The Sustainable Redevelopment of Brownfields. The Case of Joda Barbil in India


Research Paper (postgraduate), 2016
29 Pages

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Table of contents

1. Introduction
1.1 Need of the study
1.2 Aim
1.3 Objectives
1.4 Scope and Limitations
1.5 Workflow
1.6 Limitations of the Study

2. Literature Review
2.1 Legislations and Policies
2.2 Case Studies
2.2.1. Case Study 1: Zeche Zollverein, Essen Germany
2.2.2. Case Study 2: Landschaft Park Duisburg Nord, Germany

3. Study Area
3.1 Objective of the study in relation to Joda Barbil.
3.2 Present Scenario

4. Data Collection
4.1 Primary and Secondary Data Collected
4.1.1 Secondary data collected

5. Analysis of Existing Situation
5.1 Analysis of the study Area
5.2 Physical Analysis
5.3 Infrastructure Analysis
5.4 Socio-economic analysis
5.5 Environmental analysis
5.6 Visual analysis
5.7 Habitation Potential Analysis
5.8 Recreational Potential
5.9 Problems and Critical Issues

6. Proposal

7. Conclusion

8. References

Abstract

The concept of redevelopment means another opportunity to revive the lost glory of once flourishing area. But while defining it as an area which underwent immense changes to be redeveloped for the betterment of the society holds a meaning which is unique in its own terms. The brownfields being developed as recreational areas is not only a judicious decision in today’s terms but also it is a tribute to what the land has undergone to make humankind prosper. In today's world of rapid urbanization, the lack of "new" developable land within cities presents a challenge to turn park-poor areas into more liveable neighbourhoods. The solution could be by turning previous industrial properties into recreational paces. A community can often experience economic revitalization by the creation of a single park, bringing people together around common goals and attracting commercial interests. The conversion of brownfield into recreational areas also helps guarantee the liveability and long-term success of community redevelopment projects. They return non-productive real-estate assets to productive use, promoting the economic development of many of the nation’s most economically distressed areas and regions. Greened through preservation and adaptive reuse of key structures, i.e. the factory building, the rich history of the site, and thus of an important aspect of the area are to be preserved and revealed. It’s a symbol of attitude about growth and progress. The structures speak about mankind, and about the history. These structures tell the story of what we valued decades ago, and they show us how we went about acquiring that which we valued. They remind us of a disregard to the environment which went along with the development of the city. These areas are a constant reminder of the very real industrial history of the site.

The aftermath of industrialization leading to deterioration of nature for men’s own need without judicious thinking about nature has led to dying of areas which were once beaming with life. There was hardly any planning being done for post mining or industrial areas. An outline has to be drawn to make these areas useful and give them respect for what they bore to let the mankind survive. Hence a study is necessary in this context.

In brief, if a proper planning is done for these areas then we can save them and make them lively again through a functional use. The main focus will be in doing a detailed analysis of these areas to find out the possibilities for redevelopment and then suggesting guidelines for pre and post mining and industrial areas focusing on developing them as recreational and landscape areas. The report reveals the entire process of analysis to come to an output through the various analyses.

1. Introduction

Brownfields are abandoned or underused industrial and commercial facilities with the potential for re-use. Expansion or redevelopment of such a facility may be complicated by real or perceived environmental contaminations. The land may be contaminated by low concentrations of hazardous waste or pollution, and has the potential to be reused once it is cleaned up. The sites which are having high concentration of contamination and require large scale remediation initiatives are referred to as Superfund Sites, which is not taken into consideration in the present work.

Redevelopment not only revives the lost glory of once flourishing area but also create an opportunity for societal benefits. Reusing an abandoned area for useful purposes is also a tribute to what the land has undergone to make humankind prosper.

The Brownfields are generated by the mining industry, as by nature mining is a temporary activity. Other industries also contribute to generation of brownfield due to industrial closure. Obsoletion of technology and ceasure of demands for an industrial product may cause closure of an industrial estate leaving brownfield. In the present study, a brownfield due to iron ore and manganese mining has been considered.

1.1 Need of the study

The need for a “New" developable land tends to make use of abandoned or derelict areas for further use. Also the various environmental hazards due to mining activities have to be ascertained so that the need for an environmental risk assessment can be put forth. The urgency of the situation has to be supported by strong evidences hence this study has been carried out for the mining areas.

The expected output of this study can be justified as the drawing of the environmental parameters for the iron ore mine areas so that the abandoned mines can be further reused for useful purpose. This will also help build a strong future vision which can be used as model for regeneration of one’s dead areas. Technically, this can be termed as the post mining planning solution along with various pre-mining planning procedure also. This can only be achieved with a proper study of the various social as well as physical aspects and hence making the model more stable with sound technical foundation.

The various societal and environmental parameters also need to be understood in detail to suggest and appropriate landform solution for the brownfields. The areas adjacent to these brownfields often bear the brunt of the aftermath.

