari etc. Rivers provide the important influence on biodiversity.

Table 1. Different study site in Netrokona district

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Table 2. Different study site in Sherpur district

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Table 3. Different study site in Mymensing district

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2.2.2. Peoples scape

According to the source of DFO office of Mymensingh forest encroachment by local people is high (Table-5).

Table 5. Forest encroachment

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According to an estimate of 1985, about 23,500 tribal people (21,500 Mandi and 2000 Koch) and 7000 non tribal live in the sal forest of Madhupur conducted by the Tangail forest division. Recently it is increasing (Table-6).

Table 6. Population status of study area

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Biodiversity based user groups

User groups: The society uses the natural resources in various ways. For all these there are sub groups depend on natural resources. These sub-groups usually utilize similar natural resources. So people belonging to these sub groups are collectively called user groups of that particular natural resource. Basically these sub groups are classified on the basis of their occupation and caste. So people belonging particular religions utilize easily available natural resources for there livelihood and they called as user groups (Table-7 and 8).

There are two types of user groups –

1) Direct user group: User groups which have directly relation with biodiversity. It includes primary user groups and secondary user groups.

2) Indirect user group: User groups which don’t have direct relation with the user groups

A. Primary user groups: User groups which have direct relation with biodiversity are called primary user groups.

Farmers: Agriculture is the prime occupation of majority of the villagers. Due to the frequent interruptions in electricity supply, demand for water is not able to be met for agriculture. This statement is supported by the farmers owing electric pump sets. Although traditional paddy seeds are disease resistant, because of low yield, farmers prefer the use of hybrid seed varieties.

Basket weavers: Peoples of koch are engaged in these occupations. Basket weaving is the only source of their livelihood for some people. Whereas some others take up this work only in the absence of agricultural activities.

B. Secondary user groups

Animal husbandry: In surveyed villages, many ethnic people are engaged with animal husbandry. They rear one or two cattle or boar for their subsistence.

Rubber Planters: Many of the ethnic people are engaged in rubber plantation.

C. Tertiary user groups

Users groups who are not directly related with biodiversity are tertiary user groups. They are agricultural labourers, traders, teachers etc.

Table 7. Population status of indigenous people of studied area

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Source: Annual Report.2005.Tribal welfare assossiation, Mymensingh.

Table 8. Peoples’ scape

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Source: Annual Report.2005.Tribal welfare assossiation, Mymensingh.

Short description of ethnic groups

Garo (Mandi ): In Bangladesh, the word they use for themselves is ‘Mandi. In its most general sense, this simply means “Person’ or people. But it can also convey the more specific meaning of a member of their own ethnic group (Burling, 1993).

Settlement: At least three quarters of the Mandis of Bangladesh live in the northern, most part of Mymensingh district, within a few kilometers of the Indian border. Smaller settlements of Mandis are found in other parts of Bangladesh. Between 15000 and 20,000 live in the area where Madhupur forest once grew about half way between the cities of Mymensingh and Tangail Smaller cluster of Mandis live near Bhaluka between Dhaka and Mymensingh.

Occupation: Mandis who lived in this elevated area farmed it periodically by shifting cultivation or Jumming. Mandis have been traditionally skilled at this form of agricultural practice.

Language: The Mandi language belongs to the Tibeto-Burman language family. This means that it is distantly related to Tibetan and Burmese and even more distantly to Chinese. The languages that most closely resemble Mandi form a subgroup of Tibeto-Burman known as the ‘Bodo’ language. The Mandi language thus has an entirely different background from Bengali and Assamese (Burling, 1986).

Religion: The older Mandi religion was called ‘Sangsarek” and a few people still perform some of its traditional ceremonies. They sacrifice of an animal, sometimes a chicken or goat, occasionally even a cow. Several sacrifices celebrated important point of the agricultural cycle, and these were large community festivals accompanied by music, dancing and a considerable amount of rice beer.

