Awareness and Attitude on Gender Equality Among Men of Bharatpur


Master's Thesis, 2017
83 Pages, Grade: 1

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE

ABSTRACT

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF TABLES

LIST OF FIGURE

CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
1.2 Need for the Study
1.3 Objective of the Study
1.4 Significance of the Study
1.5 Conceptual Framework
1.6 Research Question
1.7 Variables
1.8 Operational Definitions

CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF LITERATURE
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Review of Literature
2.3 Summary of Reviewed Literature

CHAPTER III: METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Research Setting and Population
3.3 Sampling Procedure
3.4 Research Instrumentation
3.5 Data Collection Procedure
3.6 Data Analysis Procedure

CHAPTER IV: FINDINGS OF THE STUDY

CHAPTER V: DISCUSSION, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Discussion
5.2 Conclusion
5.3 Limitations
5.4 Implications
5.5 Recommendations

REFERENCES

APPENDICES
APPENDIX A: Consent Form (English Version)
APPENDIX B: Consent Form (Nepali Version)
APEENDIX C: Research Instrument (`English Version)

LIST OF TABLES

1 Demographic Characteristics of the Respondents: Age, Religion, Ethnicity

2 Demographic Characteristics of the Respondents: Education Status, Educational Level, Family type, Occupation

3 Demographic Characteristics of the Respondents: Marital Status, Duration of Marriage, Number of Children

4 Awareness of Respondents on Meaning of Gender Equality and Reason of Gender Inequality

5 Awareness of Respondents on Ways of Maintaining Gender Equality, Law and Legislation Promoting Women’s Right and Gender Equality and Roles of Man at Home

6 Awareness of Respondents on Roles of Women at Home, Women’s reproductive Rights and Person Involved in Decision of Contraceptive Method

7 Awareness of Respondents on Person Responsible for Decision Making and Affecting Factors of Birth Spacing and Women’s Sexual Rights

8 Awareness of Respondents on Meaning of Gender Based Violence, Reason behind Violence against Women and Meaning of Masculinity

9 Awareness of Respondents on Reasons behind Son Preference, Benefits of Equitable Access to Quality Education and Person Deciding Household Purchase

10 Awareness of Respondents on Consequence of Woman working outside the Home, Person involved in deciding Woman’s Health Access and Benefits of Women’s Autonomy

11 Awareness of Respondents on Source of Information and Reason behind Need for Awareness on Gender Equality

12 Attitude of Respondents on Gender Role; Family Planning, Sexual Relationship and Reproductive Health

13 Attitude of Respondents on Violence; Masculinity and value of Son and Daughter and Woman’s Autonomy

14 Domains of Attitude

15 Awareness and Attitude Level of Respondents on Gender Equality

16 Association of Selected Demographic Characteristics with Level of Awareness on Gender Equality

17 Association of Selected Demographic Characteristics with Level of Attitude on Gender Equality

18 Relationship of Domains of Attitude and Overall Attitude with Overall Awareness

LIST OF FIGURE

1 Conceptual Framework Based on Ecological Model

ABSTRACT

Gender equality is a global issue, which has increased concern of national and international organization. The world increasingly affirms that men must be a part of achieving gender equality. Indeed, changing men’s practices and factors that encourage and shape those practices in terms of violence, health and participation in family life, are key part of the global gender equality agenda. This study aimed to assess awareness and attitude on gender equality among men. A descriptive cross- sectional design was carried out among 296 men. Non-probability purposive sampling technique was adopted to select men in selected wards of Bharatpur Sub- Metropolitan City. Data was collected by researcher herself using face-to-face interview technique on the basis of structured interview schedule. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. The association between two variables was measured by Chi- Square considering p= <.05 as significant. Odds ratio (OR) was calculated at 95% confidence intervals to measure the strength of association between two variables.

Findings of the study showed that 72.3% of respondents belonged to age group of 20-39 years and 57.8% of them were married. The study revealed that 73% had moderate, 14.5% had inadequate and 12.5% had adequate awareness on gender equality. Similarly, 61.2% held high, 34.1% held moderate and 4.7% held low gender equitable attitude. There was statistically significant association between level of awareness and respondent’s age (p=.035). Likewise, there was significant association between level of attitude with respondent’s age (p =.002), educational level (p =.001), marital status (p=.002) and occupation (p=.035) statistically at 5% level of significance.

The study concludes that most of the men had moderate awareness and more than half of the men held high gender equitable attitude. However, there is need of conducting awareness raising program, which encourages men and boys to involve themselves in promoting gender equality so that more gender equitable society can be established.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I feel it a great privilege to express my deep sense of gratitude to all who directly and indirectly have given valuable guidance and timely suggestion throughout this thesis work. Firstly, I would like to acknowledge Lalitpur Nursing Campus (LNC) for providing an opportunity to carry the research study as a partial fulfillment of the requirement of Master Degree of Nursing Program in Women Health and Development. I am thankful to Institutional Review Board, IOM for providing ethical approval of research proposal.

I would like to express my deep sense of gratitude to my research supervisor Associate Prof. Shanti Awale, for her continuous advice, valuable guidance and constructive feedback at every stage of this study. I owe my sincere gratitude to Prof. Sarala K.C., Campus Chief; Prof. Ambika Poudel, Asst. Campus Chief; Associate Prof. Priscilla Samson, Chairperson of Research Committee; MN faculty members’ for their guidance and constructive feedback throughout the study. I am thankful to library staffs of LNC for their immense support and co-operation during the study.

I respectfully thank to Asst. Prof. Sushila Bhandari, Nepalese Army institute of Health Science; Prof. Dr. Gyanu Chhetri, Patan Multiple Campus; Lecturer Dr. Sarmila Shrestha, National Academy of Medical Science for their help in establishing content validity of the instrument. I am very thankful to Mr. Prakash K.C. for English editing and Mr. Khadga Prasad Dhakal for Nepali translation of instrument. I would like to express my sincere thanks to Mr. Bibhav Adhikari for his statistical guidance throughout the study. I would like to extend my hearty appreciativeness to the Executive and Administrative officer of Bharatpur Sub- Metropolitan City for giving permission for data collection. I am truly indebted to all the respondents for their participation and co-operation without whom the study could never been possible. My heartfelt praise goes to my colleagues for their constant support and encouragement for the success of this study. At last but not the least, I would like to express my sincere gratitude and graceful thanks to my husband Dr. Ganesh devkota and my whole family who directly and indirectly helped to carry out this study.

Pratikshya Tripathi

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background

Gender equality refers to equal chances or opportunities for groups of women and men to access and control social, economic and political resources, including protection under the law (such as health services, education, voting rights and autonomy). It is also known as equality of opportunity or formal equality (World Health organization [WHO], 2016).

Historically, gender inequalities have disadvantaged females, and while that remains the case in many domains, gender norms and policies also negatively affect boys and men in specific regions and sectors (United Nation Development Program [UNDP], 2007) . No any society can develop sustainably without increasing and transforming the distribution of equal opportunities, resources, and choices for males and females so that they have equal power to shape their own lives and contribute to their communities. Increasing girls’ and women’s’ education and access to resources improves the health and education of the next generation (United States Agency for International Development [USAID], 201).

The role of gender equality is when women and men have equal participation in decision-making and control of resources, and equal value and treatment. It has also been shown to influence a number of maternal and child health outcomes positively (Mishra et al., 2014).

After millennium development goal, the 193 member states of the United Nations unanimously adopted the Sustainable Development Goals with focus on gender equality and contributing in a variety of ways to achieving it (United Nation Population Fund [UNFPA], 2014).

Men play a key role in most societies. They still remain an authority in decision making at all levels as being son, brother and husband. Attention to men’s involvement in reproductive health received an impetus following the “Program of action” forged at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo. It was understood that special efforts should be made to emphasize shared responsibility of men and their active involvement in responsible parenthood, sexual and reproductive behavior, including family planning; prenatal, maternal and child health (Narang & Singhal, 2013).

The world increasingly affirms that men must be part of achieving gender equality. Indeed, changing men’s practices and the structures and factors that enable, encourage and shape those practices in terms of violence, health, overall treatment of women and girls and participation in family life is a key part of the global gender equality agenda (Barker et al., 2011).

According to Henry, R. (2016), most of British men (86%) support equality of opportunity for women whereas 7% said they don’t know whether they want equality of opportunity. Almost half of Britons (47%) think they would be benefit if society was more equal but conversely almost half (47%) think a more equal society would not impact their lives. The finding also revealed that 2/3rd Britons think more need to be done to achieve gender equality and 12% think equality has gone too far. The study also showed that 78% of respondents were aware of equality between men and women and wants gender equality.

South Asia as a region has been slow in experiencing demographic change and is also known for the sharp inequalities in the autonomy and power of men and women (Sather & Kaji, 2006)

A study was conducted on Men's views on gender and sexuality in Bangladesh. The study explores married men's typical views on gender, family, and sexuality. The study revealed that married men's views about gender and sexuality are heavily influenced by patriarchal norms. Men think that a wife is the property of her husband and wife should obey her husband by giving sex to her husband whenever he wants.

Men also think that if women fail to obey their husbands or please them sexually, men are allowed to beat their wives. Interviews explored that the violation of women's sexual rights might be closely related to men's gendered views about women's rights (Islam & Karim, 2011).

Nanda et al., (2014) conducted a study on Masculinity, Intimate Partner Violence and Son Preference in six cities of India. The result noted that, 42% of men and same as men 42% women held positive and equitable attitude towards gender equality. The study revealed that 66% of men had perpetrated some form of violence. At aggregate level 72% of rigidly masculine men had high son preferences. The finding also showed that 36.8 % of men expressed excessive control over their wife.

Gender equality is a key component of human development, but Nepal still has gender gap in overall sector. In terms of education, female literacy rate is still lower (57.4%) than male’s literacy rate (75.1%). Higher the level of education, lower the participation by females. Self- employment or unpaid family labor is very high for women (64% of female in total), which indicates that women have very less chance to get paid jobs. Thus, it is challenging to gain economic empowerment for Nepalese women (Central Bureau of Statistics [CBS], 2014). In gender inequality index Nepal rank 98 among 187 countries (United Nations Development Program [UNDP], 2013). According to Nepal Demographic Health Survey (NDHS), still many women are facing violence in their daily life and the most commonly reported perpetrator of physical violence among married women is their husband (84%) (Ministry of Health and Population [MOHP], 2012).