1.2 Aim

The aim of the research is sustainable redevelopment of brownfields and to suggest an appropriate land use for the derelict hard rock mines specifically iron ore and manganese mines.

1.3 Objectives

The objectives can be broadly defined as follows:

- Identifying and understanding the potential risks that may exist, the potential consequences if those risks are realized, and the options for eliminating or minimizing those risks.
- Develop models that can help in sustainable redevelopment of brownfields.
- Necessity of pre and post-mining planning for reduction of site disturbances.
- Develop appropriate land use and landform solutions for the proposed brownfield.

The aims and objectives can be achieved by the method of phasing where the abandoned mines are converted into green area phase wise and finally restoration of the whole abandoned mine area into greenery ultimately phasing it into an appropriate land use.

1.4 Scope and Limitations

The research study is at the macro-level but to know about all the factors the micro level study has to be done in brief. The scope of the study is limited only to physical planning in relation to environmental aspects for the post-mining planning of the mine areas (hard rock mines). This will be supported by the socio-economic conditions.

The various tasks which have been considered are the study of mining process, various remedial measures which are into force and importantly environmental monitoring after certain intervals. Prevailing condition has been studied to build a stable landscape so that the land is made usable after it has been abandoned. The study of soil characteristics for pH and nutrient value as well as the size and shape of site has been studied to some extent in brief.

1.5 Workflow

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1.6 Limitations of the Study

- The study is mostly dependent on secondary data, primary surveys and personal observations.
- Though the study deals with brownfields both existing and future ones, and suggests a model to redevelop these brownfields, but due to shortage in time and non-availability of data the proposals are presented at a policy level and to some extent spatial planning.

2. Literature Review

The Literature review is carried out by a simple methodology with explanation about the concept of brownfield followed by the various guidelines and acts and the various attempts being made earlier to deal with it.

Academic and industry literature is saturated with a diverse array of definitions of the term “brownfield”. These definitions vary by country which makes comparison of brownfields across nationalities a challenging endeavor. The selection of an appropriate definition by an organization or document is critical as the selection of a narrow definition can exclude many types of sites which merit the classification whereas the use of a general definition can be overly inclusive, incorporating many sites which are not aligned with traditional perceptions of brownfields. The definition used for the research is that from CABERNET.

CABERNET defines brownfields as:

“Brownfield are abandoned or underused industrial or commercial facilities with the potential for re-use. The land may be contaminated by low concentrations of hazardous waste or pollution, but still has the potential to be reused once it is cleaned up. Expansion or redevelopment of such a facility may be complicated by real or perceived environmental contaminations.” (CABERNET)

2.1 Legislations and Policies

The 1993 National Mineral Policy addresses the issue of adverse effects of mining on the environment and recycling of metallic scrap and mineral waste.

The Mineral Conservation and Development Rules (1988) in Article 23 has laid down conditions for the abandonment of any mine and has specified the need for providing a plan for dealing with the environment. The section on environment clearly states that the mining company should take all possible precautions for the protection and control of pollution during the mining and post mining operations.

The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981 (14 of 1981) and the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 (29 of 1986) states that air pollution due to fumes, dust, smoke or gaseous emissions during prospecting, mining, beneficiation or metallurgical operations and related activities shall be controlled and kept within “Permissible Limits”.

The Central Government vide Notification No. GSR 329 (E) dated 10.04.2003 and No. GSR 330 (E) dated 10.04.2003 amended the Mineral Concession Rules, 1960 and Mineral Conservation and Development Rules, 1988 respectively. As per these amendments all the existing mining lessees are required to submit the "Progressive Mine Closure Plan" along with prescribed financial sureties within 180 days from date of notification. Further, the mining lessee is required to submit "Final Mines Closure Plan" one year prior to the proposed Closure of the mine.

Comprehensive mine closure for abandoned mines, operating mines and the future mines remain a major challenge for every mining nation in the world. Planned decommissioning, closure and reclamation planning have in recent years become a legal necessity in India since 2003 as pragmatic business approach and an environmental responsibility and are viewed as an integrated part of mining cycle. Despite these laws protecting the environment and safety of the mine workers, their situation have not changed a little or improved nor has there been any benefits provided to them either during their work on during accidents or disasters.

2.2 Case Studies

As Germany has undertaken a number of projects and have strong policy guidelines on Brownfield Redevelopment two relevant case studies from Germany were studied for better understanding of the concepts and models of planning and redevelopment used and its impact at the regional as well as city level.

2.2.1. Case Study 1: Zeche Zollverein, Essen Germany

The Ruhr area ‘Ruhrgebiet’ is the third largest conurbation in Europe after the Greater London and Paris regions. Zollverein is a large former coal mine and coking site plant and it transformation is a classic example of how an industrial heritage can be used to develop sustainable contemporary cultural activity and to stimulate design, architecture and a broader range of creative sector activities. The Zollverein site is a major factor in the transformation of the Ruhr conurbation into the Ruhr metropolis.