Mandis have turned to Christianity. Most Mandis are either Roman Catholics or Baptists. Some Mandis are also Hindu. Wangala, Mi’Amua, Rongchugala are their main ceremonies (Jambil, 1986).

Koch: The Koch with the title Barman are sometimes known as Mandai.The Koch were one of the groups of those southeast Asian peoples who belonged to the earliest waves of immigrants to the north eastern part of the Indian Subcontinent.

Religion and culture: Koch is Hindu by religion. They worship different Hindu deities. Besides they give offerings to the homestead goddess and have different monthly Pujas. After the Neelpuja in Chaitra (March-April), in the charak festival men dress up as Shiva and his followers and dance in the cremation ground. Koch has their traditional Garampuja, Nagini oai, Sena oai, Nikni oai, Longtheng oai etc (Mural, 1999).

Settlement: Koch is mainly distributed in Sherpur, Jamalpur, Mymensingh, Gazipur, Tangail, Sunamganj.

Occupation: Koch people mainly depend on agriculture.

Dalu:

Appearance and physique: Indo-mongoloid

Population: 300

Religion and culture: They are the same as Hajong in culture. But Dalu is different ethnic group. They are animist, Hindu (Devoted to Shiva)

Language: Linguistically Tibeto-Burmese family. But now their language is Bengali.

Festivals: Zaitra, Hoydeb, Path khowri.

Hodi:

Appearance and physique: They are the same as Mandi, Hajong, Koch i.e. Indo-mongoloid (Hajong, 2002).

Distribution: Sherpur

Population: 4000-5000

Religion and culture: They are animist, Hindu.

Language: Their language is now Bengali.

Festival: Gram worship.

Banai : Physique and appearance: Indo-mongoloid.

Distribution: Sherpur, Sylhet.

Religion and culture: Animist Gitalu Baromasi gan.They live 40/50 family per village. This is called Gao bura (Sarker, 2002).

Language: They have their own language largely similar to Bangali or Aohomia.

Festivals: chang puja.

Hajong:

Appearance and physique: Indo-mongoloid.

Religion and culture: Animism, Hindu and they have some divination between religion i.e.Shaiva, Shakto Bisnoi etc. Bastu worship, Pushni, Chait hongrani, Merr, Charmuga, Thaba, Hilljaga, Bantula etc are their main religious ceremonies (Hajong, 2001).

Distribution: Mymensingh, Netrokona, Sherpur (Table-9)

Language: They have their own Language but no script.It is mixture of Assamese and Bengali language.

Occupation: Settled agriculture Weaving Bussines, Job etc

Table 9. Distribution of ethnic communities

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Source: Census Report, 1991

3. METHOD

The study is based on both primary and secondary sources of data. The secondary data was collected from literatures, visual media and others. The primary survey was conducted using questionnaire method through formal and informal discussions.

The research has been conducted through an intensive fieldwork i.e. more specifically participant observation (Chambers, 1987; Gujit and Cornwall, 1995). I stayed a reasonable number of days in different villages with different ethnic groups.

Detailed interviews were conducted with households for detailed assessment of natural resource use pattern and conservation.

The method used in the present study is as follows:

1. Primary data collection: Mainly the head of the family, his profession, details of the use of plants and animal species and ethnobiological knowledge were recorded in this study. This was done by the participation of local people .On the basis of the primary data field visits, interviews and group discussions were planned.
2. Field visits: Field visits became essential to study the diversities, which reflect the peculiarities of the sacred groves.
3. Group discussion: The data collected from individuals and families were discussed and verified through group discussions. The new aspects from the group discussions were recorded. The user groups which are commonly seen in villages, like farmers, agricultural labourers were separately meet with. Their conditions problems, management options, endangered species, the species which are in use, the present and future conditions of the species were discussed.
4. Case study: To document the sacred groves case study method is applied.

Interviews were also recorded in a tape recorder. In addition with interview, photograph was also taken for documentation.

Study was conducted in five districts namely Sherpur, Jamalpur, Netrokona, Tangail, Mymensingh.