1.2 Need for the Study

Despite the work of Governments, the United Nations and other international and regional organizations, as well as the many years of struggle by women’s movements for equal rights; inequalities between women and men persist around the world. For millions of women and girls, education and employment opportunities are restricted, leading to inequalities in income and access to decision- making around the world (United Nation [UN], 2008).

Though having social momentum for change, resistance to gender equality persists among significant groups of men. There are multiple reasons for this resistance. Some men want to defend their privileges and power because they fear the loss of authority and economic benefits that they perceive gender equality would involve. Some men may resist gender equality because of a belief in inherent male supremacy (Kohei 2011).

The slow progress in achieving equality between women and men is the failure to adequately raise awareness of and involve men at all levels. Gender equality cannot be achieved by women alone or by focusing exclusively on women. It is important to increase awareness that gender equality is a societal issue, which concerns and should engage both men and women. There is a need to develop a greater understanding of the importance of gender equality for men and boys and of the important roles that men and boys can play in promoting equality (UN, 2007).

A study conducted on understanding men’s awareness, practices and attitude related to gender equality in Congo showed that both men and women adhere to unequal gender norms and men expressed doubt about gender equality. The findings showed that many men are resistant to women’s education and their participation in labor force and more than 50% of men feel that when women work outside the home they neglect their duties at home. Most men showed resistance to gender equality and do not support women’s right and 1/3rd of men said that gender equality and right of women unfairly exclude men (International Men’s Attitude on Gender Equality Survey [IMAGES], 2012).

The study conducted in South Asia showed that most of men in Nepal (84%) and 75.7% in India reflected more positive attitude towards education of girl and gender equality. Similarly, 93.4% of respondents in Nepal had positive attitude towards gender and marriage. Majority of respondents in India and Nepal showed positive attitude towards married women’s sexuality and sexual right. Forty- eight percent in India, 39.5% in Bangladesh, 29.7% men in Nepal and 20.7% in Pakistan believed that wife deserve to be beaten if she disrespects husband. The study further revealed that men in India and Pakistan support inequitable gender norms whereas men in Bangladesh and Nepal support moderate and high equity (International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF], 2013).

A household survey conducted on men’s attitude towards gender, masculinity and son preference in Nepal showed that 70% men showed strong masculinity attitude. The study revealed that only 14% showed highly equitable gender attitude while 71% had moderately equitable attitude towards gender equality. Further, 82% men showed high son preference, 62% were aware of abortion law and 69% had knowledge of law on violence against women. The study also found that violence against intimate partner is common in Nepal as 70% of men reported of committing some form of violence against their intimate partners. The study concluded that men were in favor of conservative gender role (Nanda et al., 2012).

Irrespective of heightened awareness, policies, programs and plans of action supporting the advancement of gender equality and social inclusion; discriminatory social norms and harmful practices continue in many parts of Nepal. As many civil society organizations have noted, gender equality is often limited to laws and policy and is not yet fully translated into the lived realities of women (UNFPA, 2013).

As men are the key decision maker and holder of economic and public resources, they have a responsibility to systematically identify and address gender inequalities and discrimination. Men also play a key role in bringing about gender equality since, in most societies; men exercise preponderant power in many spheres of life. So, it is important to understand the role of the men and boys in achieving gender equality in home, communities and the workplace. They should be aware of and hold positive attitude on gender related norms. However there are limited published research on men’s awareness and attitude regarding gender equality. There are not many published research found to identify awareness and attitude on gender equality among men in Bharatpur. Hence, researcher is interested to carry out a study to find out men’s views, feelings and awareness in every aspect of gender equality, which is needed for overall health and development of both men and women.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

General Objective

The general objective of the study was to find out the awareness and attitude on gender equality among men of Bharatpur Sub- Metropolitan City

Specific Objectives

The specific objectives of the study were:

1. To assess the level of awareness on gender equality among men
2. To explore the level of attitude on gender equality among men
3. To examine the association of selected demographic variables with level of awareness on gender equality
4. To measure the association of selected demographic variables with level of attitude on gender equality
5. To compute relationship between domains of attitude and overall attitude with overall awareness

1.4 Significance of the Study

The findings might help to bring consciousness among curriculum maker to integrate curriculum that is more gender transformative which will address various gender issues at an early age in school. It might also provide information to concerned authority of Bharatpur Sub- Metropolitan City about level of awareness and belief of community men regarding gender equality so that they can conduct awareness campaign in promoting involvement of men in achieving gender equality. The findings might be helpful to nurses, community as well as public health nurses and other health care providers in understanding equality in consuming health services and providing gender sensitive health care. The findings and limitations of this study will be useful for the better results in further studies in similar field.

1.5 Conceptual Framework

The conceptual framework is developed to gain deeper insight of the study being conducted. The conceptual framework in this study was formed by researcher after reviewing related literature and modifying Ecological Model (Co-operative for Assistance and relief Everywhere [CARE], 2012; WHO, 2012) . Ecological Model provides conceptual work for a more comprehensive approach to working with men and gender. The ecological model underlines the different levels of action that are required to make changes in sexual and reproductive health, gender equality and violence. According to ecological Model, there are links between different levels and there are multiple characteristics, which increase the risk of gender inequalities and violence. According to model, the links are individual, relationship, organizational practices, community and social characteristics.

Individual Characteristics: It includes personal characteristics, biological characteristics, behavior personal experience of gender equality or inequality at home that either increase individual knowledge or skills on gender equality, promote personal transformation regarding attitudes, beliefs about gender equality or may support gender inequality. In this study, age, educational level and occupation of men are individual characteristics that influence the awareness and attitude on gender equality.

Social Characteristics: It includes socio- economic inequalities between people, social and cultural norms that influence male dominance over women and those that either creates level of equality or inequality. In this study, religion, ethnicity, type of family, and marital status are social characteristics which either influence to support gender equality or support inequality.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure 1: Conceptual Framework Showing Awareness and Attitude on Gender Equality Based on Ecological Model (CARE, 2012; WHO, 2012).

1.6 Research Question

What is the awareness and attitude on gender equality among men of Bharatpur Sub- Metropolitan City?

1.7 Variables

Independent Variables

Age, educational level, occupation, ethnicity, religion, type of family, marital status

Dependent Variable

Awareness and attitude on gender equality

1.8 Operational Definitions

Awareness: It is an understanding and information that the men have regarding different aspects of gender equality that is gender role; family planning, sexual relationship and women’s reproductive health; violence; masculinity and value of son and daughter; and woman’s autonomy household purchase, mobility and health seeking decision making. It was measured by using structured questionnaire through interview schedule. The score of awareness related questionnaire was categorized as follows:

Inadequate level of awareness: Score less than 35 (<50 percent)

Moderate level of awareness: Score between 35-53 (50-75 percent)

Adequate level of awareness: Score more than 53 (>75 percent)

(Manjula, Sreelatha & Sudharani, 2016)

Attitude: It is feeling or opinion that men hold regarding different domains of gender equality that is gender role; family planning, sexual relationship and women’s reproductive health/rights; violence; masculinity and value of son and daughter; and woman’s autonomy in household purchase, mobility and health seeking decision making. It was measure by using Gender Equitable Men (GEM) Scale consisting of 18 statements. The score of attitude related questionnaire was categorized as follows:

Low Equity- Score between 18- 39

Moderate Equity: Score between 40- 52

High Equity: Score between 53- 72

(Nanda et al., 2012)

Men: Men are those “residing in Bharatpur Sub-Metropolitan City” between age group of 20-59 years.

Gender Equality: Refers to women and men enjoying the equality of right, opportunity, responsibilities in family sphere and society, equal economic independence of men and women, equality in quality education and decision making process and autonomy.

Gender Equity: Refers to fairness and justice in the distribution of benefits and responsibilities between women and men.

Selected Demographic Variables: Refers to variables like age, religion, educational level, type of family, marital status and occupation.

CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Introduction

This chapter includes revision of literature that abstracted through the articles by extensive and critical examination, which provides theoretical support to the research study and research methodology. The literature reviewed carried on non-electronic i.e. books, journals and electronic documents. Related literature was reviewed thoroughly to gain in depth knowledge for the study. Reviewed literature was presented in logical and chronological manner in sub-heading of gender equality like: awareness and attitude on gender roles, awareness and attitude on family planning, sexual relationship, and reproductive health/rights, awareness and attitude on violence, awareness and attitude on masculinity and value of son and daughter, awareness and attitude on women’s autonomy in household decision-making, mobility and health seeking decision-making, attitude on gender equality and association of attitude on gender equality with different demographic characteristics. Summary of literature review involved the gap identified from the related literature.

2.2 Review of Literature

Meaning of Gender Equality

Gender equality refers to equal treatment of women and men in laws and policies, and equal access to resources and services within families, communities and society at large (WHO, 2016).

Awareness and Attitude on Gender Roles

A forum on youth and gender-based violence on International Women’s Day was held in China. The researchers interviewed more than 2,000 men and women. Almost all of the respondents agreed with general statements on gender equality. The research data showed that among 73% men surveyed believed that men should be tough, 52% would use violence to defend their honor; and 72% think that men should have decision power over major issues within the family (Hệ, Bach, Dung & Dồ, 2012 ).

A survey was conducted on Gender relations, sexual and gender based violence and the effects of conflict on women and men in Congo. The study carried out among 708 men and 754 women between the ages of 18-59 years in four different regions of Congo. The study findings showed that about three-fourth (74.2%) of men and 86.2% of women believed that a women’s most important role is to take care of her home and cook. Seventy-nine percent men agreed that changing diapers, giving kid a bath and feeding kids are the mother’s responsibility as well as three-fourth (75.1%) of men agreed that a men should have the final word about decision in his home while most of the women (86.7%) agreed the same. Similarly, more than half (51.0%) reported that domestic household duties should be shared equally. The study findings also concluded that both men and women were strongly adhere to unequal gender norms and there is high need of awareness and the promotion of positive and non-violent male gender norms; working with men as clients of services in their own right, and as supportive partners of the health and wellbeing of women and their families; and engaging men as advocates for preventing violence and promoting gender equality (Slegh, Barker & Levtov, 2014).

