Mortality Levels, Patterns and Determinants in Sub-Saharan Africa. Exploring the Region's Prospect for Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals for Health


Presentation slides, 2017
13 Pages

Excerpt

Scope of the Study

- Introduction

- Mortality Theories

- Level and Patterns of Global Mortality

- Level and Patterns of Mortality in sub-Saharan Africa

- Determinants of Mortality in sub-Saharan Africa

- Prospect for Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals for Health in sub-Saharan Africa

- Conclusion

- Areas of Further Research

Introduction

>Mortality ¡ร defined as an incidence that causes the permanent cessation of all vital functions of the body including the heartbeat, brain activities and breathing (WHO, 2002).

>Mortality, as one of the components of population has a significant effect on population structures by reducing other components of population change wherever it occurs.

>Mortality as a field of study focuses on health outcomes and health determinants, as well as the policies and intervention that allied them.

>There exists differentials in the trend and pattern of mortality across the globe (WHO, 2015; Global Burden of Disease [GDB], 2013).

>lnvariably, there has been decline in the global mortality rates over the years and this has been attributed to the advancement in medicine and technology in the developed world, which have been transferred to the less developed nations (Paulo, Vimal & Shu, 2014; Jean-Pierre, 2012)

Objectives of the Study

- This paper is focused towards achieving the following objectives:

> To extensively review the level and patterns of mortality in sub- Saharan African region.

> To further explore the determining factors responsible for prevalence levels of mortality in the sub-Sharan African regions.

> To explore the sub-Sahara region's prospect for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals for Health.

Mortality Theories

- In order to achieve the objectives of this study, two theories have been adopted:

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Pre-industrialized Stage Industrial Transitional Stage The Post-Industrial Stage

The Level and Patterns of Global Mortality

>The world has witnessed significant drops in early childhood and maternal death in the past 25 years (WHO, 2015; Bloom, 2011)

>Relatively, the drops in the prevalence of mortality has been lower in
LDCs, particularly in SSA & South-east Asian (WHO, 2016; Liu, 2015)

>The variations in global mortality levels and patterns have been attributed to differentials in peoples' socioeconomic and cultural status; these are evident in their standard of living and accessibility to healthcare facilities (WHO, 2016; PRB, 2016; Liu 2011; Black, 2000)

>Sexual & reproductive health, mental health and injuries are major causes of death globally, though variably (WHO, 2016; GBD, 2013

Table liLevel and ~n^cls เท World บทder Five Mortality (1990-2015)

Deaths per 1000 Live Births

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Source: WHO Reports on Level and Trends of Under-Five Mortality, 2011.

Table 2:Percentage Decline เท World Under Five Mortality (1990-2015)

% Decline per 1000 Live Births

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Source: Calculated from WHO Reports on Level and Trends of Under-Five Mortality, 2011.

Calculation ¡ร based on two corresponding year whereby the difference between the current and base year reported deaths ¡ร numerator while the base year ¡ร the denominator, then multiplied by 100% (l.e. , for 1995: 88 deaths - 82 deaths/88 deaths X 100 = 6.8%).***NOT CALCULATED FOR

- Level and Patterns of Mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa

> The life expectancy rates ¡ร lowest in SSA region than any other region of the world (WHO, 2016; 2015; PRB, 2016)

> It increased from 42.4 in I960 to 46.3 around 1980 and reached a peak of 49 years around 1990; then declined to 47.6 in year 2000 and declined further to 45.6 in 2005.

> Currently it ¡ร put at 57 years for male and 59 years for female (PRB, 2016).

>A breakdown of mortality incidence in the SSA region shows that the rates of mortality are highest in the Central African sub-region, with 11 deaths per 1000 population and the lowest in Eastern Africa region, with 7 deaths per 1000 population (see Table 1)

- Level and Trend of in Maternal Mortality SSA Region

>The risk of dying as a result of pregnancy or childbirth in the sub-Saharan Africa was put at 1 in 39 in a recently conducted survey by , while it was 1 in every 4,700 women in the developed countries (WHO, 2016).

>The WHO (2016) study on the trends of maternal mortality (1990 to 2015) the MMR in SSA at 557 deaths per 100,000 live births. There are differentials in this rate in four 4 sub-regions.

>The MMRs were put at 166 (lowest) in Southern Africa, 674 (highest) in Western African; 434 and 653 per 1000 live births เท the Eastern and Central sub-regions (WHO, 2016).

>The MMRs were highest in Sierra Leone ( 1 in 17 women) and Chad (1 in 18 women) at risk of death due to birth & pregnancy complications (WHO, 2016; Sale, 2014 ; Alvarez, 2009).

[...]

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Details

Title
Mortality Levels, Patterns and Determinants in Sub-Saharan Africa. Exploring the Region's Prospect for Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals for Health
College
Obafemi Awolowo University
Author
Year
2017
Pages
13
Catalog Number
V370336
ISBN (eBook)
9783668513129
File size
470 KB
Language
English
Tags
sub-saharan africa, mortality theory, malaria, infant mortality, mental health
Quote paper
Olatunji Bankole (Author), 2017, Mortality Levels, Patterns and Determinants in Sub-Saharan Africa. Exploring the Region's Prospect for Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals for Health, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/370336

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