Key informer was selected by asking local people.

Socio-cultural profile of the people was recorded for the assessment of natural resource management by ethnic community (Table-10).

Table 10. Ethnic community of study area

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Source: Annual Report 2005.Tribal Welfare assossiation, Mymensingh.

4. RESULTS

4.1. Overall Documentation

Present documentation has been performed upon 8 ethnic communities of the 33 different sites belonging to 7 thanas under 4 districts. During these documentation, 67 different animal used for the purpose of conservation (Amphibia:1, Reptiles:13, Birds:30, Mammals:23), 85 different plant used for the purpose of conservation (Plant uses as taboo:6, Plant uses as farming:14, Plant uses as royal traditions: 3, Plant uses as medicine:24 and Plant uses as totem:19) has been identified. Only the important using which has a great role on conservation has been emphasized. 67 different animal use pattern involving royal tradition: 2, taboo: 11, farming: 13, totem: 21 and medicinal use: 35 also has been recorded.

13 sacred groves have been documented in 33 different sites. In these sacred groves only the dominant species are identified. The number of identified animal species is 29 (Amphibia: 1, Reptiles: 5, Birds: 20, Mammals: 3)and plant species is 32.

4.2. Documentation of animal use for the conservation purpose by different ethnic communities

4.2.1. Documentation of animal use for the conservation purpose by Mandi communities

The present documentation in Durgapur, Kalmakanda of Netrokona district, Nalitabari of Sherpur district, Haluaghat, Dhubaura and Madhupur of Tangail district on Mandi community shows that they use 6 species of reptiles, 6 species of birds and 8 species of mammals for conservation purpose.

Naja Kauthia (Lesson, 1831): Family: Elaphidae, Order: Serpentes, Local Name: Gokhra, English Name: Bengal Cobra, Use: Liver is used as medicine for pain, Location: Gajni

Coluber nigromarginatus (Blyth, 1854): Family: Colubridae, Order: serpents, Local Name: Daraj, English Name: Green rat snake Use: Meat is used as medicine, Location: Gajni

Python molorus (Linnaeus, 1758): Family: Boidae, Order: Serpentes, Local Name: Ajagar, English Name: Rock Python, Use: Brain and Liver are used differently for energy and antipoison, Location: Gajni

Varanus bengalensis (Daudin, 1802): Family: Varanidae, Order: Lacertilia, Bengali Name: Gui shap, English Name: Bengal monitor, Use: oil for skin disease Location: Thanarbait

Crocodylus porosus (Schneineider, 1801): Family: Crocodylidae, Order: Crocodylia, English Name: Croocdile, Bengali Name: Lonapanir kumir, Use: egg is used to protect pox, Location: Hagurakuri

Hemidactylus flaviviridis (Ruppel, 1840) and Hemidactylus frenatus (Dumeril & Bibron 1837): Family: Geckonidae, Order: Lacertilia, English Name: Common House lizard, Bengali Name: Tiktiki, Use: Tali is used to prevent emaciated, location: Chunia.

Gallus gallus (Linnaeus): Family: Phaianidae, Order: Galliformes, Bengali Name: Bon Morog, Local Name: Du, English Name: Red jungle fowl Use: Use for madding and Sacrifice to CHURABUDI, MISISALJONG and maximum festivals, Location: Thanarbait

Cervus macrohynchus (Wagler): Family: Corvidae, Order: Passeriformes, Bengali Name: Danr kak, English Name: Jungle crow, Use: Liver and meat use to pick quarrel, Loaction: Thanarbait.

Sarcogyps calvus (Scopoli, 1786): Family: Accipitridae, Order: Ciconiformes, Bengali Name: Raj Shakun, English Name: Red headed Vulture, Local Name:

Shagan, Use: to protect skin disease eating its meat Location: Chunia.