The household survey was conducted on Men, Gender Equality and Gender Relations in Mali. Samples of 1000 men were participated in interview- administered questionnaires. The study revealed that 86% of men surveyed believed that gender equality is an imported concept. In addition, 54.5% believed that gender equality has already been achieved in most of the country. The survey also found that 76.7% of men believed that men and women should jointly share in decisions about family planning. Similarly, 58.7% men agreed that husband should have final say regarding the life of women and 59.9% of them mentioned that husband should have final say regarding the life of children at home. Likewise, only 16.5% of men reported of being involved in daily care of children. The study also concluded that there is vast majority of men continue to be resistant to women’s work outside the home and extremely limited participation by men in domestic chores and care of children and still there is wide support for inequitable gender norms (Slegh, Barker, Toliver, Bah, & Keita, 2013).

A study was conducted on “Gender Studies Components in Teacher Training: An Essential Requirement for Teacher Empowerment and Gender Justice in the 21st Century”. The study on 632 teacher trainees from 20 colleges of teacher education in the state of Kerala was done which revealed significant difference in the gender role perception between boys and girls with girls having highly progressive and boys having traditional perceptions regarding gender roles. The study also revealed that majority of women students agreed with the need for equal property rights of women with men while men students do not agree with it. Similarly in every aspect of social life such as economic participation, political leadership, professional education etc., women students seem to be ready for a takeoff to the heights while men students maintain traditional conservative mindsets regarding women’s roles in the society (Kuruvilla, 2013).

A secondary data analysis was done by processing data from the World Value Survey 2008 and the Caucasus Barometer 2010 (CB 2010) to assess gender attitude and perception in young people in Georgia. The analysis revealed that most of the men (71%) valued son more and only 10% of men think daughters are valuable. The study further showed, 75% of men believed that men should be decision maker at home while 25% mentioned that decision making should share equally between partners. Only 20% of men favored an equal distribution of power at home. The study also concluded that young people reported high levels of traditional gender role attitude, supporting belief in gender stereotypes regarding value of son and daughter, family gender role and women’s private lives (Elene, Nina, Maia & Mariam, 2013).

A household survey was conducted on gender, masculinity and son preference in Vietnam. Total men surveyed were 1425. The study revealed that most of men (81%) felt that men should have final say in all family matters, 78% believed that a woman’s most important role is to take care of home and cook food for her family. The study findings also showed that more than one- fourth (29.8%) men agreed that a woman’s most important role is to produce son for her husband’s family and 61.7% believed that once a woman gets married, she belongs to her husband’s family. The study further showed that about three- fourth (73%) men were aware on abortion law, 37% of men were aware of law protecting daughter’s inheritance rights and 62% of men were aware on law on violence against women. The study also concluded that men were in favor of conservative gender roles and larger scale efforts are required to achieve higher gender equality (Nanda et al., 2012).

Awareness and Attitude on Violence

A household survey was carried out in south Asian countries (India, Bangladesh, Nepal and Pakistan). Study included 1475 married men aged 15-54 years with mean age 38.4 years- 40.7 years. The study showed that men across board are most likely to justify wife beating if she disrespects him (India 46.7%, Bangladesh 39.5% and Pakistan 20.7%) excepting Nepal where wife beating is most likely to be justified if wife is ‘unfaithful’ (29.7%). Similarly, Men are least likely to justify wife beating if she refuses to have sex with him (77.3%in India), or she does not cook food properly (97.7% in Pakistan, 97% in Bangladesh and 92.5% in Nepal) or speaks to another man (93% in Nepal). The study further revealed that 44.6% of men in India, 29.1% in Nepal, 23.6% in Bangladesh and 22.9% in Pakistan agreed that a woman should tolerate violence in order to keep her family together. The study further revealed that, 64% men in India, 63.4% in Nepal, 43.3% in Bangladesh and 37.4% in Pakistan agreed that there are times when a woman deserves to be beaten (IPPF, 2013).

The multi country study was conducted in Bangladesh, India and Nepal aimed to address the gaps in knowledge about male adolescents and their attitudes towards wife beating. The study was conducted with 275 boys in Bangladesh, 13,078 boys in India, and 939 boys in Nepal. The study revealed that 42% respondents in Bangladesh had justified wife beating while in India, 51% had supported wife beating and 28% respondents in Nepal had supported wife abuse. The study concluded that individual-level factors, such as rural residency, low educational attainment, low economic status, and having a history of family violence, were positively associated with the justification of wife abuse. The study concluded that policy makers can specifically target young groups of the population for various interventions for reducing violence against women and to promote gender equality (Dalal, Lee & Gifford, 2012).

A cross- sectional study on Gender based violence was conducted in selected rural districts of Nepal. Fifty- three national and local stakeholders were involved in the study. Stakeholder knowledge of, and attitudes towards violence against women (VAW) and gender-based violence (GBV) were assessed. The study findings revealed that most of the stakeholders were aware of the issues of violence against women. 50 of the 53 district-level respondents were aware that there are national laws to combat GBV and 37 out of 53 knew Domestic Violence Crime and Punishment Act. Almost all of the stakeholder identified the drivers of violence as: patriarchal values, social and cultural norms (including use of alcohol), women’s lack of education and employment opportunities, and low levels of awareness of legal rights. The study further revealed that 59% of men believed that wife should not be involved in household decision making, 71% reported need of taking permission to visit friends or relatives and 53% reported that women should take permission to go to health care center or hospital (Government of Nepal (GoN) & Center for Research on Environment Health and population [CREHPA], 2012).

A nation-wide study was conducted on masculinity and gender based violence in Rwanda where 2301 men were surveyed in the study. The study revealed that 43.7% of men believed that a woman should tolerate violence in order to keep her family together and about one-third (32%) of men agreed that a wife who earns more than her husband provokes violent. Similarly, more than half (59.4%) of men believed that violence against women is needed to control a wife and women sometimes deserve to be beaten. Most of the men (85%) were aware on gender policy that addresses promotion of gender equality through the property law and law against gender based violence. Ninety-five percent of men believed that this law as too harsh for men (Slegh & Kimonya, 2010).

Awareness and Attitude on Family Planning, Sexual Relationship and Reproductive Health/Right

A systematic literature review was done in sub- Saharan Africa on male involvement in family planning decision-making revealed that most of the men (75%) were aware on benefits of family planning methods. The study showed that more than half (56 %) of men, in Ethiopia reported no discussion with their wives on related issues of family planning. However, 44 % answered that discussion on these issues should be always initiated in the family. Similarly, 78 % of them reported that decision should be generally taken jointly with wife, while 21% considered that all decision related to family planning should be taken by wives alone and another 12 % answered that elder family members and relatives, external power should decide on contraceptive methods to be used. The study further revealed that 44% of men reported that men should determine family size and 29% agreed that men should make the decision about when to adopt family planning and 34% of men answered that men should decide what to do about an unwanted pregnancy. The study concluded that health education campaigns to improve men’s awareness, attitude and belief are needed so their involvement in family planning can be increased (Vouking, Evina & Tadenfok, 2014).

The household survey was carried out in south Asian countries (India, Bangladesh, Nepal and Pakistan) on Gender, masculinities and sexual health. The study showed that, in India, most of the men (91.9%), 89.3% in Nepal, 80% in Pakistan and 79% in Bangladesh justify wife’s refusal to have sex if husband has sexually-transmitted infections. Eighty-two percent men in India, 87.2% in Nepal, 77.9% in Pakistan and 61.4% in Bangladesh justify that women can refuse to have sexual relationship if husband has extramarital sex. The study further revealed that, 95.6% in Bangladesh, 92.8% in Nepal, 89.8% in India and 82.2% in Pakistan believed that if wife is tired/experience discomfort and pain then wife can refuse to have sex (IPPF, 2013).

An institution-based cross- sectional study was conducted on knowledge of reproductive and sexual rights among university students in Ethiopia. A study was conducted among 642 regular undergraduate Wolita Sodo University students selected by simple random sampling technique. The study showed that more than half (54.5%) of the respondents were found to be knowledgeable on sexual and reproductive rights of women. Most of the respondents (63.7%) mentioned that married women don’t have right to limit the number of her children according to her desire and without her husband’s consent. Twenty five percent of the study participants said that a husband should get sex whenever he wants irrespective of his wife’s wish. The study further revealed that around half of the respondents (53.7%) disagreed with the question that reflected the right of girls to autonomous reproductive choices without their partners` consent. The study also showed that most of the respondents (64.0%) were aware on right to safe abortion and 36.3% were aware on right to birth control. The study concluded that the level of knowledge of university students about reproductive and sexual rights was found to be low. The Ministry of Education has to incorporate reproductive and sexual rights in the curricula of high schools and institutions of higher learning (Adinew, Worku & Mengesha, 2013).

A study was done on gender equality and childbirth in health facility in Nigeria. Data for analysis was came from the 2008 Nigeria Demographic Health Survey. The study showed that, 45% of respondents were aware that a wife always has the right to refuse sex if husband has sexual transmitted infection and if husband has sex relation with other woman (Singh, Bloom, Haney, Olorunsaiye & Brodish, 2012).

A study was conducted to assess men’s awareness, attitude, and practice of modern contraceptive methods, determined the level of spousal communication, and investigated the correlation of men’s opinion in family planning decision making in, Nigeria. The study revealed that 89% of men approved of the use of family planning. The study findings also showed that 49% of men reported discussing family planning at least once or twice with spouse and 35% of men reported never discussing family planning issues with their spouses in the year preceding the survey. The study concluded that male involvement in family planning decision-making was poor and their awareness and support of family planning services was low (Ijadunola, Abiona, Afolabi, Esimai & OlaOlorun, 2010).

In the study of Adugnaw et al., (2011) conducted among 738 married males in Ethiopia showed that all of the respondents had heard of family planning, three-fourth (75.6%) of men had knowledge about the importance of using contraceptives for birth spacing and 61.9% had knowledge about using contraceptives to limit birth. The study also showed that 60.3% of participants had ever discussed family planning with their wives and 33.0% of the respondents reported that they were the sole decision makers in their families.

Awareness and Attitude on Masculinity and Value of Son and Daughter

A household survey was conducted on men and gender equality in Nigeria. The study findings revealed that most of the men (69%) agreed that to be a man, they need to be tough and 61% men believed that men should be embarrassed if they are unable to get an erection during sex. Similarly, more than one-third (34%) men agreed that a real man produces a male child and more than half (59%) believed that a man who does not have an income is of no value. The study further showed that two-third men (66%) believed that husband and wife jointly decide on number of children and 64% men believed that contraception use should be decided by wife and husband jointly (Nigeria Men and Gender Equality Survey [NiMAGES], 2015).

