Ancient Civilization of Hittite and Greece. Comparative Analysis on Government, Law Language and Characteristics of the Middle Eastern civilization


Essay, 2016
9 Pages, Grade: 79.1

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advantages of large-scale irrigation farming. Civilization from Egypt and Mesopotamia
greatly inspired the Hittite to develop their civilization
The Greece civilization has evolved through their history; the ancient civilization period
starts from the periods between 12th t centuries to around500 BC. Ancient Greece comprised
of the mainland and the scattered islands and civilization took place in city states otherwise
known as Polis.
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Contrary to Hittite civilization, the Greece civilization rose on the people
mainly depending on farming activities. As civilization sets in, there was the advancement in
other areas including technology, art and poetry, and philosophy. The Greek Dark Age
predeceases the ancient Greece civilization and succeeded by the classical age
Most civilization in the ancient history revolves around the king, and so is the Hittite
civilization. The king was the head of state, and the practice was on the lineage heredity. The
unique civilization development in the ruling institution of the Hittite civilization was the
Assembly the assembly made of individuals from noble families who acted as the court of
appeal on the governance. Ideally, the assembly was the opposition to the king as it curtailed
his power and could out rule the king's decision. On the side of Greece, Greece had some
government system. Different cities had different forms of governments that ruled its
subjects. The ancient Greece states include the monarchs, oligarchies, tyrants and democratic
governments at various times and towns
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. The most famous monarch in the old time was the
3
Donlan, Walter, Michael Grant, and Rachel Kitzinger. "Civilization of the Ancient Mediterranean: Greece and
Rome." The American Historical Review 95, no. 2 (1990), 466. doi:10.2307/2163783
4
Gera, Deborah L. "3. Oligarchy and Oligarchs in Ancient Greece." Language and History in Ancient Greek
Culture (n.d.). doi:10.9783/9780812206098.39

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Sparta which had two kings usually brothers or causing ruling simultaneously. While one
king was at war, the other looked at home affairs
The kingdom was divided into small subunits consisting of communities. Each community
had a council of elders responsible for its affairs and reporting to the king. There were also
religious leaders, governors and the military officials with distinct administrative duties in the
community.
The Hittite kingdom consists of conquered territories who owe alliance to the Hittite king.
Those countries that surrendered to the Hittite king before ware, their kings retained power
but ruled and paid tribute to the king of the Hittite. The king received his kingdom and
allowed to operate as vassals' king who could not make any alliance with any other king other
than the Hittite great king
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. The agreement ensured that the weaker king was to be protected
from inversion from other kings resisting kingdoms were to be taken by force. Once the
Hittite conquered a nation trough war, its army carried the inhabitants and distributed among
the noble Hittites but not sold as slaves.
As the empire expanded, more techniques were sought to enable the King to take control of
the vassals. The king introduced governors who were in charge of large areas and acted as
intermediaries between the king and the vassals.
5
Gera, Deborah L. "3. Oligarchy and Oligarchs in Ancient Greece." Language and History in Ancient Greek
Culture (n.d.). doi:10.9783/9780812206098.39

4
Hittite Kingship succession was a major challenge as there was no clear law on such an
important matter drawing the attention of nobilities who were usually many with an interest
of being the successor of the sitting king. It was until 1525-1500 that when King Telipinus set
a clear guideline on the succession of the king when the problem was solved.
The king was the military leader, lawgiver, high priest, and the supreme judge. Although he
could delegate all other duties, he was the chief commander and could not delegate this role.
The Hittite king had titles that developed over time. Initially, the king was referred to as the
great king referring to the vassal king as being the minor kings. Latter, he was given the title
"my Sun" indicating that he was superhuman and lastly the "Hello beloved of God" about
being more of a god rather than human. At his death, the king was thought to join the spiritual
world.
Although Greece also had kings, their power was highly controlled, unlike the Hittite kings.
In the oligarchy government, rich and noble men referred to us aristocrats ruled the city.
Between 600bc and 500 BC, many states in Greece were ruled by tyrants. The tyrants were
more civilize as they were the only tyrant in a way they took one Aristotle seize power from
others trough approval and support of the poor
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. The dictator ruled the same way the Hittite
king could rule with no legal right. The most civilized form of government in the ancient
Greece was the rise of democratic government experienced nowhere else in the ancient time.
In Athens, the power people were given more power through a right to vote leaders.
6
Gera, Deborah L. "3. Oligarchy and Oligarchs in Ancient Greece." Language and History in Ancient Greek
Culture (n.d.). doi:10.9783/9780812206098.39

5
The large Hittite community composed of people from different origin such as the Hittite, the
Hitti, Luwians, Hurrians, and other communities that the kingdom conquered and all these
people had different culture necessitating law for good governance and application of
justices. On the other hand, Greece was a homogeneous society, and thus the cultural and
social norms unified the people. There was no prescribed official law or punishment until 800
BC. The Greece could revenge especially on issues of murder that resulted to endless blood
feuds.
The Hittite had an excellent reference to the application of justice trough the use of the law.
The old law articles obtained shows that the law was not static but rather developed gradually
from a more severe to a less harsh on. Archaeologist finds phrases like formerly the penalty
was in force, but now the king has ordained another penalty. The successor is usually less
severe or otherwise more human than the previous. In the ancient Greece, the civilization in
law took the same procedure. Draco established the first law in 620 BC. The law ware
reasonably harsh and the English named it draconian. More civilization is seen when Solon
took office as the law give. He refined law and ensured that justice was more available to the
civilians.
In the ancient Hittite, the body of law had no distinction between civic and criminal laws. The
rule of revenge and compensation were missing to ensure that civilians are not taking the law
into their hand but rather they are an operating system
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. In Cases where taking one life was
the desirable punishment, the king must give consent. Similarly, murder was the most serious
offense in Greece, but Draco prescribed exile as the punishment. The king was not part of the
law making the process as seen in the Hittite. The Greece lawgivers were appointed official
7
Bryce, Trevor. Life and Society in the Hittite World. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.

