Phytochemical characterization of Averrhoa bilimbi and in vitro analysis of cholesterol lowering effect on fatty food materials


Scientific Study, 2017

31 Pages, Grade: 1.5


Excerpt

Table of contents

Table of contents

Table of figures

Table of tables

List of abbreviations

Phytochemical characterization of Averrhoa bilimbi and in vitro analysis of cholesterol lowering effect on fatty food materials

Abstract

1. Introduction
1.1 Objectives

2. Review of literature

3. Hypothesis

4. Materials and Methods
4.1 Study area
4.2 Collection of plant material
4.3 Preparation of Averrhoa bilimbi fruit pulp extracts
4.4 Phytochemical screening
4.5 Preparation of cholesterol samples
4.7 Estimation of cholesterol
4.8 Statistical analysis

5. Results and discussion

6. Conclusions

Acknowledgements

References

Table of figures

Figure 1. Map of Kerala showing the soil sample collection point. Authors own work.

Figure 2. Details of Averrhoa bilimbi plant with fruits a), e), f) fruits on tree trunk, b) mature fruits, c), d) fruits cut opened, g) fruit cross section. Authors own image.

Figure 3. Details of phytochemical analysis of Averrhoa bilimbi fruit (water extract S1); A. terpenoids, B. leucoanthocyanins, C. flavonoids, D. proteins, E. alkaloids, F. anthraquinones, G. glycosides, H. coumarins, I. emodin J. carbohydrate, K. phenols, L. saponins, M. phlobatannins, N. steroids, O. anthocyanins. Authors own image.

Figure 4. Details of phytochemical analysis of Averrhoa bilimbi fruit (water extract S2); A. terpenoids, B. leucoanthocyanins, C. flavonoids, D. proteins, E. alkaloids, F. anthraquinones, G. glycosides, H. coumarins, I. emodin J. carbohydrate, K. phenols, L. saponins, M. phlobatannins, N. steroids, O. anthocyanins. Authors own image.

Figure 5. Standard graph for cholesterol estimation by Zak’s method.

Table of tables

Table 1. Nutritional value per 100 g Averrhoa bilimbi fruit.

Table 2. Vitamin content per 100 g Averrhoa bilimbi fruit.

Table 3. Mineral content per 100 g Averrhoa bilimbi fruit.

Table 4. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of Averrhoa bilimbi fruit extracts.

Table 5. Cholesterol estimation at different time intervals after treatment (n=3; values in mg/g sample).

List of abbreviations

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Firstly we thank God Almighty whose blessing were always with us and helped us to complete this project work successfully.

We wish to thank our beloved Manager Rev. Fr. Dr. George Njarakunnel, Respected Principal Dr. Joseph V.J, Vice Principal Fr. Joseph Allencheril, Bursar Shaji Augustine and the Management for providing all the necessary facilities in carrying out the study. We express our sincere thanks to Mr. Binoy A Mulanthra (lab in charge, Department of Biotechnology) for the support. This research work will not be possible with the co-operation of many farmers.

Lastly, we extend our indebt thanks to patents, friends, and well wishers for their love and support.

Prem Jose Vazhacharickal*, Jiby John Mathew, Sajeshkumar N.K and Nila Joy

*Address for correspondence

Assistant Professor

Department of Biotechnology

Mar Augusthinose College

Ramapuram-686576

Kerala, India

Phytochemical characterization of Averrhoa bilimbi and in vitro analysis of cholesterol lowering effect on fatty food materials

Prem Jose Vazhacharickal1, Jiby John Mathew1, Sajeshkumar N.K1 and Nila Joy1

1Department of Biotechnology, Mar Augusthinose College, Ramapuram, Kerala, India-686576

Abstract

As the prevalence of obesity and hypercholesterolemia are very common in our society, plants with cholesterol lowering action has great value in modern therapeutics. The phytochemicals present in the extracts of Averrhoa bilimbi were analyzed and its effect on lowering cholesterol in various fatty food materials was evaluated in vitro. Various phytochemical compounds like tannins, saponins, alkaloids, emodins, proteins, carbohydrate, terpenoids, glycosides, flavonoids, coumarins and phenols were found in the fruit extracts of the plant. The level of cholesterol was evaluated by Zak’s method in five different fatty food materials. After the treatment with extract four of them showed significant reduction in the cholesterol level day by day and no change in the cholesterol level was observed in one sample.