Pavo muticus (Linnaeus): Family: Phasinidae, Order: Galliformes, English Name: Pea-coack, Bengali Name: Bormi Mayur, Lacal Name: Julma, Use: Symbol of goddess (Julma mitti) Location: Chunia.

Columba punica (Blyth, 1842): Local Name: Doh-khru-sua, Bengali Name: Pahari ghughu, English Name: Pied capped pigeon, Family: Columbidae, Order: Columbiformes, Use: Doh-khru-sua, dancing like pied capped pigeon.

Gracula religiosa (Linnaeus): Family: sturnidae, Order: Passeriformes, Local Name: Moyna, English Name: Hill Moyna, Use: believe that she is the spirit of Mandi daughter.

Rousettus Leschenauti (Desmarest, 1820): Family: Pteropidae, Order: Chiropptera, Bengali name: Kola badur, English Name: Fulvous fruit bat, Use: liver is used for Ashtma, Location: Thanrbait.

Capricornis sumatrensis (Bechstein, 1799): Family: Bovidae, Order: Artiodactyla, English Name: Serow, Bengali Name: Chagal, Use: Sacrifice to TATARA-RABUGA (GOD) Location: Chunia.

Elephas maximus (Linnaeus 1758): Family: Elaphantidae, Order: Proboscidae, English Name: Elephant Use: symbol of Goddess (Aatisela mitti), Location: Chunia.

Felis chaus (Gulden Staedt,1776): Family: Felidae, Order: Carnivora, Bengali Name: Ban Biral, English Name: Jungle Cat, Loacl Name: Mangam, Use: Symbol of goddess (Mengam mitti),Location: Chunia.

Vulpes bengalensis (Shaw, 1800): Family: Canidae, Order: carnivore, English Name: Bengal fox, Bengali Name: Khek shial, Local Name: Sebal, Use: Symbol of

Goddess (Sebal mitti), Location: Chunia.

Macaca mulatta (Zimmermann, 1780): Local Name: Banor, English Name: Rhesus Macaque, Family: Cercopithecidae, Order: Primates, Use: Chambill Missa (Dancing like Rhesus macaque).

Pteropus giganteus (Brunnich, 1782): Family: Pteropodidae, Order: Chiroptera, Local name: Badur, English Name: Indian Flying fox, Use: Meat is used as food for Rheumatic fever, Location: Gajni.

Sus scrofa (Linnaeus, 1758): Family: Suidae, Order: Artiodactyla, Local Name: Buno shukar, English Name: Wild Boar, Use: Oil is used for rheumatic fever and sacrifice to SUSUMI-SALJONG, location: Thanarbait

Panthera tigris (Linnaeus, 1758): Family: Felidae, Order: Carnivora, Local Name: Machak, Bengali name: Bagh, English Name: Bengal tiger, Use: Oil is used for Rheumatic fever, Loaction: Thanarbait

4.2.2. Documentation of animal use for the conservation purpose by Khatrio Barman community

The present documentation in Pirgacha of Madhupur in Tangail district on Khatrio Barman shows that they use 1 species of amphibian, 1 species of birds, 2 species of reptiles and 5 species of mammals for conservation purpose.

Bufo melanostictus (Schneider, 1799): Family: Bufonidae, Order: Anura, Bengali Name: Kuno bang, English Name: Common toad, Use: Meat is used for gastric, Location: Pirgacha

Kachuga smithii (Gray, 1863): Family: Bataguridae, Order: Testudines, Bengali Name: Kasim, English name: Red-crowned roofed turtle, Use: Meat is for dysentery, Location: Pirgacha

Herpestes auropunctatus (Hodgson, 1836): Family: Herpestidae, Oreder: Carnivora, Bengali name: Benji, English Name: Small Indian mongoose, use: Meat is use for Asthma, Location: Pirgacha

Eudynamys scolopacea (Linnaeus, 1758): Family: Centropodidae, order: Cuculiformes, Local Name: Kokil, English Name: Asian Cuckoo, Use: meat is use for kala-jar, Location: Pirgacha.