A mixed method study was conducted on Gender-based sexual role in Iran. The study findings showed that most of the respondents (78.9%) believed that the spouses should mutually play all the sexual role in their marital life whereas, 71.43% of men surveyed believed on superiority or monopoly of masculine role (Eftekhar et al., 2014).

A study was conducted on Gender attitudes and perceptions among young people in Georgia. The study finding revealed that majority of men (71%) reported that at least one son is needed at home while 50% of women surveyed felt that the gender of their child was unimportant. The study also showed that 75% of respondents favored having male decision makers and 25% believed that decision-making should be shared equally between partners (Japaridze, Zhghenti, Barkaia & Amashukeli, 2013).

The household survey conducted to explore men’s attitude towards gender, masculinity and son preference on 1425 men in Vietnam. The study revealed that 69.0% of men believed that sons are important to carry on the family lineage and about half (49.0%) believed that son are needed for old age support. Similarly, two-fifth of Vietnamese men agreed with the view that fathering a son was an indicator of their masculinity and 90% of men believed that to be a man, they need to be tough. The study findings also showed that 40.8% of men agreed that only a son can provide ancestor worship and 29.3% mentioned that it would be shameful to have a homosexual son. Similarly, 10.7% men agreed that having a daughter is a financial burden and 2.2% men believed that a couple have a good reason to abort a pregnancy if they learn it is a girl child. The study further revealed that 69.7% of men had moderate son preference attitude and son preference attitude was significantly associated with age of the respondents (p= <.05), level of education (p = <.01), ethnicity (p= <.01) and occupation (p= <.05) (Nanda et al., 2012).

A study conducted on Men and gender equality in Moldova with 1515 men revealed that, 84.3% of respondents agreed that there is need for men to stay strong and 82.9% of men agreed they should use force when men are humiliated. The study further revealed that tolerance towards homosexuality is low in the Moldovan society. Only 11.6% of men agreed to accept to have friendship with a homosexual person. The study concluded that men in Moldova showed high masculine attitude (Andrei, Perevoznic, Pirgari & Grosu, 2015).

Awareness and Attitude on Women’s Autonomy in Household Decision-Making, Mobility and Health Seeking Decision-Making

A systematic literature review was done of 17 full texts on Women’s autonomy in health care decision- making in developing country. Most of the studies were conducted in South Asia, Africa and Central Asia. Review showed that among Nepalese women, a low level of women’s autonomy was found to be a contributory factor to poor maternal health service utilization. A study showed that, 13.4% of women in Nepal, 17.6% in Bangladesh, and 28.1% in India made decisions alone regarding care for their own health, including 11.5% of current users of contraceptives who reported that they alone made decisions to use contraception. The study findings among Bangladeshi women revealed that one- third (37.3%) were not involved in decision-making about their own health care and among women in rural India, more than half (56.6%) were not involved in decision- making about their own health care. The study in Ethiopia showed that about half of the women had the autonomy to take their child to a health facility, while 43.9% of women were free to go to a health facility for their own health care service needs and 38.1% of them were autonomous to use the money for health services utilizations without consulting others (Osamor & Grady, 2016).

A cross- sectional study was carried out on influence of a husband’s health care decision-making role on a women’s intention to use contraceptives among Mozambican women. In this study 13,718 women of reproductive age were included. The mean and median ages of the study sample were 30.4 (95% CI: 30.1 – 30.7) and 29.0 (95% CI: 28.6 – 29.5) years. The study showed that overall, 71.6% of the women in the study reported that they jointly made the decision about their healthcare while 28.4% reported that the husband made the healthcare decision alone. The women who reported that their husband made the healthcare decision were slightly younger in age than those making the decision jointly (29.62 vs. 30.64 years; p=.001.). In addition, a woman’s education level (p =.001), employment status (p =.003), religion (p =.001), region of residence (p = .001), knowledge of modern methods of contraception (p = .003), living arrangement with the husband (p =.001), husband’s education (p =.001), and husband’s desire for children (p =.001) were all significantly associated with who made the healthcare decision for the respondent (Mboane & Bhatta, 2015).

A study was conducted on men’s attitude on gender equality and their contraceptive use in Uttar Pardesh, India. Data were collected from a representative sample of 6,431 currently married men in four cities of the state in three gender measures: men’s attitude towards gender equality, gender sensitive decision making and restrictions on wife’s mobility. The study findings revealed that about half of the men (48%) showed high levels of gender sensitive decision-making and they make the decisions either jointly or their wife makes the decisions alone. Similarly, half of the men (50.3%) have low levels of restrictions on their wife’s mobility. Across all cities, while a majority of men (59%) reported to have moderate gender equal attitude, a little more than one-third of men (35%) had high gender equal attitudes. The study also concluded that there is need of engaging men and address gender equitable attitude which may have an influence beyond contraceptive use in context where men play crucial role in household decision- making (Mishra et al., 2014).

A descriptive cross- sectional study was conducted on Gender study on knowledge and decision-making on maternal health care in Nepal. A total of 959 women and 755 men were interviewed. The study showed that women were found to be limited more to household activities and they were found having to follow their husband’s or in- law’s decision. The study revealed that about three- fourth (74.1%) of men and more than two- fourth (54.5%) women think decision maker at home should be man while only 7.2 % men think decision should be taken jointly. The study further showed that the delay in decision making in accessing health care for ANC, delivery, emergency obstetric care and post natal period was gender-biased and a major factor for higher maternal morbidity and mortality in remote rural areas. The study concluded that appropriate initiative should be taken for women empowerment in order to develop women autonomy for maternal health care (Shrestha, 2012).

A report was drawn from Demographic and Health survey of 30 countries and overall, data paint a picture of extreme gender inequality. The data revealed that in many households, women have little influence over important household decisions. The study showed that among, 10 countries surveyed, 50% of women participate in all household decision, major household purchase and visit with family outside the house. The data showed that in South Asia and Sub- Saharan Africa, 75% women reported that their husband alone make decisions on their access to health care services. The study concluded that, 40% husband believed that they should have exclusive control over household expenditure and in Burkina, Feso and Mali, 60% men believed that husband alone should decide on wife’s mobility outside the home to visit friends and relatives. Similarly, 1/3rd of husbands in Bangladesh control their wife’s mobility and 18% of men in Latin America and Caribbean believed wife need husband’s permission before leaving home to visit relatives (UNICEF, 2006).

Attitude on Gender Equality

The household survey conducted in Congo revealed that about half (49.0%) men and 61.2% women showed moderate gender equal attitude while least 18.3% men and six percent women showed high equitable attitude on gender equality. The study also showed similar percentage of men (32.6%) and women (32.9%) showed low gender equal attitude. The study concluded that still men and women are adhering to gender inequality (Slegh et al., 2014).

A study was conducted to identify Understanding/awareness, attitudes and behavior of Hoa Sen University’s faculty/staff and students toward gender equality in the family, at the workplace/school and in society in Vietnam. The result showed that all the faculty/ staff and students had a certain awareness of gender equality and were able to identify the benefits of gender equality for family and society. The study also revealed that all the participants agreed that Vietnamese women are still disadvantaged in education and employment. The result further showed that the stereotyped roles for men and women, the misunderstanding of true gender equality, and the lack of support for women in leadership are still deeply ingrained by culture and education. The study concluded that an awareness and participation by men would contribute to accelerating the process of gender equality (Ngoc et al., 2013).

The household survey was carried out in south Asian countries (India, Bangladesh, Nepal and Pakistan) on Gender, masculinities and sexual health. Study included 1475 married men aged 15-54 years. The study revealed more than two-third respondents (35.8%) in India, 12.1% in Bangladesh, 26.3% in Pakistan and 6.7% in Nepal support low equity and still men hold low gender equal attitude. Most of the respondents in all countries showed moderate gender equal attitude (IPPF, 2013).

A cross-sectional household survey was carried out in Gender based violence and masculinities in China. The study was carried out in 1103 women and 1017 men aged 18-49 were selected through multi-stage sampling technique. The study findings revealed that half (50.0%) of male respondents agreed that men should defend their honor with violence if necessary, 42% men and 31% women reported that all family decision- making should be equal. Similarly, about half of male and female respondents reported that housework was equally shared between husband and wives, with other reporting that wives solely did the housework. The study further showed that most of the men (78%) and women (73%) had showed medium gender equal attitude and 17% male and 22% female showed high gender equal attitude (Xiangxian, Gang & Hongato, 2013).

A study done on Men and gender equality in Moldova revealed that 76% of men agreed that gender equality was largely achieved and 59.7% believed that activity for achieving gender equality is only beneficial to the person with a higher level of welfare. The study also revealed that only 63.6% of men were aware about the existing laws promoting gender equality (Andrei et al., 2012).

A study done on evolving men in Brazil, Chile, Croatia, India, Mexico and Rwanda revealed that more than half men (58.0%) in Brazil, 70% in Chile, 82% in Croatia, 17% in India, 74% in Mexico and 30% in Rwanda were found of having high gender equal attitude. The study also showed that most of the men in India (59%) and 53% in Rwanda had moderate gender equal attitude. The study concluded that the men generally held patriarchal views and many had been involved in violence and crime. Gender equality in South Africa is still a work in progress, but the evidence suggests that change in men’s attitudes and practices is in many ways predicated upon broader social development, particularly improvements in education (Barker et al., 2011).

Association of Different Demographic Characteristics with Attitude on Gender Equality

A cross-sectional household survey was carried out in Gender based violence and masculinities in China. The study was carried out in 1103 women and 1017 men aged 18-49 were selected through multi-stage sampling technique. The study revealed that there is significant difference among age and education groups for both men and women. The extent of gender equitable attitude decreases when age increases and increased when education level increased. Respondents of age group (35-49 years) showed low support for gender equality (p <.01) and respondents who attended higher level education (above higher secondary) showed high support to gender equality (p <.001). The study concluded that there is need to promote masculinities that value non-violence and gender equality in order to end gender based violence (Xiangxian, Gang & Hongato, 2013).

A study conducted in men and gender relation in Bosnia and Herzegovina revealed that there was significant difference regarding the age with gender relation (F = 5.76; p = .001). The most unequal attitudes have the oldest (aged 50-59) and the youngest (aged 18-24) men polled. More gender-equal attitudes are greater for university- educated men (df=6; p =.001). More gender equitable attitudes are also connected to higher level of marriage satisfaction (r = 0.14; p =.001), and are in negative correlation with the use of alcohol (r = - 0.19; p = .001) and violence against women (r = -0.30; p =.001). The study further showed that there were no significant relations in regard to marital status, size of the place of residence, employment, war experience or religiousness with gender relation (Luka, 2012).

