The Clash of Civilizations and the Muslim World

Master's Thesis, 2009

318 Pages




Chapter 1
1.1 Clash of Civilizations
1.2 Paradoxical Mutual Understanding
1.3 Future Possibilities
1.4 Natural Process of Clash Among Groups
1.5 Objectives of the Thesis
1.6 Significance of the Thesis
1.7 Organization of the Thesis

Chapter 2
Types of Civilizations
2.1 Significance and Types with Regard to Potential Clash
2.2 The ‘West’ a Specific Civilization
2.3 Eastern Civilizatioinal Distinctions
2.4 Specific Jewish Civilizational Orders
2.5 Muslim Religious Civilization: Discontents and Distinctions

Chapter 3
The Muslim World: Specifications of Religion, Culture and Civilization.
3.1 The Muslim Civilization: Fundamental Religious Teachings.
3.2 Muslim Culture: Religion and Traditions
3.3 Importance of Religion in the Muslim Life
3.4 Israel with Regard to Muslim Perception: A Root Cause of Muslim World Problems
3.5 The Muslim World: Unstable Peace Condition

Chapter 4
Clash of Civilizations: The Muslim World and the ‘West’
4.1 Ruling over the World: the Muslim Religious Desire
4.2 Discontents Between Islam and the West
4.3 Disputed Definition of Welfare
4.4 Westernization of the World
4.5 Discontents of Contemporary Issues

Chapter 5
Future Aspects of the Muslim World
5.1 Possibility of Tolerance and Alliance
5.2 Reformation of Democracy
5.3 Fundamentalism
5.4 Revival of Classical Heritage
5.5 Continual Mutual Discontents

Chapter 6
Challenges to the Western World and Possible Stability
6.1 Eradication of the Causes of Fundamentalism
6.2 Affable Political ‘West’
6.3 Justifiable Economics
6.4 Towards the Religious Realities
6.5 Possibility of Peace: A Review of Semitic Celestial Literature





Twenty-first century begins and introduces a new era of clash between Islam and the Western World. Some revolutionary Muslim movements on global and local level are representing the Muslim ideology of distinction. In the mean while 9/11 accident grants a new zeal to the ‘West’ against the Muslim World. USA and its allies attack on Afghanistan and Iraq. In this matter Sudan, Somalia and Lebanon have no exceptions also. Some major Muslim countries as Iran and Syria are facing Western threat due to fundamentalism and interference into the Western affairs and benefits according to the Western point of view. Like Pakistan and Saudi Arabia Muslim countries are not satisfied due to atomic program democratic situation and blames on their citizens to take part in the attacks against Western interests respectively. The Western World thinks the Muslim fundamentalism, extremism, illiteracy and uncivilized manners the causes of conflicts and the disturbance of peace and threat in the western word especially. Clash between them is emerging a new birth to destruction. The mentioned situation has enabled the Western, Muslim clash phenomena as clear that all other communal clashes has become light comparatively.

Different questions emerge about the study as, why the study of only two civilizations? Have they not good relationship? Why do both oppose each other on a large scale? Are such clash and opposition better and problem solving in the era of fatal arms? Such and some other questions have been answered in the reading which provides a comprehensive significance of the situation. The civilizations i.e. the Muslim World and the Western World are two major civilizations and that they have old clash between them since centuries while no other groups have such old and distinctive opposition, they are related with each other but their relations have not enabled them as a unity for everlasting. Infact, they belong to two different religions and traditions so their attachment is not so easy. Even in the modern world their enmity instead of becoming washy has become more serious.

Mutual relations of both civilizations can be observed clearly, how did they entertain each other? And how did they affect each other in different fields? Faith difference is the major mover for clash, such as at the time of emerging of Islam, Crusades, Imperialism, and contemporary interference. It is true that because of such deep differences, their combination is not possible as many writers wrote about their unity. Both are related to two different aims, and the clash is not out of possibility between both the opponents, as their celestial literature and even modern political leaders aim in that idea. Their previous conflicts reached no permanent decisions, so it is not easy to disregard another possible clash which may decide for the superiority of any one or may result in the unity of truths of both sides. It is known by them as ‘Crusades’ and ‘Jihad’ as the religious holy wars and they both also wait a final big clash named ‘Armageddon’. Some possibilities may stop the conflicts for some time but they can’t check them for ever.

Western and Eastern both, have sufficient written literature about this topic. Near about all aspects have been covered by them. Similarly, there are debates between the Eastern and the Western scholars about this topic. Some scholars have the idea of combination of both is possible, and they suggest secular plate form to demise the extremism so that opposite feelings and ideas may come to a generality, while the others persist that they have no generality between them for unity. The Muslim scholars prove the Islamic religion as a modern faith, and many of them condemn the opponent ideas.

The Muslim World and the Western World are two major and important characters of the reading. As the Muslim World is spread into different areas of the world and aim only religion for community instead of race, region, language or any other mover which are the Western characteristics for being a nation, similarly, here the Western World stands also for both the Christians as well as the Zionists about all the western and American regions, because of their unity against different global issues as Israel-Palestinian discontents, economic affairs, religious facts and secular and liberal traditions and as they both are known by the Muslim extremists a unity against the Muslim world. Encounter and dialogue, previous and present conflicts ,peace and prosperity, nature of discontents and flexibility and chances of generality have been presented which explain the situation; Whether, there is possibility of the demise of clash or the day after day courage’s from both sides may create a more intense situation between them. How it may be hope for peace? And what will the result of clash? All such significances are discussed in detail in the reading.


The political phenomena of the contemporary world are more disturb than it did in the previous times. Upheaval and unease has prevailed through all the fields of life as in the matters of religions, economic systems, cultures, traditions and values, due to the attempts of infuse particular ideas over the entire world by different civilizations by force. However, to day, the Western and the Eastern Muslim worlds are standing against each other the most. Each of them is the preacher of a particular civilization of its own will. These contents are rooted in history, and proved for many conflicts in the past, but no one lost its distinctions in front of the opponent civilization. While to day the situation is being more serious day after day. New events and activities are providing new courage to develop disturbance. Though, different civilizations differ from all other civilizations and they do not match their values with the others but between the West and the Eastern Muslim civilizations the enmity is more serious than all others. Clash between the Muslim and the Western world is important also because their mutual conflicts have been going on for more than fourteen hundred years and are still continued. While the conflicts between communism and the ‘West’ lasted seventy years, or at most two hundred years, from Babeuf to Gorbachev.[1] The contemporary events of attacks in the last few years from the Western world to the Muslim territories like as Sudan, Somalia, Afghanistan, and Iraq including the threats of attacks on Iran, Yemen, and Pakistani tribal areas and the Muslim extremist activities against the Western benefits show the serious situation of the maintenance of peace and security condition in the entire world. What is the nature of clash? Why did they remain in contrast? Why will be the future aspects of their relations? These are some issues that are taken here.