Canis aureus (Linnaeus, 1758): Family: Canidae, Order: Carnivora, Bengali Name: Shial, English Name: Jackel, Use: Use bone to prevent insect attacking cow and Goat, Meat is use for Rheumatic fever, Location: Pirgacha.

Megadfrma lyra (Geoffroy, 1810): Family: Megadermatidae, Order: Chiroptera, Bengali Name: Badur, English Name: Indian false vampire, Use: Liver is use for Asthma, Location: Pirgacha.

Cuon alpinus (Pallas, 1811): Family: Canidae, Order: carnivore, Bengali Name: Ram kutta, English Name: Indian wild dog, Use: Meat is use for ulcer, Location: Pirgacha

Macaca mulatta (Zimmermann, 1780): Family: Cercopithecidae, Order: Primates, Bengali Name: Banar, English Name: Rhesus macaque, Use: Meat is use for Asthma, Location: Pirgacha.

Rattus rattus (Linnaeus, 1758): Family: Muridae, Order: Rodentia, Local Name: Indur, English Name: Common house rat, Use: Meat is use for stomach pain, Location: Pirgacha.

4.2.3. Documentation of animal use for the conservation purpose by Koch community

The present documentation in Nalitabari and Jhenaigati of Sherpur district on Koch community shows that they use 5 species of reptiles, 6 species of birds and 6 species of mammals for conservation purpose.

Manouria emys (Schlegel &Muller, 1840): Family: Testudinidae, Order: Testudines, Bengali Name: Pahari Kasim, English Name: Asian Giant tortoise, Use: Head is use for costiveness, Loaction: Kholchonda.

Varanus bengelensis (Daudin, 1802): Family: Varanidae, Order: Lacertilia, Bengali Name: Gui shap, English Name: Bengal Monitor, Use: Oil is use for fiery skin, Location: Kholchonda.

Varanus salvator (Laurenti, 1768): Family: Varaniade, Order; Lacertilia, Bengali Name; Kalo Gui, English Name: Ring Lizard, Use: meat is use for rheumatic fever, Location: Kholchonda.

Geoclemys hamiltonii (Gray, 1813): Family: Bataguridae, Order: Testudines, English Name: Black Pond turtle, Bengali Name: Kalo Kasim, Use: Bastu worship, Location: Pirgacha.

Crocodylus porosus (Schneider, 1801): Family: Crocodylidae, Order: Crocodylia, English Name: Saltwater Crocodile, Bengali Name: Lonapanir Kumir, Use: Bastu worship.

Gallus gallus (Linnaeus): Family: Phasinidae, Order: Galliformes, Bengali Name: Bon Morog, Local Name: Tao, Use: Food, Location: Samoschura

Sarcogyps calvus (Scopoli, 1786): Family: Accipitridae, Order: Ciconiformes, Bengali Name: Raj Shakun, English Name: Red-headed vulture, Use: use against evil spirit, Location: Smoschura.

Pavo muticus (Linnaeus): Family: Phasianidae, Order: Galliformes, Bengali Name: Bormi Mayur, English Name: Green Pea fowl, Use: use as amulet, tetanus and food, Location: Kohlchonda.

Phalacrocorax carbo (Linnaeus): Family: Phalacrocoracidae, Order: Ciconiformes, Bengali Name: Paan-Kawri, English Name: Great Cormorant, Use: Meat is use for rheumatic fever and pain, Location: Kholchonda.

Caprimulgus asiaticus (Latham, 1709): Family: Caprimulgidae, Order: Strigiformes, Bengali name: Choto Ratchara, English Name: Indian night jar, Use: feacal is use for paralysis, location: Kholchonda.

Columba livia (Gmelin): Family: Columbidae, Order: Columbiformes, English Name: Rock Pigeon, Bengali Name: Jalali Kabutor, Use: Jatra mukut worship.