The household survey was conducted on gender, masculinity and son preference in Nepal and Vietnam revealed significant association between age, educational level and economic status with attitude level in gender equality at p- value <.05. Age of the respondents (p =.01), type of family (p <.01), educational level (p <.01) and occupation (p <.01) had statistically significant associated with perpetration of intimate partner violence. The study further revealed that age of the respondents (p <.05), ethnicity (p <.001) and occupation (p <.01) were significantly associated with son preference attitude at 5% level of significance (Nanda et al., 2012).

2.3 Summary of Reviewed Literature

From the literature review it was found that most of the studies were carried out in the community. Men play a key role in bringing about gender equality since, in most societies, men exercise preponderant power in many spheres of life. Most of the studies were found to involve men as study sample. Majority of the study had focused on different factors of gender equality such as: gender role, sexual health, masculinity, son preference and violence against women.

The studies showed most of the men support moderate equity and very few held high gender equitable attitude. Most of the studies showed that still men and boys hold traditional- role attitude, have belief in gender stereotypes regarding preference to son, family gender roles and women’s private lives. Still men and women adhere to gender inequality.

Gender equality is a global issue, which has increased concern of national and international organization, but still due to inadequate awareness, gender inequality persists around whole world. Furthermore, gender equality has become a public concern for all in order to provide gender equitable society, raise status of both men and women, and end gender based violence. In country like Nepal where gender inequality is already a major issue, awareness related facts among men and boys to be ruled out in such areas of factors that leads to gender inequality is a major issue on which more need is seen to be worked out. These issues if timely not focused may lead to chronic effects in the society that could never be overcome in coming days.

There are very limited documented studies in Nepal related to attitude among men regarding gender equality and no any published research found on awareness on men and women regarding gender equality. Therefore, there is great need of further studies for exploration of awareness and attitude the men hold towards gender equality and factors associated with gender equality to identify gap in awareness among men and boys in Nepal.

CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter deals with research methodology which includes steps, procedure, and strategies for gathering and analysis of data used in this study and it is categorized, organized and presented in terms of research design of the study, research setting and population, sampling procedure, research instrumentation, data collection procedures and data analysis procedure.

3.1 Research Design

Descriptive cross-sectional design based on quantitative approach was adopted to simply describe the variables and analyzing few variables at the end with objective to identify the awareness and attitude regarding gender equality among men of Bharatpur Sub- Metropolitan City. Descriptive study is a second broad class of non-experimental studies, which observes, describes and documents aspects of a situation at a particular point in time (Polit & Back, 2008).

3.2 Research Setting and Population

Setting

The study was conducted in Bharatpur Sub-Metropolitan City. It is located in central-southern part of Nepal. Bharatpur is headquarter of the Chitwan District, as well as a separate Municipal authority, and is the fifth largest city of Nepal with the population of 199,867 with total male population 97,192 (CBS, 2012). Government declared it as a Bharatpur Sub- Metropolitan City on December 2, 2014 with the inclusion of various local village development committees and at present it consist 29 wards. Researcher has selected this site as per researcher’s feasibility and as no published research has been found done to assess the awareness and attitude of men regarding gender equality in this location.

Population

The study population consisted of men (20-59 years) residing in Bharatpur sub-metropolitan city.

3.3 Sampling Procedure

Sample Size

The sample size was determined using the formula below,

n = z 2 pq/ d2 (Cochran, 1997)

Where,

n0 = Minimum sample size required for study,

Standard tabulated value for 5% level of significance (Z) = 1.96,

Allowable error that can be tolerated (e) = 0.06,

For each question, what I expect the result will be (p) = 0.5

For each question, what I don’t expect the result will be (q) = 0.5

Total population for the study (n0) = z2pq/e2

= (1.96)2*0.5*0.5/ (0.06)2

=267

Including 10% non-response rate, 267+27= 294, sample size was 294

Sampling Technique

Non- probability purposive sampling technique was adopted. Sample selection was done proportionately from four selected wards (2, 5, 11 & 19) based on household. Sample size was calculated by following method:

Ward no. 2

Sample (n) = Household of ward no. 2×required sample size

Total household of 4 wards

= 4184×294/ 12205= 100.7= 101

Similarly, 41 samples were taken from ward no. 5, 129 samples were taken from ward no. 11, and 25 samples were taken from ward no. 19 purposively. Thus, total 296 samples were taken for the study. From each household one respondent was selected.

Inclusion Criteria

All men aged 20-59 years old who were present at the time of data collection and consented to participate were included in the study.

3.4 Research Instrumentation

Structured interview questionnaire was developed on the basis of extensive review of literature and consultations with experts to identify awareness and attitude regarding gender equality. The research instrument consists of three parts:

Part I of the instrument was constructed by the investigator on the basis of reviewed literature and contained questions on socio demographic characteristics like age, educational status, level of education, religion, ethnicity, type of family, marital status, and duration of marriage, number of children, and occupation.

Part II of the instrument included questions related to awareness regarding different aspect of gender equality that is gender role; family planning, sexual relationship and women’s reproductive health/rights; violence; masculinity and value of son and daughter; and woman’s autonomy.

Part III included questions related to attitude regarding gender equality based on GEM scale. It was adopted and modified on the basis of extensive literature review, consultation with peers, subject experts and research advisor.

Scoring Criteria for Awareness

The 7 questions of Part I, and Q.no-14, Q.no-24, Q.no- 28, and Q.no-29 of Part II were not scored but used for analysis purpose only according to researcher’s interest.

Awareness related questionnaire consisted of 19 questions on Part-II (Section A, B, C, D and E), which were of multiple choices and multiple responses for which each response was scored 1. Thus, the total score of awareness was 70, where, Section-A: Awareness on meaning of gender equality and gender role included Q.no.8 (score-1), Q.no.9 (score-5), Q.no.10 (score-5), Q.no.11 (score-6), Q.no.12 (Score- 5), Q.no.13 (score-6). Section-B: Awareness on family planning, sexual relationship and reproductive right, included Q.no.14.1 (score-4), Q.no.15 (score-1), Q.no.16 (score-

1), Q.no.17 (score-6) and Q.no.18 (score-4). Section-C: Awareness on violence included Q.no.19 (score-1), Q.no.20 (score-6). Section- D: Awareness on masculinity and value of son and daughter included Q.no.21 (score-1), Q.no.22 (score-7) and Q.no. 23 (score-5). Section –E: Awareness on autonomy in household decision making, mobility and health seeking decision making included Q.no.25 (score-1), Q.no.26 (score-1), and Q.no. 27 (score-4) (Refer to Appendix C and D).

Scoring Criteria for Attitude

Men’s attitude towards gender equality were assessed using an adapted version of Gender Equitable Men (GEM) scale developed initially by the Horizons Program and Instituto Promundo in Brazil (Pulerwitz & Barker, 2008) which has been widely adapted to many countries including Nepal. For this study, researcher modified GEM scale on the basis of extensive literature review, consultation with peers, subject experts and research advisor, and 18 statements were used to assess men’s attitude towards gender equality. Responses were collected under categories: strongly agree, agree, disagree and strongly disagree which were scored as strongly agree (1), agree (2), disagree (3), strongly disagree (4). Thus, the total score of attitude was 72 (Refer to Appendix C and D).

Validity

The content validity of the instrument was established by consultation with peers, research advisor, statistician and three external subject matter experts (>80% rating score for content validity). The structured interview questionnaire was developed for assessing awareness and attitude related statements were taken from standard tool after getting permission from authorized person and modified as per need. The instrument was first translated into Nepali and again translated back into English with the help of expert. The instrument was then compared with the original version to ensure consistency in meaning provided by the English and Nepali version.

Reliablity

Pre-testing of the instrument was done among 29 respondents of Sanepa, Lalitpur for maintaining its clarity, sequencing and feasibility during administration. Reliability of the instrument was tested using Cornbach’s Alpha in attitude related statements and Split-Half method in awareness related questions, which gave satisfactory value of 0.81 and 0.76 respectively.

3.5 Data Collection Procedure

Data was collected after getting the approval of research proposal from Research Committee of Lalitpur Nursing Campus. Ethical approval was obtained from Institutional Review Board of Tribhuvan University, Institute of Medicine. Before data collection written permission was taken from administrative officer of Bharatpur Sub- Metropolitan City as well as from each selected ward office.

Door-to-door home visit was conducted for data collection. Prior to data collection, purpose of the study was explained and verbal and written signed consent was obtained from respondents. Data was collected through face-to-face interview technique by using structured interview schedule. For clarity and easiness Nepali version of questionnaire was used (Refer to appendix D).

Privacy was ensured by interviewing respondents in quiet separate places where they were comfortable. Respondents were assured of their participation in this study as voluntary. They were informed of being free to withdraw from the interview at any time during interview process if they felt uncomfortable and were assured for confidentiality. Risk/ Benefit analysis showed no any particular risk and no any personal benefit for the respondents.

Data collection procedure in average took about 25 to 30 minutes to interview each respondent. Data was collected from morning to evening hour and approximately 10-12 respondents were interviewed per day. The study was conducted within the period of 4 weeks, from 2073/08/24 to 2073/09/16.

Confidentiality was maintained by keeping the data source protected by the researcher through proper storage of the filled instruments and through use of code numbers instead of the names in transferring the data from questionnaire to data sheet.

After face- to- face interview session, informal discussion on the subject matter was also done and finally they were thanked for their co-operation.

3.6 Data Analysis Procedure

The collected data was checked for accuracy, completeness and out of range, scored immediately and were organized properly after each day of data collection and before entry. Thereafter collected data were entered into statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20 and were checked, cleaned, edited and recoded for further analysis.

The data was analyzed by using descriptive statistics such as frequency and percentage for categorical variables and mean, median, standard deviation and range for continuous variable. Inferential statistics such as chi-square test, odds ratio and Pearson correlation coefficient was used according to the nature of data. Chi-square test was used to find out the association of demographic characteristics with awareness and attitude level on gender equality. Statistical significance was considered at p =<.05 and p -value of the test has been included in the respective tables (Table 14 and 15). The strength of association between level of awareness and attitude with selected demographic characteristics was measured by odd ratio at 95% confidence level. In addition, Pearson correlation coefficient was used to measure relationship between awareness and attitude regarding gender equality (Table 16).

