Strength Development of Lime and Cement-Treated Marine Clay under Ponding Conditions

Bachelor Thesis, 2017

79 Pages










1.1 Research Background
1.2 Introduction
1.3 Research Objectives
1.4 Problem Statement
1.5 Scope of Study

2.1 Introduction
2.2 Soil
2.3 Classification of Soil
2.3.1 American Association of State Highway and Transportation (AASTHO)
2.3.2 Unified Soil Classification System (USCS)
2.4 Clay Mineral and Formation
2.5 Marine Clay
2.6 Soil Improvement
2.6.1 Lime Stabilization of Soil
2.6.2 Cement Stabilization of Soil
2.8 The Impact of Climate Change on Soil Processes
2.9 Review of Summary

3.1 Introduction
3.2 Raw Material Preparation
3.2.1 Marine Clay
3.2.2 Cement
3.2.3 Lime
3.3 Methods of Experiments
3.3.1 Grain Size Distribution
3.3.2 Atterberg Limits Liquid Limit Plastic Limit
3.3.3 Unconfined Compression Strength (UCS)
3.3.4 California Bearing Ratio (CBR)

4.1 Introduction
4.2 Characteristics of Marine Clay
4.2.1 Atterberg Limit
4.2.2 Grain Size Distribution
4.2.3 Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS)
4.2.4 California Bearing Ratio (CBR)
4.3 Review Summary

5.1 Summary
5.2 Recommendations
5.3 Commercialization







Merawat tanah liat marin adalah penting untuk tujuan selanjutnya dalam pembinaan dan infrastruktur lain. Tanah liat marin dikenali sebagai sejenis tanah liat lembut yang mana tidak boleh menapung beban yang tinggi dan boleh dijumpai di pesisir pantai dan dalam likungan berhampiran dengan laut. Objektif kajian ini adalah untuk menentukan sifat-sifat fizikal dan kejuruteraan tanah liat marin yang diambil dari Kuala Perlis, Malaysia, untuk menyelidik peningkatan kekuatan tanah liat marin dirawat dengan kapur dan simen dan mengkaji kesan jangka panjang kapur dan simen dalam rawatan tanah liat marin terutama dalam keadaan takungan. Dalam kajian ini tanah liat marin akan dikaji dengan mencampurkan kapur dan simen untuk menentukan peningkatan kekuatan terutamanya di bawah keadaan takungan. Sampel dikelaskan berdasarkan AASTHO dan sistem pengelasan USCS dengan menggunakan ujian had Atterberg (had cecair dan had plastik) dan analisis ayak. Di mana ujian UCS dan CBR dijalankan untuk menentukan kekuatan sebelum dan selepas menambah peratusan kapur dan simen OPC yang berbeza. Berdasarkan kepada had limit Atterberg dan sejajar kepada taburan saiz bijian tanah liat marin, sampel tanah dikelaskan mengikut ASSTHO sebagai berkelodak atau kerikil berlempung dan pasir. Dalam ujian UCS pula kedua-dua kapur dan simen menunjukkan peningkatan dalam terma kekuatan mampat takterkurung. Kekuatan tertinggi diberikan selepas penambahan sebanyak 12%. Dalam keadaan takungan air, ujian CBS dijaklankan untuk menyelidik kesan jangka masa panjang anah liat marin terawatt degan kapur dan simen. Nilai CRS tertinggi adalah pada selepas 28 hari pengawetan. Namun tetapi, kajian menunjukan kedua-dua kapur dan simen boleh digunakan untuk meningkatkan kekuatan tanah liat marin lembut.


Treating marine clay is important for further purposed in construction and other infrastructure. Marine clay is considered as soft clay that can not resist heavy load and it found both in the littoral and in a few seaward ranges. The objective of this study is to determine physical and engineering properties of marine clay collected from Kuala Perlis, Malaysia, to investigate the improvement of strength of marine clay treated with lime and cement and investigate the long term effect of lime and cement in treatment marine clay under ponding condition. In this study marine clay will be studied by mixing lime and cement in order to determine the strength development especially under ponding condition. The sample classified based on AASTHO and USCS classification systems by using Atterberg limits test (liquid limit and plastic limit) and sieve analysis test. Where Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS) and California Bearing Ratio test (CBR) were conducted to determine the strength before and after adding different percentages of lime and OPC cement. Based on Atterberg limit and corresponding to the grain size distribution of the marine clay, the soil sample is classified according to ASSHTO as silty or clayey gravel and sand. In the UCS test both lime and cement shows an improvement in term of unconfined compressive strength. The highest strength is given after 12% of additional. Under ponding condition, CBR test was conducted to investigate the long term effect of lime and cement treated marine clay. The highest CBR value is given after 28 day of curing. Nonetheless, the study shows that both lime and cement can be used to improve the strength of soft marine clays.