Capricornis sumatrensis (Bechstein, 1799): Family: Bovidae, Order: Artiodactyla, Bengali Name: Ban Chagal, English Name: Mainland serow, Local name: Purun, Use: Food, location: Somoschura

Sus scrofa (Linnaeus, 1758): Family: Suidae, Order: Artiodactyla, Bengali Name: Buno shukar, English Name: Wild boar, Local Name: Oak, Use: Food, Location: Rangtia.

Felis chaus (Guldenstaedt, 1776): Family: Felidae, Order: Carnivora, Bengali Name: Ban Biral, English Name: Jungle Cat, Use: Saliva is use for Hysteria, Location: Rangtia.

Elephas maximus (Linnaeus, 1758): Family: Elephantidae, Order: Proboscidae, Bengali Name: Hati, English Name: Indian Elephant Use: Saliva Use for Hysteria, Location: Kholchonda.

Muntiacus muntjak (Zimmermann, 1780): Family: Cervidae, Order: Artiodactyla, Bengali Name: Maya Harin, English Name: Barking Deer, Use: Larva is use for hysteria, Location: Kholchonda.

Panthera tigris (Linnaeus, 1758): Family: Felidae, Order: Carnivora, Bengali Name: Bagh, English Name: tiger, Use: oil is use for amulet and paralysis, Location: Kholchonda.

4.2.4. Documentation of animal use for the conservation purpose by Hajong community

The present documentation in Durgapur of Netrokona, Nalitabari and Jheanigati of Sherpur, Dhubaura of Mymensingh district shows that they use 2 species of birds and 2 species of mammals for conservation purpose.

Anser indicus (Latham, 1790): Family: Anatidae, Order: Anseriformes, Bengali Name: Raj Hans, English Name: Bar-headed goose, Use: Nikni dao worship, Location: Langoljora

Oriolus xanthormus (Linnaeus, 1758): Family: Corvidae, Order: Passeriformes, Local Name: Holdey Pakhi, English Name: Black headed oriole, Use: Social believe as son Hajong farmer.

Elephas maximus (Linnaeus, 1758): Family: Elaphantidae, Order: Proboscidae, English Name: Asian Elephant, Local name: Hati, Use: Hoyrgib worship

Capricornis sumatraensis (Bechstein, 1799): Family: Bovidae, Order: Artiodactyla, Bengali Name: Ban Chagal, English Name: Serow, Use: Muila worship, Location: Langoljora

4.2.5.Documentation of animal use for the conservation purpose by Dalu people

The present documentation in Nalitabari of Sherpur district, Haluaghat of Mymensingh, Madhupur of Tangail district on Dalu community shows that they use 4 species of birds and 1 species of mammal for conservation purpose.

Sus scrofa (Linnaeus, 1758): Family: Suidae, Order: Atriodactyla, English Name: Wild boar, Bengali Name: Buno Shukar, use: social taboo, not use as food.

Corvus spledens (Vieillot, 1817): Family: Corvidae, Order: Passeriformes, Local Name: Kaua English Name: House Corw, use: social Taboo, not use as food.

Pavo muticus (Linnaeus): Family: Phasianidae, Order: Galliformes, Local Name: Bormi mayur, English Name: Green Pea-fowl, use: social taboo, not use as food.

Gallus gallus (Linnaeus): Family: Phasianidae, Order: Galliformes, English Name: Red jungle fowl, Local Name: Bon morog, use: social Taboo, not use as food.

Acridotheres tristis (Linnaeus, 1766): Family: Sturnidae, Order: Passeriformes, Bengali name: Bhat shalikh, English name: Common moyna, use: social Taboo, not use as food.

4.2.6. Documentation of animal use for the conservation purpose by Hodi people

The present documentation in Nalitabari of Sherpur district on Hodi community shows that they 5 species of birds for conservation purpose.

Buceros bicornis (Linnaeus1758): English Name: Great Hornbill, local Name: Raj Dhanesh, Family: Bucerotidae, Order: Bucerotiformes, Use: symbol of deities.