CHAPTER IV FINDINGS OF THE STUDY

4.1 Data Analysis and Interpretation of Findings

This chapter deals with the analysis and interpretation of data concern with awareness and attitude on gender equality among men of Bharatpur Sub- Metropolitan City. In this study, data were obtained from structured questionnaires and face-to-face interview schedule was used for data collection. Data were entered into a computer database and analyzed using the Statistical Program for the Social Science (SPSS) version 20. The obtained data were analyzed according to objectives of the study by using descriptive and inferential statistics, and reported in terms of frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation. The association of two variables was tested by Chi-square test and Pearson correlation (p < .05 considered significant) and calculated Odd ratio (95% confidence intervals).

The data were presented in the tabular form in order to facilitate interpretation. The responses from 296 men were analyzed according to the objective of the study.

Tables 1 to 3 present the findings related to demographic characteristics of respondents. Table 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, and 11 present the findings related to respondent’s awareness regarding different items related to gender equality. Table 12, 13 and 14 presents the respondent’s attitude on gender equality. Table 15 presents respondent’s level of awareness and attitude on gender equality. Table 16 presents associations of selected demographic characteristics with level of awareness on gender equality. Table 17 presents associations of selected demographic characteristics with level of attitude on gender equality. Table 18 present relationships of domains of attitude and overall attitude with overall awareness on gender equality among men.

TABLE 1

Demographic Characteristics of the Respondents: Age, Religion, Ethnicity

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 1 shows that most of the respondents (72.3%) belonged to young age (20-39) years with mean age 32.56± 10.52. Regarding their religion, 72% were following Hinduism. Based on ethnicity, majority of the respondents (55.7%) belonged to upper caste groups followed by relatively advantaged Janajatis (18.2%) and disadvantaged Janajatis (15.5%).

TABLE 2

Demographic Characteristic of the Respondents: Educational Status, Educational Level, Type of Family and Occupation

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 2 shows that almost all of the respondents (99.3%) were literate. Among the literate, majority of the respondents (64.5%) have completed higher secondary level and above. Similarly, more than half (54.4%) were from nuclear family and 45.6% were from joint family type. Likewise, the table also shows that 37.2% of the respondent’s occupation was business and 30.7% of the respondent’s occupation was agriculture.

TABLE 3

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 3 shows that majority of the respondents (57.85%) were married. The average marriage duration was 14.13± 9.53 years. Likewise, most of the respondents (71.3%) had at least two or less than two children.

TABLE 4

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 4 shows that among total respondents, 85.5% answered correctly that “equal rights, responsibilities and an opportunity of men and women” is gender equality. The table further shows that 90.2% answered that lack of education is the cause of gender inequality whereas 28.4% answered that fear of loss of authority also cause gender inequality.

TABLE 5

Awareness of Respondents on Ways of Maintaining Gender Equality, Law and Legislation Promoting Women’s Right and Gender Equality and Roles of Man at Home

n=296

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 5 shows that, most of the respondents (85.8%) answered that equal participation of man and woman in household works is a major way of maintaining gender equality. Eighty-one percent of respondents also told equality in son and daughter helps in maintaining gender equality and nearly one- fourth (24.7%) of respondents answered that right to decide on self- health care access is also the way of maintaining gender equality. Regarding the laws and legislations promoting women’s right and gender equality, 90.2% of the respondents were aware on right to have citizenship from mother’s name and 36.1% respondents were aware regarding women’s right to divorce. Similarly, 78% and 73% of the respondents mentioned that decision making in family matters and taking care of the children are major roles of man.

TABLE 6

Awareness of Respondents on Roles of Women at Home, Women’s reproductive Rights and Person Involved in Decision of Contraceptive Method

n=296

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 6 shows that, 92.2% of the respondents considered that taking care of children is the major role of woman at home and 40.2% considered that fulfilling needs of family members is also one of the roles of woman at home. Similarly, most of the respondents (92.6%) were aware of women’s reproductive rights. Among those who were aware on women’s reproductive rights, more than three-fourth (77%) respondents answered that woman should have right to safe abortion and 69.7% were aware on women’s right to birth control. Likewise, 93.2% answered that husband and wife jointly should decide on choice of contraceptive methods.

TABLE 7

Awareness of Respondents on Person Responsible for Decision Making and Affecting Factors of Birth Spacing and Women’s Sexual Rights

n=296

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 7 shows that, most of the respondents (96.3%) answered that husband and wife should jointly decide on the size of family and/or spacing of children. Likewise, 76% answered that financial condition of family affects spacing of children and least 13.5% answered that desire for son and daughter in the family also affects birth spacing. Furthermore, 89.5% of the respondents answered if husband/wife has any sexually transmitted disease then woman can refuse to have sexual relationship.

TABLE 8

Awareness of Respondents on Meaning of Gender Based Violence, Reason behind Violence against Women and Meaning of Masculinity

n=296

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 8 shows that, majority of the respondents (63.2%) answered the meaning of gender based violence correctly (that is violence against both male and female). Regarding the reasons behind violence against women; 76% mentioned violence occurs due to lack of education, 72.3% mentioned alcoholism as the cause of violence and 66.9% mentioned masculinity feeling is also the reason for causing violence against women. Likewise, 56.8% answered the meaning of masculinity correctly (that is behavior and role generally associated with men).

TABLE 9

Awareness of Respondents on Reasons behind Son Preference, Benefits of Equitable Access to Quality Education and Person Deciding Household Purchase

n=296

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 9 shows that, most of the respondents (84.5%) answered that son are more preferred than daughter in Nepali context to carry out lineage or family name and 55.4% answered that sons are needed for old age support. Regarding the benefits of equitable access to quality education; most of the respondents (92.6%) answered that gender equality helps in women empowerment and 59.8% also mentioned that gender equality helps to reduce violence against women. Likewise, almost all of the respondents (94.3%) mentioned that husband and wife as well family members should jointly decide on household purchase of the family.

TABLE 10

Awareness on Consequence of Woman Working Outside the Home, Person Involved in Deciding Woman’s Health Access and Benefits of Women’s Autonomy

n=296

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 10 shows that, 70.3% of the respondents have answered correctly that, if the woman start to go outside the home for working then it helps in women empowerment. Similarly, about three- fourth (74.7%) of the respondents answered that husband and wife as well as family members should decide on woman’s health access if she gets any health problem and only 19.3% respondents considered that woman self should decide on her health access. Furthermore, 77.4% of the respondents answered that woman’s autonomy in household and self-health care access decision making helps to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality, 74.3% mentioned that due to woman’s autonomy there will be no delay in seeking and utilization of health services and 73.3% answered that woman’s autonomy also helps to reduce infant morbidity and mortality which contributes to higher child survival rates.

TABLE 11

Awareness of Respondents on Source of Information and Reason behind Need for Awareness on Gender Equality

n=296

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 11 shows that all respondents got information regarding gender equality via mass media and most of the respondents (59.1%) got information regarding different dimensions of gender equality from health workers as well. Furthermore, among total respondents, 28% mentioned that there is need of awareness for empowering women regarding gender equality so that women’s economic and social status can be raised whereas 9.5% of men had told awareness is needed for eliminating harmful cultural practices and taboos against women. This shows men are in favor of gender equality.

Table 12

Attitude of Respondents on Gender Role, Family Planning, Sexual Relationship and Reproductive Health

n=296

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 12 shows that regarding gender role, almost half of the respondents (43.6%) had disagreed in the statement “A woman’s most important role is to take care of her home and cook for her family” with lowest mean score 2.76 . Similarly, almost half of the respondents (45.3%) had strongly disagreed that a woman’s most important role is to produce a son for her husband’s family with highest mean score 3.29 and 39.9% disagreed in the statement “A man should have the final say in all family matters” respectively. Regarding, Family Planning, Sexual Relationship and Reproductive Right/ Health, 34.1% of the respondents has disagreed in the statement “Men need sex more than women do”. Likewise, 25.7 % of the respondents believed that a women can refuse to have sex with her husband and more than half of the respondents (52.7%) strongly disagreed in the statement “When women is raped, she is usually to blame for putting herself in that situation” with highest mean score 3.29 respectively. Furthermore, 42.2% of the respondents strongly disagreed in the statement “Men should have final say in birth spacing/ family size”. However 12.2% strongly agreed that it’s women’s responsibility to avoid getting pregnant with least mean score value 2.75.

TABLE 13

Attitude of Respondents on Violence, Masculinity and value of Son and Daughter and Woman’s Autonomy

n=296

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 13 shows that 32.1% believed that there are times when women deserve to be beaten. Similarly, 38.5% respondents disagreed in the statement “If a wife/partner
does something wrong her husband has the right to punish her” with lowest mean score 2.77 and two-third (66.2%) respondents disagreed in the statement “A woman should tolerate violence in order to keep her family together” with highest mean value 2.84.

Regarding, masculinity and value of son and daughter, more than one- third (34.1%) of respondents believed that to be a man, they need to be tough with least mean score 2.66 and almost half of the respondents (46.3%) disagreed in the statement “It would be shameful to have homosexual son”. Similarly, 80.7% of the respondents strongly believed that a man only with daughter is not unfortunate with highest mean score 3.74 and more than two- third (73%) also strongly disagreed in the statement “Not having a son reflects bad karma and lack of moral virtue”.

Regarding the autonomy in household purchase, mobility and health seeking decision-making, more than half of the respondents (55.7%) strongly believed that only man should not make all household decision- making with highest mean value 3.45. Furthermore, almost half of the respondents (46.3%) strongly disagreed in the statement “Men should decide on women’s access to health care services” and one- third (33.8%) of the respondents strongly believed that women must take permission from man before leaving home to visit friends and relatives with least mean score 2.84.

TABLE 14

Domains of Attitude

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 14 shows that with compare to other domain, attitude towards masculinity and women’s autonomy had high mean score that is 3.22 and 3.20 while violence had least mean score that is 2.80 respectively.

TABLE 15

Awareness and Attitude Level of Respondents on Gender Equality

n=296

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 15 shows that out of 296 respondents, only 12.5% of the respondents were adequately aware while most of the respondents (73%) had moderate awareness and only 14.5 % were inadequately aware. The mean score of awareness was 60.429± 10.87 out of 70. Regarding attitude level, more than half (61.1%) of the respondents were found of having high equity on gender equality, 34.1% favored moderate equity and least 4.7% supports low equity which shows that the majority of the respondents interviewed were in favor of gender equality. The mean score of attitude was 3.050± .450 out of 4.