2.1 American Association of State Highway and Transportation (AASTHO) Classification Criteria

2.2 Soil Classification Chart

2.3 Classified Soil Based on Clay Mineralogy

2.4 Physical Properties of Marine Clay

2.5 Properties of the Untreated Soil

2.6 UCS Test Data at Different Curing Period

2.7 Result of Unconfined Compressive Test, Cement Treat Soil Clay

2.8 Result of CBR Test, Cement Treated Soil Clay

3.1 Atterberg Limits Value for Soil

4.1 Test Result for Liquid Limit

4.2 Test Result for Plastic Limit Test

4.3 Judgement of Soft Ground in Clay by SPT and Unconfined Compressive Strength

4.4 Summary of Unconfined Compressive Strength Test

4.5 Results for CBR for Marine Clay Mixed With 8% of Lime

4.6 Results for CBR for Marine Clay Mixed With 8% of Cement

4.7 Summary Result for CBR Test

4.8 Results Summary


3.1 Research Flow Chart

3.2 OPC Cement

3.3 Lime

3.4 Sieve Shaker

3.5 Cone Penetration

3.6 Compression Machine

3.7 CBR Machine

4.1 Graph of Liquid Limit Test

4.2 Graph of Grain Size Distribution on Each Sieve

4.3 Effect of Addition Lime on Marine Clay Unconfined Compressive Strength

4.4 Effect of Addition of Cement on Marine Clay Unconfined Compressive Strength

4.5 Graph Load VS Penetration for CBR Test Mixed With Lime

4.6 Graph Load VS Penetration for CBR Test Mixed With Cement


(1) Unconfined Compressive Strength Equation

(2) California Bearing Ratio Equation


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1.1 Research Background

Between the past and the present soil is the main element in any construction. Right from the ancient times people used to build their huts and houses in solid soil layers. However, in order to follow-up the urban development the mankind started to build even in a very soft soil layer by treating these layers. Lime and cement nowadays are widely used as a treatment to increase the stability of soft clayey such.

The firmness of the underlying soils is the long-term performance of any construction project depends on. Unstable soil can produce substantial problems for structures or road pavement. With proper design and construct techniques such as lime and cement treatment transforms the unstable underlying soils to stable layers. Indeed, the structural strength of cement-stabilized or lime-stabilized soils can be factored into pavement designs (Ibtehaj, 2014).

Lime and cement stabilization utilized to be factored to enhance soils to varying degrees, depend upon the target. The least quantity of treatment is utilized to temporarily modify or dry soils. Such a small treatment could makes a functioning underlying soil for temporary roads or structure, a greater degree of discourse that can be examine, invention, and proper construction techniques can produces long-term structural stabilization of soils (Ibtehaj, 2014).

1.2 Introduction

Marine clay can be present as soft soil clay that can be fined in both littoral and in a few seaward ranges. It is altogether vary from moist ground and dry land. It is microcrystalline in nature and soil minerals such as illite, kaolinite and chlorite and non-clay minerals such as feldspar and quartz are available in the soil. The soil contain a high percentage of organic matters that acts as a cementing agent (Mohd Yunus, 2015) .Dispose these layers is not an ideal solution. Instead of that, soft clays layer can be enhanced by addition of cement or lime to develop the strength.

There are two noteworthy compound responses actuated by the expansion of cement and water. The first is primary hydration response which prompts the underlying increase in strength due to the improvement of drying up of the soil-cement mix and crucial cementitious products. Where the secondary is Pozzolanic response, additionally named as hardening, happens once the pore chemistry in soil framework accomplishes an adequately antacid condition (Xiao & Lee, 2008). The impact of lime is to develop the strength and to improve the compressibility behavior of Marine clay was investigated experimentally by conducting unconfined compression test and California bearing ratio test (CBR) on sample mixed with the lime or cement.