It is necessary to comprehend the significance of civilization before step to clash among civilizations. Because a particular civilization has its own distinctive values which do not match with that of another civilization the most and this difference is in fact the cause of clash between two or more civilizations. Civilization is in fact a communal division of groups. It is of different characteristics as efficiency in food production, technological advancement, ways of agriculture, inventions, mathematics, science, and even morals and ideas.[2] A civilization has its own particular criteria which differs from all that of others. Although the phrase ‘civilization’ is used for a developed and progressed community, but here it is used for every community, which is developed or not developed does not matter. The main aim is to show their mutual contacts and discontents, how much are they useful or how much are they harmless for peace and prosperity. Partition of kinds of civilizations is not easy as different authors divided it in different ways. In fact, regions, languages, values of economic, religions and races, work as factors to establish and define a particular civilization. However, religion is the base of every civilization and it has deep effects on the lives and the traditions of the peoples of a particular civilization more than all other factors. It is no doubt the Western and the Eastern Muslim civilizations have different ideas and facts of those as mentioned above which are the cause of clash the most while both are agreed in many modern traditions.

Grouping of the civilizations is not a new term but as old as history. Now, in the current world there are many renowned civilizations as Muslim, Christian, Hindu, Orthodox, Chinese, Japanese, (‘Sinic’ is the combination of both that mentioned last) Buddhist, etc. which are mentioned in the coming pages. Here are two major population adopted civilizations, as they have great discontents between them, they are the Christian civilization, which is included two major regions of Europe and America (Both North and Latin) and consists of two major sects of Christianity, Catholic and Protestant. Similarly Jewish nation is also considered as the component of the Western civilization. Because in the contemporary world these two nations are in very close contact in most of the world affairs and they both are agree on modern and secularisms the most than other world civilizations and because it is not justified to mention the Jewish nation separately, while it is a limited population adopted community. Israel represents the Jewish state which is the cause of disturbance in the Middle East according to the Muslim minds. The reason of considering the Jewish nation as the component of the Western civilization must is due to its character in disputes of the Muslim world as Palestine Israel issue. The second is the Muslim civilization. All other civilizations are not the real target of reading as they are lesser influence adopted in the contemporary clashes and disturbances on world level. All other civilizations are not as in contrast as the Muslim world. In fact the Muslim world hardly accepts the changes that come from the non-believers.[3] That is why the both are the most opponents in the contemporary world also as they were in the previous history of more than fourteen hundred years.

Among the different civilizations of the world, the Muslim civilization is taken here first to describe about. The contemporary Muslim world is not only consists of 57 Muslim states but in non-Muslim states of Asia, Africa, America, Europe and Australia the Muslim population is in millions also. As a whole the Muslim population is one fourth of the entire population of the world consists of various faiths. Historically, religiously, traditionally, socially, economically and morally the Muslim world is a complete civilization. It is the largest community after the Christianity in the world. The importance of the Muslim civilization can be guessed that not only in the Muslim populated regions but also in the Western states also they have their distinctive identity in all the manners. The Muslims living as minorities in the non-believer states are also well organized. The example of their organizations is in the countries of the European Union where they have organized themselves in many ways. They have established institutions ranging mosques, prayers halls, schools, ‘halal’ butchers, religious radio stations, own language news papers to representations through political parties. In some cases they have manage to appoint Muslim chaplains in hospitals, prisons, armed forces, and have success fully lobbied for change in state policies regarding various issues affecting migrant communities of Muslim origin.[4] By this point of view that they are the major world community after the Christianity, whether it is essential that the fact of under standing must be realized? The Muslim world is different from all other communities and after a long time it is adopting its links with its old heritage. Its characteristics are also different from that of all other civilizations the most as they grant the faith of central importance in their all traditions and values of lives. The Muslims are divided into different sects. The absence of an Islamic core state poses major problems for both Muslim and non-Muslim societies.[5] But instead of race, region, economy, language or any other mover that are adopting in any other nations to establish a distinctive civilization are not important in the norms of the Muslim civilization. Only religion is the collector of the entire Muslim population in one unit. It is because they are so distinctive from all others. Local traditions of different regions are also important by the relevant Muslim community, but all these signs are also important by the relevant Muslim community. But all these signs are followed by religious teachings. However, regarding to culture, the Indonesian, the indo-Muslim, the Pakistani, the Persian, Turkey and the Arab world-these six are the principal cultures that are the protagonists of contemporary Islam.[6] It is clear that though the Muslim world has no core state and it is divided into different sects and traditions but in fact the entire Muslim community of the world is united due to Islamic religious common aims. The generality of faith awards the Muslim world a typical distinction against non-believers. To day, the Muslim world is a fully distinctive civilization and the global community can’t disregard it due to its importance in community of civilization because of various aspects.

The Muslim world has been the major opponent of the Western Christianity and Judaism as well as of all other unbeliever communities due to religious differences and distinctions. The existence of Islam was the most fare aching problem in medieval Christendom. It was a problem at every level of experience.[7] As it is proved that the Muslim world is a distinctive civilization and it challenged all the previous faiths of the entire world saying that Islam is the component of all the religions. It remained its distinctive position throughout all the history of Islam. Even in the contemporary world the clash between the Muslim and non-Muslim world is still fresh and continues. However, this serial has specialty for dashing of Muslim Western civilizations because of their huge population, sense of superiority and fatal historical accidents. Discontents between the Muslim and the Western worlds are important also because their mutual conflicts have been going on for nearly fourteen hundred years and continue. While the conflicts between communism and the ‘West’ lasted seventy years, or at most two hundred years, from Babeuf to Gorbachev.[8] The entire world thinks their discontents are most important, however among all the civilizations, discontents continue, even every civilization has its home disputes also as the European world, while the Muslim world also has no exception but their outer or inner disputes also lesser important. Now in the world of clash can’t be neglected, while the demise of USSR has refreshed this dispute. Some political analysts of the USA have propounded theories the conclusion of which is that after the collapse of USSR. Islam is the next ideology of hate and that the world is likely to witness a clash of cultures of Islam and the West in the 21st century. The main issue in this debate is the West is that in the future a United Islamic world will pose a threat to the interest of the Western civilization.[9] The Western world is not such serious to be brought to a conclusion with any civilization as it behaves with the Muslim world. Present incidents in the Middle East, South Asia and Africa are the indicators of fatal relations. However, during the Afghan crisis, the resistance against the Soviet occupation crucially depended upon American support and ostensibly did not exhibit any anti Americanism. But when the Americans and the rest left the Afghan Mujahideen in the doldrums after the Soviet retreat in 1989, the anger against the United States began together momentum. The unquestioned Western support for Israel, in action in Bosnia, Kashmir and Chechnya contrasted with a quick offensive against Iraq along with the continued Western exploitation of inter state differences in the Muslim world to suit the formers geo political interests only multiplied anger towards Western opportunism.[10] The mentioned situation draws more attention of every community of the world to the serious dangers of the Muslim world than any other global issues.