Keywords: Cholesterol; Zak’s method; Hypercholesterolemia, Antihyperlipidemic, Emodins, Coumarins.

1. Introduction

From ancient times plants have provided a source of inspiration for novel drug compounds, plant derived medicines have made large contributions to human health and well-being (Aiyelaagbe et al., 2000). Many of the powerful drugs used in modern medicines originated in plants. Plants are the major source for bio-active compounds they are meant for several biological activities in human and animals having therapeutic properties. Medicinal plants possess various medicinal properties; have been serving as the major sources of therapeutic agents for maintenance of human health (Silver et al., 1990). Besides small molecules from medicinal chemistry, natural products are still major sources of innovative therapeutic agents for various conditions, including infectious diseases (Clardy and 2004). Current research on natural molecules and products primarily focuses on plants since they can be sourced more easily and selected on the basis of their ethno-medicinal use (Verpoorte et al., 2005).

The lipids in the body are mainly represented by cholesterol, triglycerides, and phospholipids. Elevated blood lipid levels are the major risk factors for the development of cardiovascular diseases, coronary artery disease, cerebro vascular disease, and peripheral vascular disease. These conditions often lead to heart attacks and strokes. Several medicinal plants have been scientifically evaluated for their lipids-lowering property with respect to control aforementioned disorders. Pharmacological investigations have revealed that Averrhoa bilimbi possesses lipid-lowering property (Alhassan and Ahmed, 2016).

Averrhoa bilimbi (commonly known as bilimbi, cucumber tree or tree sorrel) is a fruit bearing tree of the genus Averrhoa, family oxalidaceae, is medicinally used as a folk remedy for many symptoms. It is used for the treatment of fever, mumps, pimples, inflammation of the rectum and diabetes, itches, boils, rheumatism, syphilis, bilious colic, whooping cough, hypertension, stomach ache, ulcer and as a cooling drink (Kumar et al., 2011). When used in high concentrations the fruit juice can lead to acute renal failure due to acute tubular-necrosis, owing to its high oxalate contents which results in intra-tubular oxalate crystal deposition.

Cholesterol is carried in the blood attached to proteins called lipoproteins. There are two main forms, LDL (low density lipoprotein) and HDL (high density lipoprotein). LDL cholesterol is often referred to as "bad cholesterol" because too much is unhealthy. HDL is often referred to as “good cholesterol” because it is protective. Now a day many people eating too much saturated fat such as butter, ghee, fatty meat and meat products, full fat cheese, milk, cream, coconut and palm oils and coconut cream that increases cholesterol levels. Many people eating fruits of Averrhoa bilimbi and believes that it will reduce the blood cholesterol level.

1.1 Objectives

The objectives of this study to evaluate the phytochemical properties of extract of Averrhoa bilimbi fruit pulp and In Vitro analysis of its cholesterol lowering effect on various fatty food materials.

2. Review of literature

From ancient times plants have provided a source of inspiration for novel drug compounds, plant derived medicines have made large contributions to human health and well-being. Many of the powerful drugs used in modern medicines originated in plants. Plants provide wealth of bioactive compounds. They are the main source of drugs that being used from the ancient times as herbal remedies for the health care, prevention and cure of various diseases and ailments (Kalia, 2005). Plants make many chemical compounds for biological functions, including defence against insects, fungi and herbivorous mammals. Over 12,000 active compounds are known to science. These chemicals work on the human body in exactly the same way as pharmaceutical drugs, so herbal medicines can be beneficial and have harmful side effects just like conventional drugs. However, since a single plant may contain many substances, the effects of taking a plant as medicine can be complex. Many Indian plants are used therapeutically for their anti-diabetic effect, anti-hyperlipidemic activity and anti-bacterial activities (Patel et al., 2009). Medicinal plants have been identified and used throughout human history. Plants make many chemical compounds for biological functions, including defence against insects, fungi and herbivorous mammals. At least 12,000 such compounds have been isolated; this is estimated to be less than 10% of the total. These chemicals work on the human body in exactly the same way as pharmaceutical drugs, so herbal medicines can be beneficial and have harmful side effects just like conventional drugs.