Main achievements

The Ruhr area has 5.3 million residents, and is made up of 53 towns and cities with no single city centre. Heavy industry, coal, steel and manufacturing have left a huge legacy in terms of its physical landscape, its economic structure and its social makeup. The Zollverein complex – once the world’s largest coal mine – has been a feature of the physical and social landscape for many years and, for many, the pithead winding house structure at Nordsted is a symbol of the whole Ruhr area.

Although there were developments at the site in the first part of the 20th century – Shaft XII started operations in 1932 –the last coal mine shift was in 1986 and the coking plant closed in 1993. Plans were laid for its transformation with the establishment of the Zollverein Foundation in 1998 and the designation of Zollverein as UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2001.

From an early stage multiple uses were envisaged for the site’s facilities: a modern museum, visitor and exhibition facilities, spectacular stage performances, international festivals and other events, alongside the encouragement of business activity, especially in design and architecture, drawing on the Bauhaus architectural heritage of the site. The larger vision for the site was as a focal point for transforming the conurbation into the Ruhr Metropolis.

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Figure 2.1 Zollverin Entrance (Kania, Hans / LEG Stadtentwicklung GmbH & Co. KG, 1930) and Light Installation (Stiftung Zollverein, Jochen Tack, 2015)

By the late 1990s the Ruhr area was suffering from a lack of growth and jobs. There was insufficient investment, low competitiveness resulting from a below average growth in productivity and lower than average growth in per capita income. Unemployment was relatively high (15%) and self-employment and business start-up rates were relatively low. Large parts of the area were designated as Objective 2 under the Structural Funds for the 2000 – 06 programming period.

The Ruhr area suffered not so much from an unskilled workforce as from a mismatch of skills. Most workers were qualified for jobs in traditional industries, but fewer in new service and telecommunication sectors. And while there was a good technological infrastructure, investment in research and development was less than in similar firms at a national level, with difficulty in attracting university graduates.

Priorities for NRW (North RhineWestphalia ) Objective 2 Programme were therefore focused on innovation and the development of skills, the development of innovation infrastructures and the financing of existing and new businesses. Significant support within this framework was provided for developments at the Zollverein site.

Projects included fitting out the former coal washing plant as the Ruhr Museum, to strengthen the site as a visitor attraction; the creation of a training academy – the Zollverein School of Management and Design; establishing a World Design Forum to take place every five years, to showcase the work of design firms and students from the Ruhr; and a business park with incubation facilities concentrating on design.

Assessing the impact

Zollverein is a large site (100 hectares) on which around 120 of the 253 historical buildings have been redesigned and reused but there is also further potential. Occupancy of renovated buildings is high and 100% of those available for rent are taken up.

170 enterprises have been created with approximately 1,000 new jobs, mostly in services. Around 70% of Zollverein companies are in the creative sector and represent a wide range of creative industries from design and architecture to advertising, media, film, publishing, software, music and the performing arts

In the region as a whole, annual turnover of the 23,000 companies in the creative economy is now around €8 billion. With 14% growth in the number of companies since 2006, the creative industry is now of major economic and cultural significance for the Ruhr Metropolis.

Zollverein is a classic case of the use of industrial heritage to transform the physical and conceptual landscape in a large conurbation by a judicious blending of cultural, creative and commercial elements. This transformation began with ambitious plans, innovative building design and experimentation and has delivered a growing sense of confidence and self-awareness along the way.

Projects supported by the Structural Funds made a significant contribution to broader developments. There was a balanced contribution in terms of skills development and marketing alongside provisions for key infrastructural elements. They added to the momentum being created by a series of inter-related activities.

2.2.2. Case Study 2: Landschaft Park Duisburg Nord, Germany

Landschaft Park, located in Duisburg Nord, Germany is a 568 acre brownfield development on the Emscher Canal. Developed as part of the International Building Exposition Emscher Park (IBA), the project includes the remediation of contaminated soils, adaptive reuse of steel refinery structures and facilities and strong connections to the sites industrial past.

Landschaft Park was created from the recession of mining activity within the region and designed around the themes of “physical nature” and “utilization”. To that end nearly every facility within Landschaft Park has been given a new purpose while retaining its original identity. For instance, the towering blast furnaces have been decommissioned and are now connected by a series of raised walkways that offer views of the surrounding landscape as well as the prominent steelworks. The project also houses the largest human-made indoor diving facility in Europe, which was created through the reclamation of the refinery’s former gasometer.

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Figure 2.2 Master Plan Lansschft Park (Latz + Partner, Latz-Riehl, G. Lipkowsky)

The large central “Piazza Metallica” is a symbol that represents the process of iron manufacturing and the ideology of Landschaft Park itself (Kirkwood, 2001). Forty-nine steel panels, each weighing nearly eight tons, were recovered from a pig-iron casting works to create the plaza. The plates were placed and cleaned of debris and ash revealing their worn facades and are allowed to continue to rust and erode naturally.