Mutual clashes between the Western and the Muslim world from the long time of Islamic emergence reach no end. Both civilizations meet various reigns consist of captures, crusades, Islamic reign in Sicily, Spain, and Portugal, Western colonialism and contemporary political influences in the Muslim areas. They affected each other scientifically, politically, and technologically, the Muslim world in the black age of Europe and the West now in the contemporary world has deep effects on each other. But no unity and no compound created to stop the differences because of Muslim distinctions that it want to remain in a distinctive form. Even now, while, the world has become a global village, relations between them are in deep importance and essential position. A class of eastern Muslim community is creating a new mix culture depending on both the western and Islamic values. This class is liberal and secular in ideas but in spite of such modern changes while the effects and change are as old as Islamic existence it is a less hope of the changing of faith and religious flexibilities on both sides. Secular image of the ‘West’ has enabled it more difficult to adopt it any other religious reality. However, from two expected situations, first becoming a unity and demise of conflicts because of clash and the second, increment in destruction and demise of one civilization, one may take place. But however, the scholars as ‘Pike’ mention once more world war, i.e. the World War III due to conflict between Arabs and Zionists.[11] It is in fact due to unstable position of peace in the Muslim world because the Muslim world thinks instability of peace due to unjustifiable policies of the West towards the Muslim World. It is proved in this portion that the Muslim world has a distinctive society that has a particular and complete civilization different than that of the West. The Muslim civilization is not equal in the different areas of the world but religion of Islam acts as a mover to unite all the Muslims in one entity and provides them a common political plate form against non believers of the entire world.


Both the civilizations have a common regional boundary makes them neighbors to each other. Even now, they both are collected in all countries of the world majority in one state or minority in the other. No Muslim and non-Muslim country is avoided from the minority of religious opponents in its area except some exceptions. It is needed must to cooperate with each other for stability and prosperity of the both. There have been good relations between them and still continue. But due to paradoxes they did not reach to permanent understanding and solution of their mutual conflicts. Sense of superiority on each side must keeps one side limited under own boundaries and force not to cooperate for give and take with the other opponent that creates discontents of everlasting influences.

The contemporary western world is not the permanent form of civilization as the western world transformed itself into many forms in the previous ages. Emergence of Christian sects, landlord rule, war between science and religion, comparison of kingship and democracy and the contemporary destination of secularism changed one by one. Now, the Western world realizes itself a complete civilized world, which has reached to the peals of modernity. The ‘West’ believes that only the secular ideas can do much for human welfare. Secularism is the most modern theory of the western world Secular policy started after the French and American revolutions and also prevailed into the communist countries.[12] While on the other side, the Muslim world persists for its own distinctions, by the claiming that it is a complete civilization and only it can do better for welfare than any other world community. Both the civilizations have also the share of superiority in the previous days or in the contemporary world. The mentioned reality is a great hindrance to establish flow and free friendship between them forever. The Muslim world does not like liberalism also due to its secular approach.[13] While the West does not like Islamic religious extremism. No one of the both is ready to admit the opponent’s superiority but they compulsory relate with each other due to shortened distances of the global village. Global village is making them more cooperative on one side due to their own necessities and on the other side they are dashing also in the battle fields, religions, ideas, traditions, and values.

Their mutual clash reaches to the achievement of global leadership.Under the Islamic banner, the Muslims call upon one another to fight a global Jihad in the pursuit of ‘Hakimiyyat Allah’ (Global Islamic Rule) claim to be universal for achieving world peace under the superiority of Islamic rule.[14] The Christians and the Jews have also a religious plan for revival their golden heritage. They both want to prevail over all the world and lead all the humanity, like as the faith of the Muslims themselves. Importance of Muslim age revival is more important as they get their lost heritage, while if the Muslims succeed, the demise of Western contemporary superiority as well as hopeless about revival and capture over all other religions be most painful for the secular forces. They both attempt for their own achievements that cause great discontents. Although their different hopes for own revival may a common event as they are different branches of a single Semitic faith. But, they fail to stop clash and discontents. Though they are related with each other from centuries but their relations have not been helpful to produce friendly atmosphere between the both civilizations.[15]

Precautionary measure attacks on the Muslim world, tool of disarmament and the phrase of terrorism are used by Western world today to maintain western superiority, which may the reason of their religious revival. The West is trying to do much to maintain its superiority in all the manners as even before president of USA George W. Bush appointed Daniel Pipes to head the institute of Peace Studies in 2003, concerned quarters and educated Muslims were aware of periodic asides from this American specialist on Muslim history. He had earned enough notoriety through his persistent and self righteous critics of Islam, Muslim pursuit of warfare, slaves in the past Muslim societies and a growing profile of Muslims Diaspora in the West presumably with its own exaggerated ramifications for societies such as the United States. Pipes, through his books, papers and media interviews came across as a person of strong, unitary and partisan opinions who would not miss any opportunity to slander Muslims. His academic research on Islamic history only strengthened his serious prejudices and reservations about Muslims.[16] The Muslim world is also reacting to avoid the attacks and to infuse their own will on the world politics. Suicidal attacks, riots, and guerilla war are the Muslim tools to achieve their aims. May they are typical reward of the Western unjustified policies or the tool to maintain their own benefits does not matter. However, the political situation has become full of dissatisfaction.