Over the past decade, herbal medicine has become a topic of global importance, making an impact on both world health and international trade. Medicinal plants continue to play a central role in the healthcare system of large proportions of the world’s population (Akerele, 1988).

Cholesterol is an organic molecule. It is a sterol or modified steroid (Cholesterol, The US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings) a type of lipid molecule, and is biosynthesized by all animal cells, because it is an essential structural component of all animal cell membranes; essential to maintain both membrane structural integrity and fluidity.

Cholesterol is one of three major classes of lipids which all animal cells use to construct their membranes and is thus manufactured by all animal cells. Plant cells do not manufacture cholesterol. It is also the precursor of the steroid hormones and bile acids. Since cholesterol is insoluble in water, it is transported in the blood plasma within protein particles (lipoproteins). Lipoproteins are classified by their density: very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), LDL, intermediate density lipoprotein (IDL) and HDL (Biggerstaff and Wooten, 2004).

Cholesterol enables animal cells to dispense with a cell wall, thereby allowing animal cells to change shape rapidly and animals to move. In addition to its importance for animal cell structure, cholesterol also serves as a precursor for the biosynthesis of steroid hormones, bile acid (Hanukoglu, 1992) and vitamin D. Cholesterol is the principal sterol synthesized by all animals. In vertebrates, hepatic cells typically produce the greatest amounts. It is absent among prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea), although there are some exceptions, such as Mycoplasma, which require cholesterol for growth (Razin and Tully JG, 1970).

Each cell is capable of synthesizing cholesterol by way of a complex 37-step process, beginning with the mevalonate pathway and ending with a 19-step conversion of lanosterol to cholesterol. Furthermore, it can be absorbed directly from animal-based foods.

According to guidelines of national cholesterol education program (NCEP), total cholesterol (TC) concentrations below 200 mg/dL have been regarded as desirable, whereas, concentrations greater than 240 mg/dL are referred to as hyperlipidemic.

Hyper-lipidemia is a condition when abnormally high levels of lipids; the fatty substance are found in the blood. This condition is also called hyper-cholesterolemia/hyper-lipoproteinemia (Amit et al., 2011). The main cause of hyper-lipidemia includes changes in lifestyle habits in which risk factor is mainly poor diet; with a fat intake greater than 40% of total calories, saturated fat intake greater than 10% of total calories; and cholesterol intake greater than 300 mg per day or treatable medical conditions (Durrington, 1995). Hyper-lipidemia associated lipid disorders are considered to cause the atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The main aim of treatment in patients with hyper-lipidemia is to reduce the risk of developing ischemic heart disease or the occurrence of further cardio-vascular or cerebro-vascular disease (Smith and Pekkanen, 1992).

Currently used hypo-lipidemic drugs are associated with so many adverse effects and withdrawal is associated with rebound phenomenon which is not seen with herbal preparations. Plant parts or plant extract are sometimes even more potent than known hypo-lipidemic drugs.

Averrhoa bilimbi is a multipurpose, long-lived tropical plant commonly known as”Bilimbi” or “Cucumber Tree” belonging to family Oxalidaceae. The plant has an enormous fiscal value since most of the parts like leaves, bark, flowers, fruits, seeds, roots or the whole plant are used as alternative medicine to treat a variety of diseases.

Averrhoa bilimbi is a native of Moluccas, but the bilimbi is cultivated throughout Indonesia, Philippines, Ceylon and Burma. It is very common in Thailand, Malaya and Singapore; frequent in gardens across the plains of India (Morton, 1987).

Averrhoa bilimbi is a tropical tree, more sensitive to cold especially when very young. It prefers direct sunlight and seasonally humid climates, with evenly distributed rainfall throughout most of the year but there should be a 2-3 month dry season (Roy et al., 2011).