The Piazza Metallica is one of the main attractions of Landschaft Park and is used regularly for festivals and performances. Visitors to the park are primarily drawn to the unique atmosphere and abundance of activities available. That atmosphere is further enhanced by the lighting design produced for the park by lighting artist Jonathan Park. The refinery structures are playfully illuminated by brightly colored swashes of light that make a fantastic spectacle.

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Figure 2.3 Piazza Metallica (Ra’ike, CC 3.0, 2014) and Lighting Design Landschaft Park (Ruhr Tourismus/ Jochen Schulutius)

The metamorphosis from original function to new purpose with a retention of identity is what makes Landschaft Park so effective. While none of the site’s original purposes are actually functioning, they are all on display. The acceptance and exemplification of the past is the inspiration to be gained from Landschaft Park. Typologically, the park holds numerous similarities to the concept of Mining the Past. The strong connection to industrial heritage and adaptation of existing structures with respect to original and innovative new uses play key roles in the success of Landschaft Park. That success supports the design to be implemented in Mining the Past.

The designers of Landschaft Park found ways to create new activities within the existing setting and will inspire an interesting challenge and add depth to Mining the Past. Connecting the design to current recreational activities such as fishing, hiking, birding and biking will provide a strong anchor within the community. Drawing inspiration from Landschaft Park, the existing structures within the Ironton Sintering Complex could easily be turned into climbing walls, viewpoints or educational centers for activity that celebrates the history of the site while adding social and cultural value to the region.

3. Study Area

Bhadrasahi Iron and Manganese Ore Mine is spread over 998.700 ha in Barbil Tehsil of Keonjhar District of Odisha, India in between Latitude 21⁰58’48.13” N to 22⁰01’40.56” N and Longitude 85⁰21’26.62” E to 85⁰24’26.22” E. The mine is spread over villages Kolho Roida, Bhuyan Roida, Kundrupani, Chattabara, Bichakundi and Sidhamatha Reserve Forest with a total population of these villages 13951. Bhadrasahi Iron and Manganese Mine is one of the oldest mines of The Orissa Minerals Development Company Ltd. (OMDC).But since its closure 322 people lost the jobs directly affecting approximately a population of 1580 (11.38% of the population)

The Site can be approached by a metalled road from NH 215. The nearest railway station is Joda (~5 km east of lease) on East Coast Railway’s electrified broad gauge branch Jakhapura Junction (on Howrah–Vishakhapatnam main line) – Keonjhar - Banspani branch line.

The leasehold is well connected with the Dist Hq. by NH - 215 as well as by rail route. The nearest National Highway is NH – 215, which runs about 3 km north-west and north of the mine lease. The nearest airport, with regular scheduled services, is at Ranchi which is about 140 km from mine site.

3.1 Objective of the study in relation to Joda Barbil.

The iron & manganese ore mines of OMDC are among the oldest and the first mines of India. It has a legacy of its own but due to negligence and ignorance by the authorities and the people in general has led to the depletion of the environmental condition as well as the socio-economic condition of the people of that area when urbanization is taking place rapidly.

3.2 Present Scenario

Many old and abandoned mines dot the region with the frequent occurrence of land subsidence due to the presence of unfilled voids. Mining has changed the surface land use through transport linkages, warehouses, subsided areas, and dumping grounds for tailings and removed overburden. Vast cultivated tracts have become interspersed with abundant quarry depressions, large heaps of ash and soils, overburdens, mine head gears, and the usual characteristic components of working collieries. Illegal mining has changed the rural landscape into an extensive urban built-up area. The OMDC mines have been closed since 2010.

4. Data Collection

Data was collected from both primary survey as well as secondary sources available to know about the various aspects which will support the cause and need of the study. It was carried out majorly through Visual survey, Primary survey and Secondary survey. The major data collection is through the secondary survey.

The visual survey was done to examine the predominant feature and also the extent of visual scar being formed by the abandoned mines and the other environmental aspects like cracks and fissures in structures above ground, subsidence, mine fire, acid mine drainage, illegal mining etc. The expert opinion survey helped in understanding the basic problems, current issues, the initiatives, threats and remedies in context of redevelopment.

4.1 Primary and Secondary Data Collected

A survey Performa consisted of a set of objective questions based on the socio-economic, physical and environmental aspects related to the study area. The respondents were the laborers working in contract basis as well as the local people of the villages adjacent to the mining area.

4.1.1 Secondary data collected

The secondary survey is the most relevant data in this research study due to the need of environmental aspects of the area. The approach was made to the various organizations associated with the mine areas. Various constrains were faced due to non-availability of certain data and the unwillingness of officials to part with sensitive data.