Local soil of Malaysia have often caused difficulties for several highway construction projects in term of high water content and low strength. Usually, cement and lime are used as stabilization agent. However, there is a need to study and examine the strength of cement and lime treated marine clay and also study the engineering properties of the marine clay that collected form Perlis.

The purpose of this study is to determine the California bearing ratio (CBR) by conducting a load penetration test in the laboratory and to evaluate the strength. Therefore, unconfined compressive strength (UCS) test carried out to determine the unconfined compressive strength of marine clay. This tests also show, the effectiveness of lime to stabilize Marine clay was investigated on the premise of lime substance and at various curing periods.

Beside that, many researches proven that using of cement as well as lime give additional benefits in strength development of the soil. However, the sample conducted in this study should by classified for further accurate properties, which it can be found by using two different classification systems American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASTHO) and Unified Soil Classification System (USCS).

1.3 Research Objectives

The objectives of this research are:

1- To determine characteristics of marine clay collected from Kuala Perlis.
2- To investigate the improvement of strength of marine clay treated with lime and cement. 3- To investigate the long term effect of lime and cement in treatment marine clay under ponding condition.

1.4 Problem Statement

Soil treating is the first stage in constructing that the building will stand on it. Normally, the base must be stable and strong, can resist loads and failure also it must support a huge load of a structure. This is the point that before any construction the soil should be study and analysis to know the status of the soil. Weak soil strength is the main reason of failure, collapse and settlement that engineers must consider it. The difficulties and trammels faced by engineers in soil can be present in many types, strength and properties.

Marine clay is classified as a soft soil, this layer considered to be a weak layer that cannot resist heavy loads. Recently, highways and other constructions that built nearby waterbodies are surrounded by soft soils layer such as marine clay that cannot hold construction loads without treatment. In order to continue the developments of marine clay, lime and cement might be the most stabile solution, since it is known that lime and cement improve the strength of soft marine clay. However, it is best known if the improvement is permanent or may actually decrease over time especially in an aqueous or wet environment. All of these elements can be found widely almost in every country.

1.5 Scope of Study

This study involves four types of laboratories testing such as Sieve Analysis test, Atterberg Limit test, Unconfined Compression Strength test (UCS) and California Bearing Ratio test (CBR). The sieve Analysis test is conducted to determine the grain size of the marine clay in order to classify marine clay sample. Where Atterberg Limits is a process to determine the plastic and liquid limits of fine-grained soil and to measure the moisture content of the soil.

The purpose of UCS test is to determine the unconfined compressive strength of a soil sample. This test will be conducted over eighteen samples. Nine out of eighteen samples will contain 4 %, 8 % and 12 % of lime mixing with marine clay each of them will be examined directly. Whilst, the remaining nine samples of marine clay will be mixed with cement with the same ratios.

Furthermore, CBR test determines the California Bearing Ratio by conducting a load penetration test in the laboratory. It also evaluates the strength of three samples contain cement and three samples contain lime mixing with the marine clay. This test will conduct a curing period of 7, 14 and 28 days immersed in water, where the ratio of mix is 8 % only.


2.1 Introduction

Soil can be differentiate into two groups base on its deposits. The first one is residual soil, where the soil formed from some weathering process. The second one is transported soil where soil transported for its original location to another (McCarthy, 2014). There are also three very broad categories which are organic, cohesionless and cohesive soil. Cohesionless soils is these soils that do not tend to stick together such as gravel and sand. While cohesive soils is known as these particles tend to stick to others, it specialized by its very small particle size (Iiu & Evett, 2004).

The heavy loads of structure that built on soil layer is subjected to settlement, where the settlement will affect the structure stability. The loads applied to the soil is the reason of the settlement as a result of instantaneous compression of the soil. Soil improvement is the concept of cementation, densification, drying and reinforcement where it continuously developing. To solve the low strength and improve soil stability, cement and lime is widely techniques that work as conventional cementation agent used initially for surface treatment.

2.2 Soil

Soil structure is a key consider soil ripeness and agrarian profitability and in this way has great natural significance. The impact of soil structure on outside layer development, root penetration, soil water and air development, CO2 emanation, disintegration, supplement maintenance and organic movement is outstanding. Soil structure, thus, relies on upon the collaboration of soil sort, aggregating operators, soil administration and ecological conditions. Soil structure is typically communicated as the level of aggregate steadiness in water. Various reviews have been directed on the impacts of land utilize change on aggregate security ,yet quite less consideration has been dedicated to dry aggregate size conveyance (dASD) and the elements influencing it (Ćirić1, 2012 ).

