STRENGTH DEVELOPMENT OF LIME AND CEMENT TREATED
MARINE CALY UNDER PONDING CONDITION
MOHAMMED FAEZ SALEM BAQADER
School of Environmental Engineering, University Malaysia Perlis
02600 Arau Perlis Malaysia
Abstract. Treating marine clay is important for further purposed in construction and other infrastructure.
Marine clay known as sort of clay found both in the littoral and in a few seaward ranges (S. Basackand R
& D. Purkayastha, 2009). Base on the objective of this study, the sample will be classified based on
AASTHO and USCS classification systems by using Atterberg limits test (liquid limit and plastic limit) and
sieve analysis test, where Unconfined Compressive Strength test (UCS) and California Bearing Ratio test
(CBR) tests were conducted to determine the strength before and after adding different percentages of lime
and OPC cement.
Keywords: Lime stabilization; cement stabilization; marine clay; ponding condition; strength
Between the past and the present soil is the main element in any construction. The firmness
of the underlying soils is the long-term performance of any construction project depends on.
Unstable soil can produce substantial problems for structures or road pavement. With proper design
and construct techniques such as lime and cement treatment transforms the unstable underlying
soils to stable layers. Indeed, the structural strength of cement-stabilized or lime-stabilized soils
can be factored into pavement designs. Such a small treatment could makes a functioning
underlying soil for temporary roads or structure, a greater degree of discourse (H. W. Xiao & F.
H. Lee, 2008).
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Grain Size Distribution test
Marine clay is the stain connected and it was acquired from Kampung Wai, an area in Kuala
Perlis, Perlis. It was dug from the seabed seaward the coast of the Kampung Wai where there is an
under-development harbor extend. Where the lime and cement were available at UniMAP in the
School of environmental. Grain size is conducted to determine the grain size of the marine clay.
However, this test typically used to differentiate wither is course grained or fine-grained. The size
of sieve used is 4.75mm, 3.35mm, 0.60mm, 0.425mm, 0.212mm, 0.106mm, 0.075mm (V. iri1.,
et al 2012).
Atterberg Limit Test
Atterberg Limit is process to determine the plastic and liquid limits of fine-grained soil. In
order to classify the given soil sample, plastic and liquid limits test were obtained. The standard
references of this method are BS 1377: Part 2: 1990 and ASTM D 4318 (Standard Test Method for
Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit and Plasticity Index of Soil).
Unconfined Compressive Strength Test
The motivation behind this laboratory is to find the unconfined compressive strength of the
soil by applying an axial load utilizing either strain-control or stress-control condition. To perform
an unconfined compression test, the sample is extruded from the sampling tube. A cylindrical
sample of soil is trimmed such that the ends are reasonably smooth and the length-to-diameter ratio
is on the order of two. The soil sample is placed in a loading frame on a metal plate; by turning a
crank, the operator raises the level of the bottom plate. The top of the soil sample is restrained by
the top plate, which is attached to a calibrated proving ring. As the bottom plate is raised, an axial
load is applied to the sample. The operator turns the crank at a specified rate so that there is constant
California Bearing Ratio Test
CBR test covers the confirmation of the CBR (California Bearing Ratio) of pavement
subbase, subgrade and base course materials from laboratory facility compacted specimens. The
test technique is chiefly proposed for (however not confined to) assessing the quality of materials
having most extraordinary molecule sizes less than 3/4 in. (19 mm). Bearing limit of unaltered
airstrips can be measured by CBR test. CBR is mainly conducted to study the effective of the
ponding condition on the marine clay sample. by obtained a curing period for three samples of
marine clay mixed with 8% of lime and anther three mixed with 8% of cement for 7, 14 and 28
days of curing.
RESULT AND DISCUSSION
There are several samples obtained in Atterberg limit test, by knowing the container mass
and soil mass before drying and after drying the marine clay, it contents 46.7%, 51.7% and 52%
respectively. According to ASTM standard the 25-blow matched to the average line of water
content for three tares shown in figure 4.1, the liquid limit of soil sample is 50.7%. The plastic
limit is 32.08% which is the average water content for the given two tears. Where the plasticity
index can be determined by subtracting the liquid limit from the plastic limit to give 18.62% of the
plasticity index. Based on the grain size obtained the sample is classified as silty or clayey gravel
The value of unconfined compressive strength (q
) is determined in this study. Table 4.5
shows the result of both lime and cement. Comparing with the untreated samples both of lime and
cement shows an increase with the increment of the mixing amount. Cement gives a higher respond
in terms of reaction compared to the lime; and a higher strength development. Because of the
capability of lime's components in absorbing the water that marine clay contains, it can be seen
that the untreated marine clay strength was 4.62 kPa. The unconfined compressive strength of 4%,
8% and 12% of lime content increased 8.86 kPa, 13.05 kPa, and 16.34 kPa, respectively. Where
Cement shows undoubtedly improvement in the strength of the marine clay. The increase became
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- Mohammed Faize (Author), 2017, Strength Development of Lime and Cement-Treated Marine Clay under Ponding Conditions, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/375887