The primary and secondary survey helped to provide information to analyse the study area with the help of various tools and techniques like Multicriteria analysis

5. Analysis of Existing Situation

The entire study area was studied by thoroughly analyzing the existing socio-economic data, environmental data etc. for the purpose of integrating these issues with for proposing a future solution for the area. The detailed analysis was done for both the abandoned mine as well as the adjacent active mine following which the major issues have been identified and the action plan has been proposed.

5.1 Analysis of the study Area

The present situation in the study area is studied through both physical as well as environmental aspects to reach to the proposal.

Multicriteria approach

The objective of this approach is to employ a rational method in analyzing. This allows that one can employ its own value system depending on the importance vested on each of the functions associated with them. This method is an adaptation of the technique used by Ian McHarg for his State Island –New York city project where he evaluated the suitability of the land for conservation, recreation, residential and commercial uses.

All the basic data is obtained and a number of factors are selected and evaluated. Various factors and their aspects are taken into consideration while dividing the site into a number of grids with each grid having a value according to the weightage it has earned from the priority level.

5.2 Physical Analysis

The periphery of the abandoned mine is surrounded by Villages: Kolho Roida, Bhuyan Roida, Kundrupani, Chattabara, Bichakundi and Sidhamatha Reserve Forest (Barbil Range of Keonjhar Forest Division).Tehsil – Barbil, Dist – Keonjhar, Odisha. The overall mine area is 998 Ha comprising of 252 Ha of active mine area.

The small river Suna Nadi runs nearby with other mines across its banks. There is accumulation of water on low lying areas on the site. Most of the people surveyed are not aware of the health problems they have been facing due to the mine activity. The problem of Land acquisition is also evident through the primary survey. The Suna Nadi is adjacent to the study area. The reverse flow of water into the abandoned low lying areas is prevented by the embankment on south side. The soil is lateritic, typical of the area. The thickness of the top soil varies from nil (due to outcropping of iron ore to maximum of 60 cm).

5.3 Infrastructure Analysis

Major transport linkage is situated nearby with the adjacent NH 215. The river also has led to the creating of a road across the site for the heavy vehicles ferrying sand from the river bed. Water from adjacent areas accumulates on the pits formed due to mining excavation. However, only a single drainage line is passing through the site.

It has mostly undulated land with hillocks and the presence of overburdens.Absence of services except few unmetalled roads through the site and along the abandoned mines. Accessibility is only to the abandoned mines and none towards the forest.Habitat within the site boundary is also absent.

5.4 Socio-economic analysis

The surveyed 100 households constituted a population of 488 out of which 251 were male and 237 were female. This implies somewhat equal sex ratio 944 female for 1000 males. 72% of the sample population is below 30 years age.

Image Source: Author

51:4% of the total population above six years old is illiterate. More than 70 per cent of the population above 30 years is illiterate. In the age group 15 to 30 around 57.6% of the population is illiterate and in the age group 6 to 14 around 21.2% of the children are illiterate.

Employment and Income

A large proportion (57.8 per cent) of the individuals in the working age group was unemployed. Agricultural activity is not a source of employment for the surveyed households. A very large proportion of females is unemployed and does the unpaid household chores. Only one per cent male work as agricultural laborers as mining operations have damaged most of the agricultural land and agriculture is no longer a profitable activity for the local inhabitants.

Due to lack of higher education very few people are able to get high paid jobs. More importantly, due to lack of financial resources the surveyed households were not in a position to take benefit of profitable activities like sub-contracting in mining operations, transporting of minerals etc.

We can observe that a larger proportion of people who were doing regular job (Grade C and D) or casual job in private sector (in mining sector) during the mining operation witnessed a fall in income. A large proportion of individuals who witnessed rise in income after mining suspension were unemployed during mining operation. We can infer from this that the people who have got jobs after the mining suspension have witnessed a rise in income. But a very large proportion of individuals who were engaged in mining related jobs witnessed a fall in the income after the mining suspension of mining operation.

Social Changes

Due to mining suspension immigration to the region has declined and outmigration has increased substantially. Now the land of opportunity has turned into a land of depression. People are migrating to cities and outside the state in search of jobs.Sex workers activities, alcoholism and theft activities have declined substantially. In spite of all such positive environmental and social changes most of the surveyed households (98 out of 100) were unhappy over the mining suspension. People have developed dependency syndrome on the mining activities in absence of other opportunities. Now that their agricultural land has been spoiled, natural forest has been degraded water bodies have been polluted, people cannot find any other source of livelihood but mining.

5.5 Environmental analysis

The study area falls under medium sensitivity zone in case of surface water flow as well as surface water pollution sensitivity.

The water quality level in the mining belt is within the specified norms according to the last survey done in March 2014 by MEACON India. There are low lying areas with poor drainage in the active mine along with high concentration of contamination in the water. Mine water drainage is within permissible limit in abandoned mine only. There is absence of any hazard in abandoned areas but areas adjacent to active mine are vulnerable to various hazards due to subsidence, fire and emission.

