23 Pages, Grade: B
1. Analysis of the Relationships between Consumer Behaviour and the Application of an optimal Marketing Mix
1.2 Principles of Buyer and Consumer Behaviour and those Responsible for Purchasing Decisions
1.3 Determination of Consumer Behaviour
1.4 Influence of the Functioning of the Human Information Processing Procedure
1.5 Other Determinants
2. Influence of New Trends in Consumer Behaviour and Consideration of Consumer Groups
2.2 Definition of New Consumer Images
3. Consideration of the Product Decision-Making Process
3.1 Unconscious Buying Behaviour
3.2 Impact of Involvement on Advertising Media
3.3 Application of Marketing Measures For Low-Involvement Customers
4. The Design of the Marketing Mix
4.1 Definition: the Marketing Mix
4.2 Marketing Mix Planning
4.3 The Goal of Marketing Mix Planning
4.4 Implementation of Marketing Mix Planning in Practice
4.5 Marketing Controls
4.6 Case Study of a Gastronomy Restaurant
1 Prof. Dr. Thomas Foscht, Gabler Wirtschaftslexikon, ISBN-10: 383493464X
2 Thomas Foscht und Bernhard Swoboda, Käuferverhalten: Grundlagen - Perspektiven - Anwendungen Taschenbuch - 15 March 2005, Gabler Verlag; Auflage: 2., akt. Aufl. 2005 (15 March 2005), ISBN-10: 3409225595
3 Heribert Meffert, Dienstleistungsmarketing: Grundlagen - Konzepte - Methoden Taschenbuch - 15 September 2000, Verlag: Dr. Th. Gabler Verlag; Auflage: 3 (15 September 2000), ISBN-10: 3409336885
4 Arnd Florack (Autor), Martin Scarabis, Psycho logie der Markenführung Gebundene Ausgabe - 29 March 2007 ,Verlag: Vahlen; Auflage: 1 (29 March 2007), ISBN-10: 3800633523
5 Philip G. Zimbardo, Richard J. Gerrig, Psychologie Pappbilderbuch - 1996, Verlag: Springer Verlag-Berlin; Auflage: Springer Lehrbuch-Sonderauflage für Weltbild (1996) , ISBN-10: 3540200118
6 Werner Kroeber-Riel (Autor), Peter Weinberg (Autor), Konsumentenverhalten Gebundene Ausgabe - 2003, ISBN-10: 3800629313
7 Tomczak, T./Kuß, A./Reinecke (2009): Marketingplanung. Einführung in die marktorientierte Unternehmens- und Geschäftsfeldplanung, 6. Aufl., Wiesbaden, S. 219, Verlag: Springer Gabler; Auflage: 2013 (12 November 2013), ISBN-10: 365804022X
8 Kotler, Ph./Keller, K.L./Bliemel, F. (2007): Marketig-Management. Strategien für wertschaffendes Handeln. 12. Aufl. München, S.25, Verlag: Pearson Studium; Auflage: 12 (1 March 2007), ISBN-10: 3827372291
9 Mc Carthy, E. J.(1975). Basic marketing: a managerial approach. Homewood, IL., Verlag: R. D. Irwin (1975), ISBN-10: 0256015678
10 Bruhn, M. (2004): Marketing. Grundlagen für Studium und Praxis, 7. Aufl., Wiesbaden, S. 30, Verlag: Gabler Verlag; Auflage: 7 (15 September 2004) , ISBN-10: 3409736468
11 Kuss, A. & Tomczak, T. (2002). Marketingplanung. Einführung in die marktorientierte Unternehmens- und Geschäftsfeldplanung. Wiesbaden, Verlag: Gabler Verlag; Auflage: 5 (13 September 2007) , ISBN-10: 3834903558
12 Meffert, H. (2000). Marketing. Grundlagen marktorientierter Unternehmensführung; Konzepte - Instrumente - Praxisbeispiele (= Meffert Marketing Edition). Wiesbaden, Verlag: Gabler Verlag; Auflage: 11 (12 Oktober 2011) , ISBN-10: 3834927600
13 Kühn und Vifian, Markteinsteiger - eine interessante Zielgruppe?: Erfolg von speziellen Marketing-Massnahmen zur Gewinnung und Bindung von Markteinsteigern Taschenbuch - 30 June 2005, Verlag: Der Andere Verlag; Auflage: 1., Aufl. (30 June 2005), ISBN-10: 3899593227
14 Kuß, Marketing-Einführung: Grundlagen - Überblick - Beispiele Taschenbuch - 9 September 2011, Gabler Verlag; Auflage: 5 (9 September 2011) , ISBN-10: 383493044X
Figure 1 Four Perspectives of Buyer and Consumer Behaviour
Figure 2 Shellmodel - Scientific Behavioral Explanation of Consumer Behavior
Figure 3 Distinguishing between low-involvement and high-involvement
Figure 4 Types of Consumer (Own Representation)Fehler! Textmarke nicht definiert
Figure 5 The classic marketing instruments (4Ps) in marketing mix
Figure 6 The "optimal" marketing mix
Figure 7 The Dominance Standard Model
Figure 8 Basic Principle of Marketing Controls
Figure 9 Example Restaurant, Outside View and Food (www.tripadvisor.de 08.05.2017)