The tree is attractive, long-lived, reaches 16 to 33 feet (5-10 m) in height; has a short trunk soon dividing into a number of upright branches. The wood is white, soft but tough and even-grained

The leaves are mainly clustered at the branch tips. They are alternate, imparipirmate; 30-60 cm long, with alternate or sub opposite leaflets, with rounded base and pointed tip. The leaves are medium-green on the upper surface and pale on the underside. The leaves are applied as a paste on itches, swellings of mumps and rheumatism, and on skin eruption. They are applied on bites of poisonous creatures. Fresh or fermented leaves are used for treatment of venereal disease. A leaf infusion is a remedy for coughs and is taken after childbirth as a tonic. A leaf decoction can be also taken to relieve rectal inflammation

Small, fragrant, 5-petalled flowers, yellowish-green or purplish marked with dark-purple, are borne in small, hairy panicles emerging directly from the trunk and some twigs. A flower infusion is said to be effective against coughs and thrush.

Averrhoa bilimbi is ellipsoid or nearly cylindrical, 4-10 cm long; capped by a thin, star-shaped calyx at the stem-end and tipped with 5 hair-like floral remnants at the apex. The fruit is crisp when unripe, turns from bright-green to yellowish-green, ivory or nearly white when ripe and falls to the ground. The outer skin is glossy, very thin, soft and tender, and the flesh green, jelly-like, juicy and extremely acid. There may be a few flattened, disc-like seeds about 1/4 in (6 mm) wide, smooth and brown. The fruit conserve is administered as a treatment for coughs, beriberi and biliousness. Syrup prepared from the fruit is taken as a cure for fever and inflammation and to stop rectal bleeding and alleviate internal hemorrhoids.

The chemical constituents of Averrhoa bilimbi include amino acids, citric acids, cyanidin-3-o-h-glucoside, phenolics, potassium ion and sugars.

Averrhoa bilimbi is a nutrition-packed, starchy fruit that grows mostly on the trunk of tall trees. It is a rich source of vitamin C. Other than the vitamins and minerals, the fruit also consists of fibre, ash, protein and moisture as well as minerals.

Table 1. Nutritional value per 100 g Averrhoa bilimbi fruit.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 2. Vitamin content per 100 g Averrhoa bilimbi fruit.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 3. Mineral content per 100 g Averrhoa bilimbi fruit.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

The extract of various parts of Averrhoa bilimbi is medicinally used as a folk remedy for many symptoms and showed significant pharmacological activities. As the prevalence of obesity and Diabetes mellitus are very common in our society, research on plants with anti-diabetic and anti-hyperlipidaemic action has great value in modern therapeutics. The data compiled shows that, Averrhoa bilimbi is a potent herb for future research since it is anti-hyperlipidaemic. For optimum effect in patients, the components responsible should be isolated, purified and further clinical trials has to be conducted.

Various extracts of fruit and leaves of Averrhoa bilimbi have anti-diabetic, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, cyto-toxic activities, anti-oxidant activity, anti-fertility, and anti-bacterial activities. These properties of Averrhoa bilimbi fruit have been accredited to its saponins, tannins and flavonoids.

The leaves ethanol extract of Averrhoa bilimbi was reported to exhibit appreciable antimicrobial activity against six pathogenic microorganisms, namely two Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus cereus and Bacillus megaterium), two Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), and two fungi (Aspergillus ochraceous and Cryptococcus neoformans) (Mackeen et al., 1997). The fruit preparations were also found to reduce the microbial load of Listeria monocytogenes Scott A and Salmonella typhimurium on raw shrimps after washing and during storage (4°C). The fruits and roots extracts of Averrhoa bilimbi were also found to exhibit the positive activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mohamad et al., 2011). The leaves extracts have also been reported to display moderate antifungal activity against Blastomyces dermatitidis, Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans,

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Details

Title
Phytochemical characterization of Averrhoa bilimbi and in vitro analysis of cholesterol lowering effect on fatty food materials
College
Mar Augusthinose College
Grade
1.5
Authors
Year
2017
Pages
31
Catalog Number
V373114
ISBN (eBook)
9783668498853
ISBN (Book)
9783668498860
File size
3690 KB
Language
English
Tags
phytochemical, averrhoa
Quote paper
Dr. Prem Jose Vazhacharickal (Author)Jiby John Mathew (Author)Sajeshkumar N.K. (Author)Nila Joy (Author), 2017, Phytochemical characterization of Averrhoa bilimbi and in vitro analysis of cholesterol lowering effect on fatty food materials, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/373114

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