Furthermore, for measuring association of demographic characteristics with level of awareness and level of attitude it has been recategorized in table no. 17 and table no. 18.

TABLE 16

Association of Selected Demographic Characteristics with Level of Awareness on Gender Equality

n=296

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Note : *p-value significant at (p<.05), CI: Confidence Interval; a: Buddhist, Christian and Islam; b: Wage workers, Skilled workers and Abroad employee, Students, Service and Business

Table 16 shows that respondents at age between 40-59 years were 1.735 times more likely to have high awareness on gender equality (p=.035, OR= 1.735, 95% CI= 1.036-2.905) than those who were between 20-39 years which was statistically significant at 5% significance level. All other variables were statistically insignificant at 5% significance level. However, regarding marital status, married men were 1.106 times more likely to have high awareness than unmarried men (p=.670, OR= 1.106, 95% CI= 0.881-1.754).

TABLE 17

Association of Selected Demographic Characteristics with Level of Attitude on Gender Equality

n=296

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Note : *p-value significant at (p<.05), CI: Confidence Interval; a: Buddhist, Christian and Islam; b: Wage workers, Skilled workers, Abroad employee, Students, Service and Business

Table 17 shows that respondents at age between 40-59 years were 0.450 times less likely to support high equity (p =.002, OR= 0.450, 95% CI= 0.267-0.758) than those who belonged to 20-40 years. Similarly, whose education level was secondary and above were 3.034 times more likely to support high equity (p =.001 , OR= 3.034, 95% CI= 1.547-5.951) than those whose educational level was below secondary. Those who were from nuclear family were 2.320 times more likely to support high equity (p=<.001, OR= 2.320, 95% CI= 1.455-3.703) than those who were from joint family, which was statistically significant at 5% significance level.

Regarding marital status, those who were unmarried were 2.074 times more likely to have high gender equitable attitude (p=.002, OR= 2.074, 95% CI= 1.295-3.323) than those who were married. Men whose occupation was other than agriculture were 1.704 times more likely to support high equity (p=.035, OR= 1.704, 95% CI= 1.035-2.805) than those whose occupation was agriculture which was statistically significant at 5% significance level. However there was no significant association of religion with gender equality attitude.

TABLE 18

Relationship of Domains of Attitude and Overall Attitude with Overall Awareness

n=296

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 18 shows that there was no significant correlation between awareness and attitude on gender equality with (r=.074) at 95% of confidence level. However, there were significant relationships among every domain of attitude statistically at 5% of significance level. Furthermore, the table also shows that, there was no significant correlation of domain of attitude (i.e. Gender role, Masculinity, Family Planning, Sexual Relationship and Reproductive health) with awareness statistically at 5% level of significance. But, violence with (r=.143) and autonomy (r=.128) has significant correlation with awareness statistically at 95% confidence level.

CHAPTER V DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This chapter deals with the discussion followed by conclusion, limitation, implication and recommendations based on findings of the study. Discussion presents all findings of the study in comparison to those studies from the review of literature. Conclusions are drawn from each of the findings in light of the limitations of the study. Recommendations present suggestions for further study to improve the current study for better generalization and deeper interpretation.

5.1. Discussion

This study was designed as a descriptive cross sectional study carried out in Bharatpur Sub- Metropolitan city to identify awareness and attitude on gender equality among men and to measure the association of selected demographic variables of respondents with awareness and attitude level. The study population consisted of 296 men residing in different wards of Bharatpur Sub- Metropolitan city. A structured interview questionnaire developed by researcher herself based on extensive literature review and that was used to collect data to find out the awareness and attitude on gender equality among men.

Findings related to Socio-Demographic Information

In this study, most of the respondents (72.3%) were belonged to age group 20 to 39 years and 27.7% were above 40 years. The mean age ± S.D was 32.56 ± 10.52 Years. Regarding the marital status, 57.8% of respondents were married in this study and 36.8% of respondents had attained higher secondary level of education. Similarly, 30.7% of the respondents’ major occupation was agriculture. Likewise, more than half of the respondents (54.4%) had nuclear type of family and nearly three- fourth of respondents (71.3%) had less than or equals to two children.

Discussion related to Awareness on Gender Equality

Findings in this study showed that, 51% of respondents answered as equal rights on property and 62.2% answered as domestic violence and punishment act are the law and legislations which promote women’s right and gender equality which is more over similar with the study conducted by Puri et al. (2015), where 54% of men were aware on equal rights on property and 48.8% were aware on domestic violence and punishment act.

In this study 92.6% of men were aware on women’s sexual and reproductive rights. Similarly more than three-fourth (77%) were aware on right to safe abortion and 69.7% were aware on right to birth control whereas study done by Adinew et al. (2013) showed that more than half respondents (54.5%) were aware on sexual and reproductive rights, 64% of respondents were aware on right to safe abortion and 36.3% were aware on right to birth control. This discrepancy might be because of awareness level and education level of men in different study setting as the study was done in Ethiopia.

In this study, 93.2% of men answered as husband and wife should jointly decide on which contraceptive method to be used which is not consistent with the study conducted by Vouking et al. (2014) where 78% answered that husband and wife should jointly decide on which contraceptive method to be used. In present study 96.3% of men answered that husband and wife should jointly decide on birth spacing and family size whereas the study done by Ogunjuyigbe, Ojofeitimi and Liasu (2009) showed that 37% of respondents answered as husband and wife should jointly decide on birth spacing and family size. These differences might be due to the country context as study was conducted in sub-Saharan Africa and Nigeria where still men and women adhere to conservative gender role.

In present study, 89.5% of respondents answered that, if husband/wife has any sexually transmitted infection then women have right to refuse to have sexual relation and 52.4% answered that, if husband have relation with any other woman then also women can refuse to have sexual relationship with husband which is supported by the study findings done by Singh et al. (2012) where most of the respondents answered

that if husband/wife have any sexually transmitted infection then women have right to refuse to have sexual relation and 45% also answered that if husband have relation with any other woman then also women can refuse to have sexual relationship with husband .

In current study, 76% answered lack of education, nearly three- fourth (72.3%) answered alcoholism and 35.5% respondents answered as gender attitude are the drives, which causes violence against women. This finding is supported by study done by Government of Nepal and CREHPA (2012), which showed, most of the respondents answered that alcoholism, lack of education, gender attitudes are drivers of violence against women.

In this study, 94.3% of men answered as husband, wife and other family members as per need should decide on household purchases in the family, which is inconsistent with the study done by UNICEF (2006) where half of the respondents (50%) had answered that husband and wife should jointly decide on household purchases. This discrepancy might be due to representation of men from conservative family and conservative gender roles at home in different setting. Similarly, in current study, 74.7% of men answered that husband and wife should jointly decide on woman’s health access when she gets any health problem which is more over similar with the study done by Mboane & Bhatta (2015), which showed 71.6% had answered that husband and wife should jointly decide on woman’s health access when she gets any health problem.

In this study, half of the respondents (50%) of men got information on different dimensions of gender equality from peer groups, 25% from families, 59% from health workers and 20% from neighbors which is more over similar to the study done by Vouking et al. (2014) which showed that 48.8% of respondents got information from peers, 45.2% from health personals and 28.2% from family as well.

In this study, 73% had moderate awareness, 14.5% had inadequate awareness and 12.5% had adequate awareness on gender equality. However, no any literatures were found that either support or contrast this finding.

Discussion related to Attitude on Gender Equality

For discussion part related to attitude on gender equality, responses were combined under two broad categories: agree (which combined the responses ‘strongly agree’ and ‘agree’) and disagree (which combined ‘strongly disagree’ and ‘disagree’).

In the present study 36.1% agreed that a woman’s most important role is to take care of her home and cook for her family which is not consistent with the study done by Luka et al. (2012) which showed that 51.9% of the respondents agreed that a woman’s most important role is to take care of her home and cook for her family. Present study showed, 22.7% of the respondents agreed that a man should have the final say in all family matters which contradicts the findings in a study by Andrei et al. (2015) where 85.6% of men agreed that a man should have the final say in all family matters. All these contrast might be because of awareness level and education status of men in different study setting (Study was conducted in Bosnia and Herzegovina). In this study 86.5% of men disagreed in the statement that, a woman’s most important role is to produce a son for her husband’s family. This finding is nearly similar with the study conducted by Nanda et al. (2012) where 78.4% disagreed in the same statement.

In this study, 39.5% of men agreed that men need sex more than women do. This result is contrast to the study conducted by Slegh et al. (2014), which showed that 70.5% of men agreed that men need sex more than women do. In same study by Slegh et al. (2014), 61% of men believed that, ‘It’s a woman’s responsibility to avoid getting pregnant’, which contradicts the finding of present study where 35.8% of men agreed in similar statement. Among total men, 67.2% disagreed in the statement that, a woman cannot refuse to have sex with her husband which is slightly higher in comparison to study conducted by Nanda et al. (2012) where 47.9% of men disagreed that, a woman cannot refuse to have sex with her husband. Another study also showed that, only 21% of men disagreed in same statement (Ekeoba et al., 2015). All this discrepancy might be due to representation of men from conservative gender roles. Similarly, in this study, 18.9% of men believed that when a woman is raped, she is usually to blame for putting herself in that situation which is consistent with study done by Nanda et al. (2012), which showed 20.6% of men believed that when a woman is raped, she is usually to blame for putting herself in that situation.

Among total men, 39.8% of them agreed that there are times when woman deserves to be beaten which is more over similar to the study conducted by Andrei et al., (2015) which showed 41% of men agreed in same statement. In the same study by Andrei et al. (2015), 27.7% of men believed that a woman should tolerate violence in order to keep her family together which is more over similar to the current study where 33.8 % of men believed the same. Similarly, in this study, 63.5% of men disagreed in the statement that, if a wife/partner does something wrong her husband has the right to punish her which is higher in comparison with the study by Nanda et al. (2012) where only 22.7% of men disagreed in the same statement. The difference in the result might be due to variation in study setting and study sample as the study was done in Vietnam among 1425 men.