Dry ASD is one of the major physical qualities of Soil, and it firmly influences Soil fruitfulness and its imperviousness to disintegration and corruption. It is likewise thought to be a pointer of Soil structure. The significance of dASD is frequently connected to the powerlessness of soil to wind disintegration, which is firmly affected by the extent of the Soil Aggregates, particularly in dry and semiarid Environments (Ćirić1, 2012).

2.3 Classification of Soil

Different soils with similar attributes may can be divided into a groups and sub- groups base on their engineering behavior. A soil classification system is a system to differentiate a group of soils that shear similar behavior together to classify and describe them according to the size of particles. Currently there are several classification systems in use such as Unified Soil Classification System (USCS) and American Association of State Highway and Transportation (AASTHO), where USCS is widely used in many parts of the world typically with particles less than 0.075 mm size and AASHTO is used for road work typically for less 0.002 mm size.

2.3.1 American Association of State Highway and Transportation (AASTHO)

The AASHTO classification system was produced in 1929 as the Public Road Administration Classification System. The system has undergone several revisions proposed by the committee on classification of materials for subgrades and granular type. Roads of the Highway Research Board in 1945 (ASTM Designation D - 3282 AASHTO method M14.5).

At this system soil is classified into seven noteworthy Groups: A-l through A-7. Soils classified under bunches A-1, A-2. Furthermore, A-3 are granular materials of which 35 % or less often particles go through the No. 200 sieve. The No. 200 sieve is characterized under gatherings A-4, A-5, 4-6 for those soils which more than 35 % pass through, and A-7. These soils are mostly silt and clay-type materials (Izzatul Lille, 2012). The grouping system depends on the following criteria shown in Table 2.1.

Table 2.1: American Association of State Highway and Transportation (AASTHO) Classification criteria.

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2.3.2 Unified Soil Classification System (USCS)

The original configuration of the Unified Soil classification System was proposed by Casagrande in 1942 during the Second World War for use in airfield construction undertaken by the Army Corps of Engineers. In cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. The corps revised this system in 1952. At present, it is widely used by engineers (, ASTM designation D2487-11).

Geotechnical engineers more prefer Unified Soil Classification System (USCS). This system is used in order to describe grain size of soil and its texture as shown in Table 2.2. The nature gravelly and sandy which less than 50 % passing through the No.200 sieve they will classified as coarse grained soils (Laili, 2012).

Table 2.2: Soil classification chart ASTM designation D -2487

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2.4 Clay Mineral and Formation

The "clay" expression is associated both to the gathering of Minerals that has similar blend pieces and to essential valuable stone Structural attributes and materials having a subatomic size of less 2 micrometers (25,400 micrometers = 1 inch) (Velde, 1995) delineated in the accompanying portion. Earth Minerals have a broad assortment of atom sizes from 10's of angstroms to millimeters. (An angstrom (Å) is a unit of measure at the extent of particles.) Therefore, clays may be improved out of mixes of grained earth minerals and soil evaluated valuable stones of various minerals, for instance metal oxides and quartz. Both clays and clay inerals are found basically on or near the Earth surface.

The attributes ordinary to all clay minerals get from their substance association, layered structure, and size. Earth minerals all have an exceptional affection for water. Some swell successfully and may twofold in thickness when wet. Most can splash up ions (electrically charged particles and iotas) from an answer and release the ions later when conditions change. Water particles are insistently pulled into clay mineral surfaces. Exactly when a little soil is added to water, a slurry outline in light of the fact that the soil passes on itself impartially all through the water. This property of clay is used by the paint business to dissipate shade (shading) impartially all through a paint. Without clay to go about as a conveyor, it is difficult to consistently mix the paint base and shading. a mix of a significant measure of clay and a little water achieves a soil that can be formed and dried to outline a modestly firm solid. This property is abused by potters and the pottery generation industry to make plates, glasses, dishes, channels, and whatnot. Biological organizations use both these properties to make homogeneous liners to control the waste (Velde, 1995).