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resulting in no ruler influence in the law set. The ancient laws of Greece advanced as at that
time as the dictatorial rulers were curtailed by the Draco's established.
Hittite Laws stand on hypothetical cases followed by an appropriate ruling. Records show
that legal precedent was essential to the legal system even at this time. The case is similar to
the ancient Greece procedural laws that required gave details on how to apply rules. On
comparison, the ancient Greek laws were more information including little facts such as some
witnesses needed for someone to be found guilty.
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Notably, great civilization in the way cases
moved from one authority to another. A case started at the lower level and if the party in not
satisfied, he appeals at the higher rank.
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The king had few issues to handle. In Greece, the
judicial system was well defined and advanced. The court system put in place with judges
whose work was to prescribe penalty after the hearing in which the audience" jurors" could
vote.
Within the Hittite realm of the Hittite, two official languages were acceptable the Hittite and
the Akkadian while Hurrian was acceptable for business communication. The ancient Hittite
noticed the use o an official seal was acceptable. Rock carving and stone monuments
invented to preserve historical facts of the time. On the other hand, ancient Greece was the
first among the ancient civilization to write and read. The Greek language had three main
dialects namely Aeolic, Doric, and Ionic. In the Hittite civilization language developed along
different tribes of the time but, in Greece the Greek language developed with three dialects
8
Seignobos, Charles. History of Ancient Civilization. 2015.
9
Gera, Deborah L. "3. Oligarchy and Oligarchs in Ancient Greece." Language and History in Ancient
Greek Culture (n.d.). doi:10.9783/9780812206098.39.

7
contrary to the Hittite where three languages emerged and used as either official or
commercial.
The language history of the early language in Hittite civilizations best studied using
cuneiform. Cuneiform were an advanced form of writing brought into the Hittite and
developed more complexity through the use of wedge shapes.
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Contrary to the Hittite
civilization, the geek had a variety of preserving information and language. The most
dominating work in ancient Greece is philosophical work seen nowhere in the old time
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.
Literature such as poet, drama history and philosophical saying dominate the ancient
civilization of the Greece.
Civilization contains prominent people whose ideas and acts ware beyond the conventional
society of the time. The most famous people during early civilization of Greece include
Socrates, Alexander the great, Aristotle, Plato, Pythagoras Leonidas I and Hippocrates.
Hippocrates was a physician whose work and contribution is remarkable the western
medicine thus known as the father of medicine. Hippocrates introduced the first school of
medicine. Pythagoras is considered the first philosopher, he learned and travelled widely and
associated with the great thinker. The most significant contribution of Pythagoras was his
discovery of a formula to calculate the area of a triangle known as Pythagoras theorem to
present. Socrates significant contributions are in the development of ethos accounted in the
philosophy
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. Aristotle was a student of Plato who gained a lot of philosophy and often
10
Seignobos, Charles. History of Ancient Civilization. 2015
11
Wedgwood, C. V. The Spoils of Time: A World History from the Dawn of Civilization Through the Early
Renaissance. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1985
12
Wedgwood, C. V. The Spoils of Time: A World History from the Dawn of Civilization Through the Early
Renaissance. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1985

8
surpasses the master. Aristotle philosophical and great contributions are in is the famous poet,
physics, politics science and moral virtues
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. Alexandra the great is another personality in the
history of early civilization of Greece who showed remarkable contribution. He was tutored
by Aristotle and succeeded his father as a king on his assassination. Alexandra the great was
a skilful general commander who conquered the whole world breaking king Darius III but
eventually died at a tender age of 33. The Hittite influential personalities are fewer including
kings and iron smelters, and war leaders.
13
Donlan, Walter, Michael Grant, and Rachel Kitzinger. "Civilization of the Ancient
Mediterranean: Greece and Rome." The American Historical Review 95, no. 2
(1990), 466. doi:10.2307/2163783.

9
Bibliography
Bryce, Trevor. Life and Society in the Hittite World. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.
Donlan, Walter, Michael Grant, and Rachel Kitzinger. "Civilization of the Ancient
Mediterranean: Greece and Rome." The American Historical Review 95, no. 2
(1990), 466. doi:10.2307/2163783.
Gera, Deborah L. "3. Oligarchy and Oligarchs in Ancient Greece." Language and History in
Ancient Greek Culture (n.d.). doi:10.9783/9780812206098.39.
Seignobos, Charles. History of Ancient Civilization. 2015.
Wedgwood, C. V. The Spoils of Time: A World History from the Dawn of Civilization
Through the Early Renaissance. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1985.
9 of 9 pages

Details

Title
Ancient Civilization of Hittite and Greece. Comparative Analysis on Government, Law Language and Characteristics of the Middle Eastern civilization
College
Kenyatta University
Grade
79.1
Author
Year
2016
Pages
9
Catalog Number
V373284
ISBN (Book)
9783668530850
File size
438 KB
Language
English
Tags
ancient, civilization, hittite, greece, comparative, analysis, government, language, characteristics, middle, eastern
Quote paper
Doctor Alfhonce Michael (Author), 2016, Ancient Civilization of Hittite and Greece. Comparative Analysis on Government, Law Language and Characteristics of the Middle Eastern civilization, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/373284

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