Acridotheres tristis (Linnaeus, 1766): Family: Sturnidae, Order: Passeriformes, English Name: Common Myna, Bengali Name: Bhat Shalikh, Use: symbol of deities.

Acridotheres fuscus (Wagler, 1827): Family: Sturnidae, Order: Passeriformes, English Name: Jungle Myna, Local Name: Jhuti Shalikh, Use: symbol of deities.

Appus afinis (J.E.grey, 1830): Family: Apodidae, Order: Apodiformes, Local name: Ababil, English Name: House swift, Use: symbol of deities.

Athene brama (Temminck): Family: Strigidae, Order: Strigiformes, English Name: Spotted owlet, Local Name: Khuruly pencha, Use: symbol of deities.

4.2.7. Documentation of animal use for the conservation purpose by Banai people

The present documentation in Haluaghat of Mymensingh district on Banai community shows that they use 5 species of birds for conservation purpose.

Bubulcus ibis (Linnaeus): English name: Cattle egret, Family: Ardeidae, Order: Ciconiformes, Local Name: Go-bok, Use: Use: symbol of deities.

Capromulgus asiaticus (Latham, 1790): Family: Caprimulgidae, Order: Strigiformes, Bengali name: Choto Rartchara, English name: Indian nightjar, Use: social taboo, not use as food

Centropus sinensis (Stephen, 1815): Family: Centropodidae, Order: Cuculiformes, English Name: Greater coucal, Bengali Name: Kanakua, Use: social taboo, not use as food

4.2.8. Documentation of animal use for the conservation purpose by Rajbongshi

Copsychus saularis (Linnaeus, 1758): Family: Muscicapidae, Order: Passeriformes, Local Name: Doel, English Name: Oriental magpie robin, Use: social taboo, not use as food

Coracias bengalensis (Linnaeus, 1758): Family: Coracidae, Order: Coraciformes, English Name: Indian roller, Bengali Name: Nilkantha, Use: social taboo, not use as food

4.3. Documentation of plant use for the conservation purpose by different ethnic communities

4.3.1. Documentation of plant use for the conservation purpose by Mandi people

Acorus calamus (L.): Family: Araceae Use: Leaf juice is used through for children in baw-batsi.

Borassus flabellifer (L.): Family: Arecareae, Uses: Leaves are used in the religious worship Jolkuri meddi

Drynaria quercifolia (L.): Family: Polypodiaceae, Uses: Rhizome paste is used for children against the harmful effects of evil spirit

Ficus bengalensis (L.): Family: Moraceae, Use: Worship ingredients

Ficus religiosa (L.): Family: Moraceae, Use: Worship ingredients

Saccharum spontaneum (L.): Family: Poaceae, Uses: Stems are used in the religious worship Bagoba-borombi

Vigna sinensis : Family: Leguminosae, Uses: this plant is the clans’ totem of nokrek in Mandi society.

Terminalia chebula : Family: Combretaceae, Use: Dried fruits are used in liver pain and fever.

Xeromphis spinosa (Thumb,): Family: Rubiceae, Uses: Ripe fruits are edible.

Steudnera virosa : Family: Araceae, Family: Tuber paste is used for headache and fructuerd bones.

Musa balbisiana : Family: Musaceae, Use: Fruits are edible.

[...]

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Details

Title
Documenting and Evaluating Traditional Conservation Practice between the Ethnic Groups in Four Districts of Greater Mymensingh Region
College
Jahangirnagar University
Grade
01
Author
Year
2006
Pages
55
Catalog Number
V365664
ISBN (eBook)
9783668489080
ISBN (Book)
9783668489097
File size
744 KB
Language
English
Tags
documenting, evaluating, traditional, conservation, practice, ethnic, groups, four, districts, greater, mymensingh, region
Quote paper
Bibhuti Bhushan Mitra (Author), 2006, Documenting and Evaluating Traditional Conservation Practice between the Ethnic Groups in Four Districts of Greater Mymensingh Region, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/365664

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