In spite of so many hindrances to achieve peace as mentioned above, the religious discontents are more serious. Infact the religion is the most important factor creates clash in all the fields of life. Because, the Muslim world, claims that the present Christianity is not in its real and original condition. By the fourth century, Christianity had become a curious mixture of Greek mythology, Roam idolatry, Egyptian Neo Platonism and Monasticism, in which the pure and simple teachings of Christ had been lost like a drop of sweet water in the ocean.[17] Similarly the secular form of the Western community does not relate with a religious Muslim world, where the religion is the central mover of every field of life and no one entity of life is saved from religious effects. In the Muslim word religion of Islam has more importance than any other society of the world. Religious Muslims do not bear any change in the basic teachings of faith even by the Muslims also as they do not bear the ideas that dash with the basic Islamic faith. On 26 April 1984, President of Pakistan Zia ul Haque issued ordinance no. 20 which liable to punishment by imprisonment for up to three years and by fine, any Qadiany who refers to or names, or calls, his place of worship as “Masjid”, recites “Azan” as used by the Muslims, or directly or indirectly, passes himself as a Muslim or calls, or refers to, his faith as Islam.[18] This group was also the member of Muslim community but due to deny from some teachings of Islam they have deprived to call them as the Muslims and it is expelled from the Muslim society and it also has no right to call themselves as Muslims that as denying of some ideas that are disagreed to basic Islamic concepts. Similarly secularism of the west is also not able to accept them instead of faith of Islam also. It must cause the reason of clash. However, the Muslim world has sufficient flexibility also to accept all other refers except changes in the basic Islamic teaching s.

The Muslim community has changed many traditions in honor of the Western developed world. They try to adopt modern and technological ways, to achieve much of the progress as western world has achieved that. The Muslim countries present the effects of the Western technology and values but, however, there are many hindrances, which cause the restrictions in the front of the free and flow flood of Western ideas, traditions, and values because of secularism. The Muslim peoples are Muslims only they never accepted changes in their faith and never ready to leave some religious teachings. As in the Western countries many young Asian and African Muslims, who are the birth citizens of these countries also but they prefer their religion instead of their homeland values, it shows that how much effects the religion have on the life of a Muslim. Similarly, the Islamic world persists that Islam is infact the renewal form of Christianity. Jesus announced for the arrival of Islamic Prophet after him.[19] All the religious discontents have developed a strong and complex issue of clash.

The people hoping the unity of both and demise the mutual conflicts they view their mutual relations, their cooperation with each other and their independency on each other in various fields, but they do not observe and analysis the long history, fully disputed they came together but they always remained separate infact. Even the important accidents as mentioned earlier could not check their conflicts. In short, they left no opportunity with out using it against each other. However in all the history and even now in the contemporary world the both are interrelated with each other but in fact they are so separate and alone that they were ever in any event of the history of dashing of the both civilizations. Some reasons are given below, on which behalf they are so distinctive from each other. All the differences create a different culture on both sides that has not been a common characterized culture in the previous history. But some contemporary attempts by eastern and western think tanks are creating a common culture are not being seen succeeded due to deep religious oppositional differences. Media, trade, interrelations, global politics, and unity of eastern and western governments on global issues, condemning of extremism and economic needs have played a great part for generality and the process for this aim is still continued, but it is shortened hope for real peace and prosperity on permanent basis except such typical activities can also slow the process of dashing. These tactics are only for achieving peace. Peace is not just the absence of violence. Peace is equally the absence of exploitation.[20] Not only avoiding to disturbance but use of welfare for every one and on equal basis also. The double standard of the western community in various fields is also a cause of creating the problems between them, as the example the United Nations conference on international Organization prepared the charter in 1945, a system of security was envisioned in which disarmament and the regulation of armaments was a central feature,[21] but powerful and developed nations played a duel character for their personal benefits not for the global prosperity. Even to day, military alliances, atomic policies, double standard for disarmament, are not satisfied for the Eastern Muslim world especially and the third world over all generally. In this reading there will be prove that the Muslim world is not as irreligious as the Western world so both are must in clash in many values and traditions that are based not only in the contemporary world but also rooted in the long mutual history.


Religion, culture, and traditions are the actors that create discontents between the eastern Muslim and the Western worlds. They came close in many fields in history but the conflicts did not come to end and even progressed, they met many clashes. In the contemporary world two parties stand face to face in front of each other. The Westerners think the Muslim world has potential for revival in the world of civilizations. The Muslim world is realized by the West the worse opponent after the demise of Communism. After the demise of USSR this situation has become more intense also. Historical arguments also explain their mutual conflicts. The Muslim world thinks that Muslim age revival is possible only by the superiority of the Muslim values over the entire world. In the contemporary world the Western world due to crusades, imperialism, emergence of Israel, attacks on the Muslim lands and economic hold is realized the real opponent of the Muslim world by the Muslim extremists. Muslim civilization, culture, religion, and the traditions are also feeling threat for unity of the world by the ‘West’ more than that of any other civilization of the world. Maintenance of the superiority of the Western world and possible threat of the revival of Islamic classical age are two major movers in the Western world according to the Muslims while the Muslim world attempts for revival by terrorism and religious extremism according to the western blames. The both blame each other for unlawful activities and unjustified exercises against each other. But both are related with the opponent also in many channels. The mentioned situation remained for many centuries. The contemporary world has no exception in this matter, while now the situation is becoming more intense day after day from last few years generally and after the events of 9/11 especially. In these circumstances, prophecy for future relations is no doubt clear. But here are chances of tolerance in the world of paradoxes also. Chances of tolerance and peace will be discussed in this part that are only possible by the help of both parties though powerful opponent than the other has more responsibility in this matter to must adopt the policy of bargaining for the world security.

The previous history of Islam shows that religious preaching for the Muslims is a religious duty of every Muslim. In the contemporary world they persist on this procedure.[22] Infact, that is the sign of an attempt for distinction from others. In the future, there is no chance for the Muslim world to surrender in front of any powerful civilization of any nation. May it fundamentalism would progressed and the differences between the east and the west be more far effects. Attempt for distinction may produce fundamentalism on the large scale. However, there is a chance for friendship but previous history argues that Muslim faith can’t compromise on religious traditions and the Muslim world remained parallel with the Western world for ever in all the fields of life.