Another crucial property of clay minerals, the ability to exchange ions, relates to the charged surface of clay minerals. Particles can be pulled into the surface of a clay atom or taken up inside the structure of these minerals.

The property of clay minerals that causes ions in respond in due order regarding be settled on clay surfaces or inside inward regions applies to an extensive variety of ions, including normal particles like pesticides. Soils can be a fundamental vehicle for transporting and for the most part dispersing contaminants beginning with one territory then onto the following. Table 2.3 shows the classified soil based on clay mineralogy.

Table2.3: Classified soil based on clay mineralogy

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2.5 Marine Clay

Marine clay is that sort of soils found in sea bed board any lake to be delegated delicate soil clay, it is essentially relies on upon its underlying condition. It's essentially vary from clammy soil and dry soil. It is microcrystalline in nature and soil minerals such as illite, kaolinite and chlorite and non-clay minerals such as feldspar and quartz are available in the soil. Soil contain a high percentage of natural matters that goes about as a solidifying specialist. Marine clay is uncommon type of soil that generally exists in soft consistency, (Basackand & Purkayastha, 2009). Table 2.4 and Table 2.5 shows the physical properties of marine clay and untreated soil.

Table 2.4: Physical properties of marine clay (Mohd Yunus, 2015). Sample location: Johor, Malaysia

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Table 2.5: Properties of the untreated soil (Basackand & Purkayastha, 2009)

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2.6 Soil Improvement

Soil improvement is commonly actualized in light of the fact that there are many advantages such as to prevent extreme settlement of recovered land such as bridge, roads, airports and other foundations. The techniques involve changing soil characteristics by a physical action, such as vibration, or by the inclusion or addition in the soil of a some stabilization material such as lime and cement to improve the soil solidness with a specific end goal to avoid liquefaction and consequent harm to structures in seismic-sensitive regions, to improve the shear strength of the soil prevent slip failure and to improve the soil bearing capacity. A few strategies are connected to consolidate existing loose subsoil and some particularly for compaction of recently recovered soil (Chee, 2006).

2.6.1 Lime Stabilization of Soils

Soil stabilization is that the adjustments in elements of soil properties to deliver a perpetual quality and strength, especially concerning the activity of the water an. Calcium oxide, either alone or in aggravating with different materials, can be utilized to tend to a scope of soil sorts. The soils mineralogical properties will discover their level of reactivity with lime and a definitive quality that the settled layers will climb. Typically, fine-grained clay soils (with a lower bound of 25 percent passing the 200 sifters (74 mm) and a plasticity index more noteworthy than 10) are thought to be not kidding prospects for stabilization. Soils content an alternate amounts of natural material (more prominent than 1%) or sulfates (more noteworthy than 0.3 %) may require to include lime or extraordinary development techniques.

Lime is one of must common chemical that utilized to treat the soft clay such as marine clay. This material has brought numerous helpful impacts such as improvement in plasticity characteristics and strength develop with the time (Rajasekaran & Narasimha Rao, 2002).

Studies have shown that the use of lime in fine-grained soils results in less sensitive to changes in stress and others environmental factors as shown in Table 2.6. Many of soil specialists realized that lime is a good used to develop soil characteristics in civil engineering application. Recently, there were a lot of experiments to develop the characteristics of soft soils by using deep mixing technique (Rajasekaran & Narasimha Rao, 2002).

Table 2.6: UCS test data at different curing period (Laili, 2012) Sample location: Johor, Malaysia

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Lime also can be formed or mixed with cement as combination, lime additionally can be blending with bitumen or fly ash. In order to increase the stabilized of these elements, sandy soils can be added to accomplish the target. Base stabilization has commonly used in subgrade and highway bases. Properties of soil/aggregate mixtures in “full depth recycling” can be improve also by using lime.

There are two reaction stages will occur when lime is added to soil which are quick response and long haul response reaction which might take several months or years. At this stage Pozzolanic considered as the main reaction. the increase in soil workability and drying wet soil is associated with immediate treatment, where the increase in soil durability and strength is being caused in the long-term treatment (Ibtehaj, 2014).

However, adding lime cause changes in the natural of the soil layer and provides Pozzolanic action. Adding of lime with soil results reduce in Plasticity index of high plastic soil. There would be an increasing in optimum water content and on the other hand there would be a decrease in the maximum compacted density, strength and durability of soil increases. Submarginal base materials such as gravel-clay, gravels, and limestone that contain less than 50 % coarse material can be permanently stabilize by adding lime (LimeTreated Soil Construction Manual, 2004).