In this study, nearly half of men (47.3%) agreed in the statement “to be a man, you need to be tough” which is consistent with the study conducted by Barker et al. (2011) where 44% of men agreed in same statement whereas another study by Ekeoba et al. (2015) showed 69% of men agreed in same statement which was inconsistent with current study, this may be due to variation in study sample (study was done in 1532 men). Similarly, this study shows most of the respondents (72%) said that they wouldn’t be ashamed to have a homosexual son, which is in contrast with the study done by Nanda et al. (2012) where only 45.6% of men said that they wouldn’t be ashamed to have a homosexual son. This variation in result may be due to study sample and different setting (study was done with 1425 men in Vietnam). Likewise, in this study, most of the respondents (95.2%) disagreed in the statement that a man only with daughter is unfortunate which is nearly similar with the study conducted by Verma et al. (2014) where 90% disagreed that a man only with daughter is unfortunate. And another study also supports the findings where 92% of men disagreed in same statement (Nanda et al., 2012). Similarly, in this study, most of the respondents (91.6%) disagreed in the statement that not having a son reflects bad karma and lack of moral virtue, which is parallel to the study conducted by Verma et al. (2014) where 90.0% disagreed in the statement that not having a son reflects bad karma and lack of moral virtue.

This study showed 8.1% of men agreed in the statement that, man should make all household purchases (decision), which is nearly similar to the study by (IPPF, 2013)

where 14% agreed that, man should make all household purchases (decision). In this study, among total men, 10.8% respondents believed that man should decide on woman’s/wife’s access to health care services and 61.2% disagreed in the statement that, woman must take permission from man/husband before leaving home to visit friends and relatives which is more over similar with the study conducted by Mishra et al. (2014), which showed 50.3% of men disagreed in similar statement.

The findings regarding attitude on gender equality showed that most of the respondents (61.2%) had highly equitable gender attitude with mean score ± S.D = 54.91± 8.11 which is more over similar to the findings in a study by Barker et al. (2012), where 70% of the respondents had highly equitable gender attitude. Similarly, another study done by Mishra et al. (2014) in India reported that 35% of men had high gender equitable attitude. Another study by Nanda et al. (2012) in Vietnam also showed that only15.6% of men support high equity. The difference in the result might be due to awareness level of respondents of different country context.

Discussion related to Association of Demographic Variables with Level of Awareness on Gender Equality

The present study found that there was significant association between age of the men and level of awareness regarding gender equality which showed that men who belong to age group 40-59 years were 1.735 time more likely to be aware than those who belong to age group 20-39 years. (p =.002, OR= 1.735, 95% CI=1.036-2.905). This might be due to exposure and experience of respondents who belong to age group 40-59years. However, awareness level was not affected by religion, educational level, family type, marital status, and occupation. However, no any literatures were found that either support or contrast this finding.

Discussion related to Association of Demographic Variables with Level of Attitude on Gender Equality

Findings of this study showed that there was statistically significant association of level of attitude with age of respondents, level of education, type of family, marital status and occupation.

Age of the Respondents

The present study found that there was significant association between age of the respondents and level of attitude regarding gender equality which showed that respondents who belong to age group 40-59 years were 0.450 time less likely to support high equity than those who belong to age group 20-39 years (p =.002, OR= 0.450, 95% CI= 0.267-0.758). This finding is supported by study done in Vietnam by Nanda et al. (2012), which showed significant association between age of respondents and attitude on gender equality at 5% level of significance.

Level of Education

In this study, there was highly significant association between educational level of respondents and level of attitude regarding gender equality which showed that respondents whose educational level was secondary and above were three times more likely to support high equity than those whose educational level was below secondary (p =.001, OR= 3.034, 95% CI= 1.547 – 5.951), which signify that when education level increases support to gender equality also increases. This finding is supported by study done in Nepal by Nanda et al. (2012), which showed significant association between level of education and attitude on gender equality.

Type of Family

In this study, there was highly significant association between type of family and level of attitude regarding gender equality which showed that men who belonged to nuclear family were two times more likely to support high equity than those who belonged to joint family (p = <.001, OR= 2.320, 95% CI= 1.455- 3.703). This might be due to representation of men from conservative family and conservative gender role in joint family due to which they might be in favor of inequitable gender attitude.

Marital Status

The present study found that there was significant association between marital status of respondent and level of attitude on gender equality, which showed that unmarried respondents were two times more likely to support high equity than those who were married (p = .002, OR= 2.074, 95% CI= 1.295- 3.323).

Occupation

The current study findings shows that men who were engaged in other than agriculture were one time more likely to support high equality then those who were engaged in agriculture (p=.035, OR= 1.704, 95% CI= 1.035- 2.805). This is supported by the study done in Nepal and Vietnam by Nanda et al. (2012), which showed men engaging in agriculture were found to support low equity than those who were engaged in other profession.

This study further revealed that there was no significant association in level of attitude with religion (p = .180) statistically at 5% significance level with p value <.05. This is supported by the study done in Nepal and Vietnam by Nanda et al. (2012), which also showed no significant association of attitude level with religion.

Discussion related to Relationship between Respondent’s Level of Awareness and Attitude on Gender Equality

Finding of the study revealed that, there was no significant correlation between awareness and attitude on gender equality with (r=.074) at 95% of confidence level. However, some domains of attitude, that is Violence (r= .143) and autonomy in household purchase, mobility and health seeking decision making (r= .128) have positive correlation and was significantly associated with awareness level of respondents statistically at 95% confidence level. However, no any literatures were found that either support or contrast this finding.

5.2 Conclusion

Based on the findings of the study, it can be concluded that more than half of the respondents had moderate awareness on gender equality and most of the respondents had high equitable gender attitude (High equity). It can also be concluded that respondents at age 40-59 years were more likely to have high awareness on gender equality and study further showed that there was significant association of age of the respondents, educational level, family type, marital status and occupation with level of attitude.

5.3 Limitations

The study was done in selected wards of Bharatpur Sub-Metropolitan City. Therefore, it may not represent the situation of the other wards and country as well.

Non- probability purposive sampling technique was used for selection of sample. Hence, sampling selection bias might occur.

5.4 Implications

The study findings might be helpful to bring consciousness among curriculum makers to integrate more gender transformative curriculum, which will address various gender issues. The finding of the study may help concerned authority of Bharatpur Sub-Metropolitan City in planning awareness raising campaigns in local level effectively that focus on redefining men’s and women’s role in family, raise public awareness on need of male involvement in achieving gender equality so that supportive environment for women can be created. In addition, as nurses are health service provider it might help them in understanding equality in consuming health services and provide gender sensitive health care. Findings might also be useful as reference for further research studies.

5.5 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study following recommendations are made:

A comparative study can be done in men and women on awareness and attitude on gender equality.

A qualitative study can be conducted on perception, experience and belief of men and women towards gender equality.

A comparative study can be conducted on awareness and attitude on gender equality among men and women of rural and urban area.

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APPENDIX A

Consent Form English Version

Namaste! My name is Pratikshya Tripathi; I am a student of “Master of Nursing” in Institute of Medicine, Lalitpur Nursing Campus. I am conducting a thesis on Awareness and Attitude on Gender Equality among Men of Bharatpur Sub Metropolitan City. This study is conducted as a partial fulfillment of master in nursing program. Although the study will not benefit you directly, it will provide information that might enable the project manager for improving the awareness program as per need. The authority of Lalitpur Nursing Campus, Institutional Review Board; Institute of Medicine have approved this study and procedures.

In that context, I would like to ask you some questions regarding awareness and attitude on gender equality and it will take about 25-30 minutes. Any information that you provide during this interview will be kept confidential. Your name and identity will not appear anywhere. I assure you that there are no any risks for you in taking part in this study. Your participation in this study is voluntary. You are free to withdraw from the interview at any time or to refuse to answer any particular question that you feel uncomfortable. I would appreciate if you participate in the study and answer all the questions, as the information provided by you would be very important for this study.

I agree to participate in the study---------------1

I do not agree to participate in the study--------------------2

If you agree to participate in this study, please provide your signature in the below mentioned place:

I got all information regarding this study and I agree to participate in this study.

Signature: ___________________ Date: ---------------

Right Left

Right Left

Thank you for your support and participation

APPENDIX B

Consent Form Nepali Version

Removed by the editor due to character fond issues

APPENDIX C

Research Instrument (English Version)

TRIBHUVAN UNIVERSITY

INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE

LALITPUR NURSING CAMPUS, SANEPA

Interview Questionnaire for Data Collection

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

The investigator is a student of Master Degree in Nursing, second year from Tribhuwan University, IOM, Lalitpur Nursing Campus, Sanepa, Lalitpur. This study is being conducted as a partial fulfillment of objective of Master Degree in Nursing. The purpose of this study is to identify the awareness and attitude on gender equality among men of Bharatpur Sub-Metropolitan City.

The investigator would like to assure you that all the responses that you have provided will be kept confidential and your name and personal identity will not be disclosed in the final report of this study. The success of this study depends on your complete and accurate information, so the investigator would like to request you to provide information as you perceived.

Research Title: Awareness and Attitude on Gender Equality among Men of Bharatpur Sub-Metropolitan City

Direction: After obtaining verbal and written consent from each respondent, interviewer will read out each and every question clearly and obtained answer will be and will put tick on box and write the respondent’s response in the space provided.

The questions are divided into three parts

Part I

Socio- Demographic Information

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Part II: Awareness related Questions:

Section-A: Awareness on meaning of gender equality and gender role

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Section-B: Awareness on Reproductive right, sexual relationship and family planning

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Section-C: Awareness on violence

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Section-D: Awareness on masculinity and value of son and daughter

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Section-E: Awareness on autonomy and health seeking decision-making

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Part III: Statements to explore attitude of men on gender equality based upon adopted Gender Equitable Men (GEM) Scale and is modified as per need.

Instruction: The following items are not designed to test your knowledge. Instead, they are meant to explore some of your feeling and points of view toward gender equality. They are categorized as:

Strongly agree: SA

Agree: A

Disagree: D

Strongly Disagree: SD

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

83 of 83 pages

Details

Title
Awareness and Attitude on Gender Equality Among Men of Bharatpur
Course
Masters in Nursing
Grade
1
Author
Year
2017
Pages
83
Catalog Number
V371477
ISBN (Book)
9783668499348
File size
829 KB
Language
English
Tags
Gender Equality, Men, Women, Awareness, Attitude, Bharatpur, City, opression
Quote paper
Pratikshya Tripathi (Author), 2017, Awareness and Attitude on Gender Equality Among Men of Bharatpur, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/371477

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