The Muslim majority countries that extend from Morocco to Indonesia have adopted the Western system of education in order to acquire modern knowledge so that they may become intellectually and materially advanced.[23] It is a source of unity also of the east and the west. This system has produced a large class of Muslims who represent the western traditions in their native countries. A second approach is the spread of scientific technology including media from the west to the eastern Muslim world. The Muslims are accepting scientific miracles freely and they have enlightened their lives with the help of Western technology. While the third approach is governmental; as Mustafa Kamal introduced a modern Islam in Turkey and as some contemporary Muslim governments are introducing liberalism against the Muslim fundamentalism. Only by these three major reasons can change the Muslim society. This course worked also in the history but could not bring a great revolution of everlasting effects. In the future, there is no chance of large-scale for positive changes. However, the Muslim majority is not ready to accept modern changes in religion. It shows no great chance of truce between two opponent civilizations permanently in the future as it did in the history.

Endurance, and functioning for own benefits and avoiding clash with the opponents, is also a possibility in the future for every party. Tolerance in views, functions, and traditions is a good policy for stability of peace and prosperity. To avoid clash UN has also peaceful methods as negotiation, good offices, inquiry, mediation, conciliation, arbitration and adjudication or judicial settlement,[24] which are functioning to avoid wars and to settle the disputes with peaceful methods. But these methods can’t be impose on powerful states. Many others violate the decisions also. Here is the point that shows that patience and tolerance in the global affairs is not much affective. There are some reasons as the world is becoming more and more global day after day and people’s interests are becoming common it is very difficult to establish and maintain stability forever. The second cause is the hope of revival of every party religiously; they believe that in the coming future a particular community will take hold over the entire world. These are the ideas and dreams of the religious extremists of both sides. It is a hope of both sides for which they believe religiously and have wish to occur that. For this revival there are explanations in the reading while the religious literature and the modern world’s political leaders consider it also in favor of the world state. However the revival of both sides is infact only a single event for which every one attempts singularly and in ones own method, but mechanisms are very different from the other one. The third cause is that, the universal law of clash among different ideas will continue till they unite making a compound. While the historical evidences show that there is no chance of combination without dashing. All that argues that endurance in actions and ideas is not possible in the universal relations and the situation refers to the fatal clash. A vast and sweeping Islamic revivalist movement has gripped the Muslim countries and people throughout the world.[25] And the Western world with the actions against the Muslim countries and a permanent policy against the phrase ‘terrorism’ by the name of a new crusade introduce a new unsatisfactory movement for destruction.

Instead of the possibilities of truce and endurance, there is expected another possibility of contradiction among the entities. Contradiction however, is a permanent effect between the East and the West. Some times both come closer and entertained to each other but the result was not in fact the demise of opposition for ever. Contrast appeared in fatal wars some times and some times they became secret, shows that both the parties, infact have come to no settlement, and the contradiction is the best-favored possibility among the civilizations in the future of the reading, it is favored by near about all the arguments and circumstances of both modern and previous situation. In the Muslim world the absence of democracy and Western values is due to a distinctive culture and religion. It is said Islam has not been democratic in the past and will be unable to become so in the future.[26] Similarly, the western secular culture does not bear the Islamic religious fundamentalism while the west is not in favor of the ancient Western religious traditions. The complex situation of the conflicts, however, refers to an attempt for peace and in another way that is the Western exercise and sincerity for doing to be tolerate towards religious thoughts, become more justice in economic affairs, attempt for realizing the true causes terrorism and abolish them, and to be more political; But all this courage can not stop the clash for ever, however, it is a possibility of gap between conflicts and clashes ordinary. The world about us is full of conflicts and inequalities.[27] And it is not possible naturally to abolish inequalities through out while it is more difficult then the world is becoming as a global village of peoples in billions. The chance of stability of peace and prosperity is not abolished completely. If the both parties try to do more in this field they can make the world danger less from clash? The history of Christian attitude towards Islam has been largely negative, as states Carl W. Earnest.[28] Although that not always so. There had been many events that both remained with good relations even in the age of the Prophet of Islam also and now in the contemporary world there also can be seen many examples of good relations. So it is the need of time that prosperity is possible only by tolerance and to admit the facts because Islam is not a stranger and savage faith it is now as fit to the modern requirements as it fulfilled the needs of the peoples of fourteen hundred years ago. Islam removes all racial distinctions within humanity, in the common dignity of relationship with God, of participation in human kind, in race group and particular setting, as well as the dignity of being in the way of the highest attainments prepared by God for men.[29]

Actions in the contrast of opponent, no party is secret, though every one pays lip service also. Differences in the vision of human nature are reflected in the differences in the vision of social processes.[30] The world is being closer to dissatisfaction on both sides, and resulted in after all a unity on the price of the destruction of all different civilizations and emerging a new and everlasting entity. At the end it is stated that to control the natural process of clash between oppositions is not possible till they emerge in unity and it is argues already that different civilizations are standing against each other since the times. While the celestial literature has also prophesied dashes between them, which is not only accepted by the religious world on both sides the Muslims and the Christians but also by the secular world minds. However, the world can purify the realities of different types to avoid clash on both sides, but they can’t stop the natural process of change. Only change can purify the fats and change is possible only by clashes; Existence of different civilizations is not purification. Both faith and doubt would be swallowed up in actual knowledge and direct experience.[31] It would be achieved only by differences and dashes and they are in fact the demise of peace and prosperity dream before purification the facts. However, the humanity can not observe the world burning in the fire of clash so it is essential to cooperate with each other and tolerate the oppositions. Being tolerant and justifiable is the duty of every civilization while this duty is must be adopted by the more influenced powers of the contemporary world.