Figure 10 Example Restaurant, Food and Location (www.google.de 08.05.2017)
Customers search consciously for products but they also search much more unconsciously for products and services to satisfy their needs. In many cases, however, it is not the targeted rational purchase, but the marketing, which encourages the customer to buy.
Successful marketing, however, presupposes that providers of goods or services know exactly the background of the purchasing behaviour, the current or latent needs of their customers and the current trends in purchasing behaviour. Only then, can a successful marketing model be developed from a mix of marketing tools.
For this reason, consumer behaviour research is of great importance.
Buyer behaviour includes, but is not limited to, the behaviour of buyers in the purchase, purchasing and consumption of economic goods or services.
General buyers of purchase decisions can be divided into two categories (individual or groups):
- Organisations / companies or companies
- Government institutions
- Private persons
illustration not visible in this excerpt
Fig.1 Four Perspectives of Buyer and Consumer Behaviour
It should be emphasized that the basic differences between organizational and private buyer behaviour are based on different explanatory approaches.
On one hand, it is about the behaviour of buyers that affects both organizations and end users. On the other hand, the clearly narrower consumer behaviour, which exclusively describes the behaviour of end-use consumers in the purchase and consumption of economic goods or services.
Although, overall economic importance is attributed to organic purchasing behavior, consumer behavior is usually the focus of buyer behavior research. This holds true also in this elaboration. This should not only be related to the act of buying, itself, but also to the entire purchasing decision-making process.
Looking at the general consumer behavior of end users, one can assume two basic behaviors:
- Black-Box-Model (Stimulus-Response-Model)
- Behavoral Model (Stimulus-Object-Response-Model)
In the majority of cases, a "lazy” consumer has to be assumed, which shows passive information behaviour.
If, on the other hand, the consumer feels that a product has something to do with oneself and one’s personality, that a purchase has a noticeable effect on one, one speaks of involvement, that is, of a more active involvement in the topic.
This background knowledge has a decisive influence on the advertising measures to be applied and will be analyzed and described in more detail below. Within the framework of this very complex topic, the fundamentals of behavioral studies are the psychical determinants of individual purchasing behavior.
The variety of perspectives can be combined into an umbrella model, which allows for a didactically valuable separation between psychological, personal and societal and cultural factors.
illustration not visible in this excerpt
Fig. 2 Shellmodel - Scientific Behavioral Explanation of Consumer Behavior
A more detailed analysis of consumer behavior can be used to define a number of factors.
The activating processes and conditions of consumer behaviour include:
- Settings and values
These designated factors are described in the literature as follows: Activity
Activity is the basic dimension of all drive processes. It supplies the organism with energy and puts it into a state of efficiency and preparedness.
Emotions are states of excitement that are pleasant or uncomfortable (e.g., happiness, joy, anxiety) and are more or less conscious. They result from activity and interpretation.
Motivation and motives are the psychic driving force that energize human action and target it (activating motifs).
Motivation results from emotions and (cognitive) action orientation. A motive (or “need”) can also be called a perceived lack state, which involves the occasion to look for ways to eliminate it.
An attitude is a perceived ability of an object to satisfy motifs (needs). It includes motivation as well as (cognitive) assessment of subjects.