The observed concentrations of all the ambient air quality parameters as per NAAQS 2009 at the site are within the permissible limits during the study period. The major contributors to the air quality are existing industrial and mining activities, industry related traffic and domestic activities in the area and open surfaces.

5.6 Visual analysis

Visual parameter is one of the main factors to be given priority due to the possibility of this site being developed as recreational area. The location of the site in the banks of the SUNA nadi provides an opportunity to utilize this as one of its advantages.

Due to the overburdens formed in the site, a number of elevated areas have come up. In certain areas visual links are formed due to this. The slope allows the formation of visual watersheds with the approach from the elevated areas to the low lying ones. The view from these elevated areas provides very strong visual attractions towards the river as well as the active mine areas also. The site has very good recreational potentials from the scenic view aspects. Hence the judicious use of this positive aspect can be utilized to recommend the final design solution for this study area.

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Figure 5.1 Visual Analysis of the study Area (Image source: Author)

5.7 Habitation Potential Analysis

[illustration not visible in this excerpt] Image source: Author While analysing the habitation potential on the study area it was found out that there are very few locations which can be recommended for this purpose. Since the site has undulated surface as well as the absence of infrastructure considering being an abandoned area so the habitat areas are absent.

5.8 Recreational Potential

Image source: Author

The potential for recreation earns the highest weightage considering the various factors of scenic value; existence of vegetation so that landscaping potential is found out, the drainage pattern of the site to avoid water accumulation and backflow. The hazards prone areas are to be marked to lessen any activity in those areas. Overall, this analysis helps to reach to a more rational output.

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Image source: Author

5.9 Problems and Critical Issues

The major issues identified while analyzing the potentials for deriving a suitable design solution for the abandoned mines can be summarized as:

- The areas adjacent to the active mine are vulnerable to emission and subsidence hazards.
- The environmental reports suggest that the site is within the permissible guidelines but there is no predictions mapping being done.
- Adjacency of the site to the SUNA Nadi may affect the water quality of the river.
- Any activity will affect the nearby villages.

6. Proposal

Being a rural brownfield has its own set of challenges mainly economic, i.e. with land value and less attractiveness for investment etc. Also not all the socio economic problems of the people can be solved on site.

The proposal includes:

- Technologies/ Methods for phase wise decontamination of site. (Phase 1)
- Action Area plan of the site. (Phase 2 onwards)
- Mine closure planning recommendations for future mining brownfields which may be able to solve the socio- economic problems of the people.(For future mining sites).

6.1 Phasing

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Figure 6.1. Mine Closure Phasing (Image source: Jenna Buchko, Michael Hitch Mine Closure Vila del Mar 2010)

Benefits

Immediate:

- Start of Skill Development Institute for 200 people targeting specially the 57.8 % of youth between 14-30 years of age to develop skill levels that are in demand in the region for better sustainable growth of the people.
- Decontamination of the site using various tools and techniques discussed later. The total cost of decontamination and community development comes out to be 180 crore , to be borne by the mining lessee.
- Also decontamination process to involve labourers/people who had initially lost jobs due to mine closure. Approximately 200 labourers to be involved from the 322 casual workers who lost jobs.

Mid Term:

- Social Forestry to be developed on 80 Ha of land on site involving the local population.
- Environmental concerns would have been taken care of by the decontamination the site.
- The recreation park to be developed on the site targeting visitors for the twin towns of Joda and Barbil with a combined population of 1,13,171. Since there is no other recreation gate away zone in the region people will be attracted to the recreational park.
- At least 200 jobs to be created in the recreational park to maintain and manage the park. All these jobs to be given to the local population and skill development to be undertaken by the Skill Development Institute.

Long-term:

- Jobs in different industries and sectors possible due to improvement in the skill level of the people and people are no longer only dependent only mining as source of livelihood.
- Site to be fully decontaminated and change in landuse possible based on the requirement.

6.2 T echnologies for Site Cleanup and Redevelopment

Safety Hazards

Elimination of potential safety hazards at abandoned hard rock mine sites is the first priority and is relatively straightforward. The type of action to be taken is generally governed by the level of public access anticipated after the site has been reclaimed.

Control and Treatment- Contaminated Surface Soil or Mine Waste

The cleanup of contaminated surface soil or mine wastes typically involves removal and relocation of the contaminated materials or covering or capping of the materials with clean soil. To minimize erosion and exposure of mine waste and improve the aesthetics of a reclamation site, it may be necessary to establish a self-perpetuating vegetative cover on the final reclaimed surface.

Using Process Residuals

Use of process residuals as soil amendments may help address the problems of metal toxicity, infertility, and acidity that are common in soils at abandoned hard rock mine sites.

Correcting pH

At many hard rock mine sites, the waste rock and ore may contain large amounts of iron pyrite (FeS2).Over time, as the pyrite is exposed to air and water, the sulfur in the pyrite turns into sulfuric acid. The waste rock and ore may have some neutralization capacity but typically not enough to neutralize all the sulfuric acid. Additional liming (neutralization) materials can be applied to help neutralize the acidity.