To unite on the price of ones own distinctions for peace had never been the habit of even any weaker opposition too through out all the discovered history of human beings. The universe is the combination of opposites; of both spiritual and material things Material things remain in an everlasting process. They mix with one another, and make a new qualitative matter. The process of mixture, re-mixture and then transform into its natural elements or components continues, such as the cycle of water, it is for the first time, is situated in the forms of snow on mountains, liquid in seas, and in the structure of plants, and animals but this situation does not remain forever. Evaporations, becoming of clouds, fall of rain, filtration of water in the earth plates and becoming fresh again, and snow falling on the mountains. All these processes keep the water in circle. Water changes its qualities, shapes, tastes, and temperature, makes compounds and then become pure. Similarly the values, traditions, language, culture, ideas, methods, and behaviors also remain in a cycle. They stand for their distinctions, bargain with others, and become more civilized and cultural with the passage of time. During the process of both spiritual and material things changes and different effects appear. As during the process of combination different chemicals create a new temperature, smell, taste, color, and quality, similarly, different cultures, aims, ideas, and values create new effects that may harmful or useful. Some times the process of combination of two or more ideas may result in destruction, as the combination of electrons and protons create fatal rays and atomic energy, to destruct the earth life. Differences of opinions create discords that attempt to maintain their distinction and caused to be dashed against one another. The process produces new ideas of different types, then there is another clash and collision produces and the cycle continue forever. Thesis, anti thesis, and synthesis is not the end of process; rather it is only a single step towards a far destination. These disputes some times appear in the forms of wars and destruction instead of debates and ideas. This theory is hidden as a stimulant of happening great incidents and accidents. Events are not problems; they are only harmful and have absolutely limited effects. In fact the spirit is the real problem that is the mover of production of such accidents, as Jason Burke states that Al-Qaeda is not a problem but the real problem is some thing other that cannot be called by any name. He, in fact, indicates the mentioned above ‘spirit’. Muhammad (PBUH) left his native city of Makkah in AD 622 a persecuted fugitive. Eight years later he re-entered it as a conqueror.[32] These are not only two events but it is a process that has many root causes in history and great effects in future also. Prophets persecution and expulsion was due to clash of two opponent ideas, not for the first time but after uncountable historical events of clash. These events became the mover of new events between opponents in their future and Prophet’s re-entering event was also a reaction of the previous events, but mover for the coming new events in future, that are, however, continue still between Islam and unbelievers in different forms. It is expected that, perhaps, these conflicts will remain till the overcoming of one religion on the universe. For this expectation every one of the three Muslim, Christian, and Jewish communities is hopeful in the near future. These circumstances indicate to no peaceful negotiations but bloody wars clash of swords among them. No one could stop the clashes between religions in history and similarly, there is no expectation of peace in future without shocks and dashes.

The Muslim world achieved development gradually in its history and the developed Muslim world in the Islamic golden age was not developed from the first day of its emergence, and similarly, it demised by the Western powers in the different events of dashing swords. Similarly, the contemporary developed Western world was not developed during the crusades ages and so many other event s show that the up and down of grace and disgrace is the reality of the universe, that is mentioned by Quran, “These are the days! Which are mutually changed among the peoples”?[33] Islam presents a wonderful theory of the clash of nations, as it admits the reality of clash; similarly, it claims that these clashes are in fact in order to stop quarrels on the earth for peace and prosperity.[34] The modern world also accepts this theory, that wars bring disaster but in fact wars help humanity to stop the attempts of evils, and such evils may create greater disturbance than that of wars if they have no check. Clashes, discontents, and dashes always change the phenomena, if a nation is super power may it demise in the coming age and a weaker community may rule over the world that has no importance in the contemporary time. The history is not unknown from this reality and process as Ibn-e-Khuldun presented the theory of ‘Asabiyya’.[35] According to him no nation is everlasting. Different nations have a particular age, in which they rule a state, and after the completion of their period, they demise and a new nation captures the state, but this new nation is also not an everlasting. It is in fact due to clash among different groups that emerge and demise but this entire process is run with the help of wars. The contemporary world is facing the same situation. Every civilization attempts to maintain its influences over others, and this policy is reasoning of disturbance.

Communal clashes are continued from the emergence of creatures and clash among groups is not a new idea. It can be observed from the known history of mankind. The Greeks and the Romans regarded only themselves as ‘civilized’, with every thing foreign, and particularly living to the east of the Mediterranean; bore the label “barbarian”.[36] Greek states had discontents and clashes with other world nations. They were united against any foreign attack, but among 158 states of Greek there were also mutual discontents. Sparta and Athens were the super powers of Greek, they quarreled among themselves to achieve the leadership of other Greek states. Celestial literature mentions also the events of the nations of the Prophets, which are older than Greeks. Religious history also explains the clash among different groups. Roman Empirical history, clash of Jews and Christina, clash of religion and science, clash of landlords in the West, Kings and democratic powers, clash of Jews and Muslims, Muslims and Christians, Crusades long period of European wars in the last centuries, Mutual conflicts of the Muslim world, Western captures of Asian, African and American regions, world wars, and contemporary series of discontents and attacks in a chain of clashes, all that shows the historical dashes among groups.

The importance of clashes is also due to revolutions. All the revolutions of the world may on local and international level are the production of conflicts and discontents. Revolutions are military actions; they are of course, in many other respects not military.[37] That shows that discontents have the great importance in human history. They change ideas, construct relations, and also add fuel to fire of disputes. Conflicts cannot be abolished to stop the clash may they belong to military reasons or some one other; however, they may become weakened for some time. In fact it is a permanent process to generalize the truth and will possibly continue until the reality clearly adopted and admitted with patience by every civilization of the world.

Discontents between Jews and Christians brought about great disasters in the previous religious history after the emergence of Christianity. Because Christianity was a challenger for the previous Jewish community to maintain them as religious as God wanted to do them. Jewish civilization was older than the Christian revolutionary faith arose among the Jews. At the tie of Christianity emergence, the Christians realized as rebellions of the Jewish religion. The event of Jesus related crusade is also due to the dash of the faiths. Catholic Christians are still fast opponents of the Jews. After the emergence of Islam now, the enmity was among their religions, they connect a common source of guidance. And Jerusalem is a sacred city for all the three Abraham faiths.[38] But the fundamentalists of the three faiths are dangerous drawn with one and other; even centuries could not create generality among them. The mutual conflicts are as intense between Islamic and Jewish community as the terrible dashing history between them. Now it is expected that the third world war will be sparked by the conflict between Arabs (Muslims) and Zionists.[39] Similarly, Jews were the enemies of Christians, but after the Islamic emergence Islam is realized by Christians the greatest enemy of the Christians. From the time when Christianity came into possession of the Roman Empire until the seventh Century it would have been reasonable to suppose that nothing could stop the universal expansion of the Christian message. In the seventh century Islam stopped it.[40] Now Islam was also a challenger for the all previous religions. The challenge of the contemporary religion to the previous faiths is a natural chain which is essential to maintain the previous teachings and to realize teachings of the previous religions that they have mixed them into some thing else and consider them as religious as they are revealed verses from God. Every emergence is existed to come to an end at all the demise of different civilizations is the natural process and Islam is the last Semitic religion of God. The emergence of a new faith after the previous one is also the example of this formulation also and it will be continued till the reality purification that is not more than one.