2.6.2 Cement Stabilization of Soils

Nowadays cement become a popular method of ground improvement technique. Adding cement into soil-water frameworks results physical and chemical changes under microstructural level and the mechanical behavior of soil treated at a macroscopic level. Primary hydration reaction is the fleeting addition from strength amid the chemical reaction prompts a diminishment in dampness content. This process produce two cementing minerals, which is Calcium Silicate Hydrates (CSH) and Calcium Aluminate Silicate Hydrates (CASH) (Ghee, 2006).

Cement adjustment has been produced throughout the years from surface treatment and reached out to a more prominent profundity. The most important factors that affecting the soil-cement are compaction, nature of soil content, admixtures used, conditions of mixing and curing. Amid the treatment time the elements that influencing the strength development are time of stress, humidity and curing temperature of treated soil. In sample way, the longer the curing period, the better strength development, due to the Pozzolanic reaction. Studies has been demonstrated the connection between strength and curing time regardless of soil sorts which the strength will increment with the expanding of curing time. Portland cement or fly ash cement were obtained in similar test results. the physical properties effected by curing time, compressibility characteristics of cement treated soils and unconfined compressive strength were investigated in the laboratory the results are tabulated in Table 2.7 and Table 2.8, many of studies were depend on odometer test and unconfined compressive strength test (Xiao & Lee, 2008).

Table 2.7: Result of unconfined compressive test, cement treat soil clay (Laili, 2012)

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Table 2.8: Result of CBR test, cement treated soil clay (Izzatul laili, M. 2012)

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2.8 The Impact of Climate Change on Soil Processes

Climate change and its hydrological outcomes can be reasons for the critical alteration of soil conditions. The effect investigation of potential future changes is somewhat hard, because of the vulnerabilities in the conjecture of worldwide and long term precipitation patterns (counting their spatial and fleeting fluctuation) and temperature joined here with the changing hydrological cycle and the perplexing and coordinated impact of characteristic verdure and land utilize design (halfway because of the adjustments in the financial conditions). In the common soil framing forms the pathogenic inactivity will bring about various time-slacks and reaction rates for various soil sorts created in assorted parts of our reality (Várallyay, 2010).

The Climate impact change on soil structure (sort, spatial association and solidness of soil totals) is a more mind boggling system. The hugest direct impact is the destructing part of surface overflow, sifting water and raindrops, as a rule amid overwhelming thunderstorms, downpours, and furthermore, the expanding danger, the recurrence and force of which are elements of climate change. The aberrant effect are brought on by modifications in the vegetation arrive utilize practices and example (Várallyay, 2010).

2.9 Review of Summary

The stability of any structure that built on soil will be affected by the settlement of the soil layer. But the chances of the settlement is greater in cohesive soil such marine clay. The basic concept of soil enhanced are cementation, reinforcement, densification and dying were widely used these days. To develop the soil strength there are several techniques that usually considered such as mixing the soil with lime or cement. Both of these materials are considered as enhanced materials. These methods were initially for surface treatment. The mixture both lime and cement with soil will increase the strength, load bearing capacity, compressibility and durability of the soil.


3.1 Introduction

Methodology is procedures that used for conducting study research. By doing the methodology the researcher will have the capacity to rearrange their work in view of the strategy that has been expressed. The procedures are utilized essentially to obtain with a specific end goal to get clear perception about the study. Research includes a procedure that starts from an idea of planning and conveys in the study, examination about the project, result investigation and perceiving the discoveries. Actually methodology covers the entire procedure of the research. On the off chance that the methodology is clear and reasonable, the research will have the capacity to finish the project sharp in time.

The following is a theoretical review of the work that was done. In consecutive order, a few stages can be distinguished. The procedure must be taken after to complete this project as shown in Figure 3.1.

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Figure 3.1: Research flow chart


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Strength Development of Lime and Cement-Treated Marine Clay under Ponding Conditions
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cement, lime, treatment, soil, marine clay
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Mohammed Faize (Author), 2017, Strength Development of Lime and Cement-Treated Marine Clay under Ponding Conditions, Munich, GRIN Verlag,


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