Addressing Metal Toxicities

The metal contaminants of greatest concern at abandoned hard rock mine sites are arsenic, cadmium, lead, and zinc (EPA, 2000a).Cadmium, lead, and zinc in soil can be rendered less mobile and thus less bioavailable by adding soil amendments. Three soil amendments that help immobilize these metals in soils are phosphorous fertilizer materials (such as diammonium phosphate, phosphoric acid, and triple super phosphate), organic amendments (such as biosolids, compost, manure, and chicken litter), and Portland cement.

Control and Treatment-Mine Drainage and Storm- Water Runoff

Depending on the proposed reuse of a site and the nature and quantity of the mine drainage, it may be necessary to provide either control or treatment of the drainage as part of site reclamation. Reducing or eliminating mine drainage through use of source controls such as surface water diversion or collection, ground-water diversion, and channel liners is generally the preferred option.

Control and Treatment-Mine Drainage and Storm- Water Runoff

Passive treatment systems for AMD are relatively simple to construct and may require minimal operation and maintenance. However, passive treatment systems can generally treat only small to moderate flows with low to moderate levels of iron, dissolved metals, and acidity.

6.3 Action Area Plan

The proposed activity for the study area found out through the analysis can be recommended to be recreational. It is the most feasible activity for an abandoned mine. Depending upon the findings, the site has been developed as a recreational area for people of all ages. The concept is to implement each and every corner of the site in the overall design layout so that full justification is done to the existing strengths and threats being used positively.

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Figure 6.1. Proposed Recreation activity in the study area.( Image source: Author)

The approach being from the North direction and the walking trail is being designed in such a way that the whole site is being covered .The walkways will allow one to pass through interpretive exhibits at various intervals as one passes through the landscaped area.The elevated areas are being treated as potential view points and to create an interesting element, bridges are being placed above the two water bodies to allow people to have visual sensation of the water. Various areas are being located as potential picnic spots as well as play areas. The viewpoints are such located to give a fixed frame as well as a panoramic view.

The water sports like boating are also suggested to form an overall interactive function within the site. The view of the SUNA Nadi from the various viewpoints is one of the positive aspects in the overall designing of the site.

The walking trails have been located to pass through the whole site in a loop form so that the entire area is covered by foot. It has been deliberately made to pass through the interpretive exhibits at the entrance so that one gets to know about the history of mining as soon as they enter the site. The museum allows one to have a detailed view of the past and present condition of the site through various media.

The walking trails will allow one to pass through landscaped areas with exhibits placed all throughout. The promenade is created to allow one to enjoy the scenic view of the river SUNA covering a long stretch in southern direction. Creation of halting spaces along the walkyway will break the monotony of walking. The different layers of vegetations can be placed accordingly in different locations on site with reference to the species recommended in the analysis part. Further it can be detailed out by marking each of the species with their scientific names so that this serves as an educational botanical park also.

6.4 Mine Closure Planning Recommendations

Mine Closure Planning is to achieve a post closure status that leaves behind an enduring positive legacy in the community. Health, safety, social, environmental, legal, governance and human resource considerations are addressed from exploration through to post closure.

Good mine closure planning should begin at the feasibility stage and contain at least the following six elements:

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Figure 6.3: Progressive Closure Planning Image Source: Planning for Integrated Mine closure Toolkit

- Specifics about the expected final landform and surface rehabilitation, including removal of plant and equipment and stabilization and detoxification of dumps and impoundments.
- Risk assessment to help set priorities for preparatory work.
- Cost-benefit analysis of different options as the plan is being prepared, reviewed, and updated.
- A management plan for how closure will be implemented.
- Proposals for post-closure monitoring arrangements (who monitors, for how long, who pays, who enforces compliance with environmental requirements).

Mine closure plans should be integrated with annual mining plans, especially regarding environmental protection.

Comprehensive mine closure for abandoned mines, operating mines and the future mines remain a major challenge for every mining nation in the world. Planned decommissioning, closure and reclamation planning have in recent years become a legal necessity in India since 2003 as pragmatic business approach and an environmental responsibility are viewed as an integrated part of mining cycle. There is still lack of expertise in this field. Closure and rehabilitation costs must be directly or indirectly borne by the state. Studies on environmental impacts of mining post closure are very rare. Hence considerable efforts are needed to be directed towards environment and safety risk assessment of mines after mine closure.

Hence my proposal will include a progressive mine closure planning recommendation incorporation the above six major points and applicable to all mining area new or already leased out.

6.5 Benefits

The benefits of redevelopment of such a site are manifold which will not only revive the area but also bring in infrastructure facilities to such areas.