Missionary deputations attempted to let prevail Christian religion in the captured areas during the age of imperialism because the European Imperialism was powerful demonstration of the Western political influence. The cultural and religious attacks on the Eastern Muslim world proved to refresh the mutual clashes between the Western Christianity and the Eastern Muslim world. Many events appeared to purify the previous glory that was eclipsed by the modern revolution. However, the middle of the 20th century when all the captured countries by West started to get freedom was in fact a renewal of “Ummah” (Muslim Community). The contemporary Muslim world contains of 57 sovereign states, the Western Christianity world, and Jews, posses the national Jewish state of Israel, are not satisfied to one another, religiously and ethnically. The old and historical discontents among them disturbed peace and prosperity atmosphere. Historical continual conflicts received fresh impetus by the dramatic events and aftermath of 9/11.[41] These events aided fuel to fire of clash and the extremists of both sides appear for the highness of their values. The Christian world gathered against the Muslim countries under American leadership.The Western blamed the Muslim world for these events. But the Muslim world also got a new temperament against the Western Christianity and Judaism. There were also heard the blames against the Jews for these events from the Muslims especially, and generally from the fundamental thinkers of Western Christianity. These events provided the Western world for attacks on the Muslim world.[42] These attacks have enabled the mutual situation of endless disturbance.

It is, no doubt, extremism was not more before 9/11 than after these events, when every community is feeling insecurity. But the fact is that the 9/11 attacks remained the old opposition and made it more stress. Now the peace condition and sovereignty of Afghanistan, Iraq, and Palestine has become a challenge for the entire world. The humanity introduced new extremists and perhaps a new long war started against the opponents which seems endless and the mover of a big clash. No party is ready to surrender, and has become more extremist against the opponent. Voices of clash are being raised highly on both sides and the situation of insecurity is being more intense which is proving the cause of appearing new extremist classes of rigidities. They have different aims and targets that challenge and oppose the opponent. The West has the target to destroy the Muslim fundamentalism by different methods as financial aid, armament support, economical favor, political influence and bloody pursuits. But the Western world, perhaps, do not admits the reality of attempts of crusades, imperialism, and other events of abolishing of Muslim fundamentalists. However, it is resulted in the contemporary extremism of high spirit. The Muslims attribute to the West a deep crisis of civilization resulting in decay. A renowned Muslim fundamentalist Sayyid Qutb called upon Muslims to fight a global Jihad under the Islamic banner, in the pursuit of ‘Hakimiyyat Allah’ claimed to be universal for achieving world peace under the superiority of Islamic rule.[43] These are not only historical events but the Muslim world is also attempting to stand in front of its opponent as the western world is standing in front of its opponent with full spirit and a vast and sweeping Islamic revivalist movement has gripped the Muslim countries and peoples through the world. The mentioned situation argues a dangerous clash and destruction, that no one is ready to accept the opponent’s existence. It is perhaps a new dash but also a link of old and everlasting clash among groups that remained fresh in all communities throughout the whole previous history.

Christianity and Islam both, according to the basic religious literature, are the religions of peace.[44] The scholars on both sides are aware of the history of conflicts and their results that ended in no succession. But in spite of all the facts it seems to continue the mutual discontents, as it is the natural law also, till the purification of facts and realities. But they must aware of the fact that no community of the world can captures the opponent without destruction of both sides even the opponent is weaker in power. The genius minds are needed to stop the gradually burning issues between the Muslims and the non-believers but historical experiences argue that no power of the world can stop these clashes until both the parties come to the policy of give and take for the dignity of mankind because power is not the solution of every problem. But arguments have weighed that humanity hardly comes to generality as it did again and again in the past.


The thesis has different objectives to comprehend. As the sagacity of civilizations and their customs that differ a particular civilization from others. How do differences of various values like faith, traditions, economic interests and social values inspire a civilization to stand against other civilizations. But all that is about the Muslim civilization especially. How much the Muslim civilization is different from other civilizations and how much these discontents are deep rooted in the history of the Muslim world verses the non-Muslim world especially the Western world. It is also important to come to know the contemporary discontents of both the worlds of Islam and secularism of the West. Both the parties tried their best to lead the world individually in all the history of clash from the emergence of Islam up to the modern times. How much they remained rigid to achieve their aims and how much they lost human resources in this struggle. The contemporary political disturbance due to the world of Islam and the secularism demands to understand the reasons of misunderstanding between them and to seek the ways to check the actions that prove harmful for world security and peace.

In regarding of the comprehension of objectives it is essential to come to know about the future aims of the Muslim world towards the Western secular world at the second stage while after the comprehension singularity of the Muslim world and its clashes with the Western world especially. At this stage there will be description in these dimensions. Is there chance to bear the Western values completely by the Muslim world in future? Or is there chance to purify the Western values according to the Muslim religious traditions by the Muslims? Because the Muslim world is united on some basic religious values that keep the entire Muslim regions and groups in unity. On the other side though, there is no Muslim core state and some Muslim states and groups oppose other Muslim states and groups due to different reasons such as faith or local values. Or the Muslim world will try to lead the world in its own manners? And this is the third possibility that will create clash between the Muslim and the Western worlds as it continued in entire the history of their mutual clash.

In the third portion of objectives it is necessary to comprehend the maintenance values that can enable the Muslim world more tolerate towards the West. What are the Western possible actions that can perform much to create a tolerable Muslim world? But if the West fail to do much about the maintenance of the world peace and security then what will be the possible chances of clash between both the oppositions. Clash between them in future has how much possibility is also an important question of the objectives of the thesis.


[1] Fred Holiday, “Islam and the Myth of the Confrontation: Religion and the Politics in the Middle East.”. London, New York. I. B. Tauris. 2003. PP.127-128.

[2] David L. Sills (editor), “International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences” P.218. Volume 16. The Macmillan Company and the Free Press. 1968. USA.

[3] Dawood C.M.Ting, “Islam The Straight Path”,(Edited by Kenneth W.Morgon). New York. The Ronald Press Company. 1958. P.293.

[4] Konrad Pedziwiatr, “Muslims in Europe: Demography and Organizations” edited by Yunas Samad and Kasturi Sen, Book name “Islam in the European Union: transnationalism, Youth and the war on Terror” P.32. Oxford University Press. 1997. Karachi, Pakistan.