It is also the inner readiness of an individual to react consistently, positively or negatively, to certain stimuli in the environment.
In marketing, the term "image" is used, which can be regarded as almost identical with the concept of an attitude.
Values are presented as a conception of what is desirable. They are also referred to as "overall attitudes" and are more permanent than attitudes. Values include both individual values and lifestyle choices.
The question of how human information processing procedure works is the next vital question. In order to understand this process, Florack, Scarabis, recommends comparing it with the way a computer works. Before a computer provides a result, it receives, for example, information from the keyboard (Input), which it then processes with the aid of a program. For this purpose, information from the memory is required in order to achieve a result (Output). The same is true of human information processing.
Cognitive Processes and states play an important Role in this Process.
These are tasks or processes by which the individual recognizes oneself and one’s environment, or processes information received from the environment and internally stored. Therefore mental processes, which primarily transform or process information and require a higher brain performance.
The information processing process can be divided into three important segments:
- Information gathering
- Information storage
- Information processing
The gathering of information takes place through the senses and encompasses the process of recording and selecting information as well as its organization and interpretation by an individual. A stimulus or piece of information must activate the memory.
Kroeber-Riel differentiates the information into two categories:
- Internal and external information gathering and
- Active and passive information gathering
While the active information acquisition is carried out on the basis of a targeted search, the passive information acquisition is mostly random or unintentional. Consumers often find little or no information before a purchase decision. Passive information acquisition is usually unconscious. For example by customary or automatic reaction to certain stimuli.
In the context of cognitive psychology, information storage can be described as a multi-stage model (Kroeber-Riel, Weinberg, 2003).
- Ultra-short memory (sensory information memory)
- Short-term memory
- Long-term storage
In ultra-short memory, sensory impressions are stored at short notice. The information (Stimuli) received by the eye is held passively for a short time, combined with other stimulus constellations and made into a whole.
In short-term memory, only a part of the stimuli obtained are taken up from the sensory memory and converted into information. The selection depends on the activation potential of the stimuli. During conversion, existing information in long-term storage is also used.
For long-term storage, the processed information from the short-term storage is then stored in long term storage.
This is then also defined as the memory of the human being in which the experiences, emotions, knowledge, etc. of an individual are manifested as a totality over the world and themselves. Learning thus represents the change in the likelihood with which behaviour responds to a certain stimulus situation.
Method of Information Processing
Information processing involves the complex processes of Perception, Thinking and Decision-making. Restricted to the area of the assessment of a product means Deciding to Arrange and Evaluate product information in order to form an informed judgment.
For example, the sensory impressions or stimuli triggered by an advertisement are briefly stored in the short-term memory. Those impressions or pieces of information are then processed and linked with the experiences and information, which are stored in long-term storage. The only stimuli that are kept are the ones having attracted special attention.
Many factors play a major role in the decision-making process, above all, the Personal Determinants, which include Involvement, Personality and Lifestyle.
The more a consumer is involved in a topic, the more attention one has for this, the more information one can process and store. Attention or activity is strongly influenced by a person's involvement with a product or service.
The strength of the involvement has an impact on information gathering and processing. In the case of an "I-Involvement", engagement or interest of a person against a fact or an object, a high-involvement position is taken. On the other hand, if a consumer has low interest, this tends to lead to Low-Involvement. Low-involvement customers are exposed to information rather passively. They are characterized by low Self-Involvement, low attention and low activity. The contact with the advertising happens rather randomly.
1 Prof. Dr. Thomas Foscht, Gabler Wirtschaftslexikon,
2 Thomas Foscht und Bernhard Swoboda, Käuferverhalten: Grundlagen - Perspektiven - Anwendungen Taschenbuch - 15. März 2005
3 Dienstleistungsmarketing: Grundlagen - Konzepte - Methoden Taschenbuch - 15. September 2000,
4 Arnd Florack Martin Scarabis , Psychologie der Markenführung, 2007
5 Philip G. Zimbardo, Richard J. Gerrig, Psychologie Pappbilderbuch - 1996
6 Werner Kroeber-Riel (Autor), (Autor), Konsumentenverhalten Gebundene Ausgabe - 2003
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