- The Skill Development Institute will help in educating and training the local people who lack in basic skills and education, which also happens to be the focus of the present Government as seen from the Budget Allocation for establishment of Skill Development Institute in every District.
- The Social Forest will benefit the local people in many ways.

i. Betterment of environment
ii. Reduction of pollution
iii. Providing the basic needs of rural and urban people for fuel, small timber, manure leaf and other economic products nearer to home
iv. Provide shelter for insectivorous birds on the farms
v. Prevention of soil erosion
vi. Fullest utilization of land unsuitable for cultivation
vii. Employment opportunities in rural area
viii. Recreation
ix. Achievement of self-sufficiency by the villages

- The type of activities will generate economy by inviting stakeholders. This will also improve the quality of environment by preserving and enhancing the urban scape.
- The economic benefits will bring in infrastructure facilities to these areas since they remain in remote location but also the output from such a development will set trends in the development process and then only a change can be brought in the abandoned mines.

7. Conclusion

This study has developed a methodology for assessment of redevelopment needs in an area which is abandoned and closed iron ore and manganese mine. Application of this methodology revealed that the area under study has been environmentally degraded to a considerable extent. The visual analysis as well as zoning analysis revealed that there are potential for redevelopment.

Multicriteria analysis was termed to be suitable to determine the best redevelopment options. A part of the study area is under active mine, the remaining has been found to be suitable for development for recreational activity. This study was based on mine and socio-economic survey. However, it should be noted that for decision making the ongoing other development activities of the area will also have to be incorporated.

Considering the rapid urbanization in the Joda Barbil, Keonjhar Area, It is concluded from the study that further investigation on the technical aspects for sustainable development such as the water quality and vegetative sensitivity of the site needs to be initiated at the earliest. Analysis of other stakeholders interested in the area has not been included in the study for example .local government, state government, private business organizations etc. This research study is an approach towards finding out an alternative solution to areas which are usually kept unutilized when there is a dearth of “new land” in today’s urban scenario. Recreation is one such activity which hold good for any area where the main aspect is to maintain a balance between nature and the activity. This can be broadly termed as a module which shows how abandoned areas have the potential for being redeveloped in spite of being extensively used. The project has been formulated by keeping in mind conservation of the natural resources leading to a sustainable approach in broad planning terms. The research approach hence concludes that the abandoned mine areas has redevelopment potential and so can be enhanced with accurate planning solutions.

8. References

- Siikamäki & Wernstedt “Turning Brownfields into Greenspaces: Examining Incentives and Barriers to Revitalization Resources for the Future”.
- Alexander Tölle, Dominika Muszyńska – Jeleszyńska, Jakub Tadych, Magdalena Jasińska, “Report about concepts and tools for brownfield redevelopment activities”.
- S. Schädler , M. Morio, S. Bartke , R. Rohr-Zänker, M. Finkel, “Designing sustainable and economically attractive brownfield revitalization options using an integrated assessment model”.
- Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing,” A Practical Guide to Brownfield Redevelopment in Ontario”.
- CABERNET Network Report, “Sustainable Brownfield Regeneration”.
- Peter Buchmann ,Anna-Theresa Richter & Carsten Schittko “International Perspectives: Germany, Iraq, Russia German Approaches to Brownfield Redevelopment: Insights for Georgia‘s Cities”.
- Amarendra Das “Can Mining Provide a Sustainable Source of Livelihood?” Centre of Advanced Study in Economics, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar.
- Breeding, Corrin James, "Socio-economic Revitalization Through Brownfield Reclamation. " Master's Thesis, University of Tennessee, 2012.
http://trace.tennessee.edu/utk_gradthes/1329
- G. Siebielec (ed.), ”Brownfield Redevelopment as an Alternative to Greenfield Consumption In Urban Development In Central Europe”. January, 2012
- Lee Oliver1, Uwe Ferber2, Detlef Grimski3, Kate Millar1, Paul Nathanail1,” The Scale and Nature of European Brownfields”, Graumann und Partner, Leipzig, Germany
- Johannes M. Dörle, “Economic Perspectives Of Brownfield Development : An Integrated Approach – Case Study Stuttgart, Germany”, Ghent, May 16th 2013
- “Brownfields Redevelopment :A compendium of case studies, Volume I“ , U.S. Enviromental Protection Agency and The United States Conference of Mayors. 2003.
- EPA, Last updated on 2010 October 12, International Brownfields Case Study: Emscher Park, Germany, Brownfields and Land Revitalization http://www.epa.gov/brownfields

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Details

Title
The Sustainable Redevelopment of Brownfields. The Case of Joda Barbil in India
Author
Year
2016
Pages
29
Catalog Number
V372534
ISBN (Book)
9783668515277
File size
1449 KB
Language
English
Tags
sustainable, redevelopment, brownfields, case, joda, barbil, india
Quote paper
Mohammad Rajaullah (Author), 2016, The Sustainable Redevelopment of Brownfields. The Case of Joda Barbil in India, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/372534

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