[5] Samuel P.Huntington, “The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order”P.135.Touchstone Books.1997.New York.

[6] Dr. Wilfred Cantwell Smith, “Islam in Modern History” P.295. 1957. Princeton.

[7] R. W. Soutbern, “Western Views of Islam in the Middle Ages” P.3. Harvard University Press. 1962. Cambridge, Massachusetts.

[8] Fred Haliday, “Islam and the Myth of the Confrontation:Religion and the Politics in the Middle East.”. London, New York. I.B.Tauris. 2003. PP.127-128.

[9] Dr. Javed Iqbal, “Iqbal and the Dialogue of Civilizations”, “Monthly Current Affairs Digest”. September, 2002. Book no. 97. edited by Safdar Mahmood. P.1. A.H. Publishers. Lahore.

[10] Iftikhar H. Malik, “Jihad, Hindutva and the Taliban: South Asia at the Cross roads”. P.41. Oxford University Press. 2005. Karachi, Pakistan.

[11] Robert D.Driscoll(Canada), And Margarital Ivanoff-Dubrosky(Eurasia), “The New World Order and the Throne of the Anti Christ”, The Armageddon Series Part 3, December 1993.ed.,P.156.

[12] Carl F. Hallencreutz and David Westerlund, “Questioning the Secular States” P.3 Hurst and Company. 1998. London.

[13] Elizabeth Poole, “Reporting Islam” P.248. I. B. Tauris Publishers. 2002. London. New York.

[14] Bassam Tibi, “Islam Between Culture and Politics”. New York. Palgrave macmillan in association with the weather head centre for international affairs, Harvard University.sec.ed. 2005. P.255.

[15] Wilfred Cantwell Smith, “ On Understanding Islam” P.247. Idarah-i-Adabiyat-i-Delhi. 1985. Delhi, India.

[16] Iftikhar H. Malik, “Crescent Between Star and Cross: Muslim and the West after 9/11” Oxford University Press, 2006. Karachi, Pakistan.

[17] Abul Hasan Ali Nadawi, “Islam and the World” Translated by Asif Kidwai. P.3. Sheikh Muhammad Ashraf Publisher. 1967. Lahore, Pakistan.

[18] Mohammad Waseem, “Politics and the State in Pakistan” P.382. National Institute of Historical and Cultural Research Islamabad. 1994. Pakistan.

[19] “ Gospel of Saint Barnabas” PP.225-227. Edited by Lonsdale and Laura Ragg. 1907. Oxford.

[20] Paul Wehr Michael Washburn, “Peace and World Order Systems” P.103. Sage Publications. 1976. London.

[21] Donald C. Blaisdell, “International Organization” P.295. The Ronald Press Company. 1966. New York.

[22] A. K. Brohi, “Islam in the Modern World” P.131. Publishers United. 1975. Lahore, Pakistan.

[23] William Montgomery Watt, “Islamic Fundamentalism and Modernity” P.78. Routledge. 1988. London, New York.

[24] A. LeRoy Bennett, “International Organizations: Principals and issues”. PP.98-99. Prentice Hall International. 1991. New Jersey.

[25] Muhammad Safdar Mir, “Islam in Asia” edited by Asghar Ali Engineer. P.145. Vanguard. 1986. Lahore. Pakistan.

[26] Gudrun Kramer, “Islamist Notions of Democracy” (ed. Joel Beinin, Joe Strok, Political Islam: Essays from Middle East Report.). London, New York. I.B.Tauris. Publishers. 1997. P.71.

[27] Robert W. Cox with Timothy J. Sinclair “Approaches to World Order”. P.526. Cambridge University Press. 1996. Cambridge.

[28] Carl W. Earnest, “Rethinking Islam in the Contemporary World” P.13 Edinburgh University Press. North Carolina Press. North Carolina. 2004. USA.

[29] Shaykh Muhammad Abduh, “Islam Reason and civilization” edited by John J. Donohue and John L. Esposito Book name “Islam In Transition Muslim Perspectives” (Second Edition). Oxford University Press. 2007. New York. Oxford.

[30] Thomas sowell, “A conflict of Visions”. P.67. Affiliated East-West Press. 1988. New Delhi.

[31] James Fitzjames Stephen, “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity” P.264. Cambridge University Press. 1967. London.

CH. (2)

[32] Charis Waddy, “The Muslim Mind By CharisWaddy”. London, New York. Longman. 1976. P.93.

[33] Quran. 140: 3.

[34] Quran. 251: 2, 38-40: 22.

[35] Akbar S.Ahmad, “Post Modernism and Islam, Indicament and Promise”. London,NewYork. Routledge. 1992. P.162.

[36] M.Asad, “Islam at the Cross Roads”. Gibralter. Dar Al-Andalus. 1982. P.49.

[37] Peter Calvert, “Revolution and International Politics” P.3. Frances Pinter (Publisher). 1984. London.

[38] John L.Esposito, “Islam, The Straight Path”. New York, Oxford. Oxford University Press. 1988. P.63.

[39] Robert D.Driscoll(Canada), And Margarital Ivanoff-Dubrosky(Eurasia), “The New World Order and the Throne of the Anti Christ”, The Armageddon Series Part 3, December 1993.ed.,P.156.

[40] Gai Eaton, “Islam and the Destiny of Man” P.150. George Allen and UnWin / The Islamic Text Society 1985. London.

[41] Pippa Noris, Montague Kern, Morin Just, “Framing Terrorism: The News Media, The Government and the Public”(ed). New York, London. Routledge. 2003. P.223.

[42] Raymond William Baker, “Islam without Fear, Egypt and the New Islamists”. Karachi. Royal Book Company. 2004. P.255.

[43] Bassam Tibi, “Islam Between Culture and Politics”. New York. Palgrave macmillan in association with the weather head centre for international affairs, Harvard University.sec.ed. 2005. P.255.

[44] Mrs. Altaf Aziz Al-Samad, “A Comparative Study of Christianity and Islam”. Lahore. Ashraf Press. 1976. P.127.

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The Clash of Civilizations and the Muslim World
The Islamia University of Bahawalpur  (Department of Political Science)
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eastern civilization, western world, islam, muslim world, westernization, fundamentalism, Armageddon, Clash of Civilizations
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Phd Ghulam Zikria (Author), 2009, The Clash of Civilizations and the Muslim World, Munich, GRIN Verlag,


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