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About the Author Harris A. Samaras
An Economist and presently the Chairman & CEO of Pytheas, an international investment banking
organization, Harris has also worked with the Bank of America Group, Thomson Financial BankWatch, and
Moody's Investors Service.
His expertise lies primarily in the areas of investment and corporate banking, private equity and finance,
corporate restructuring, risk management and business development, strategic advisory and thought
leadership. His research and extensive publications in these areas range across practice rather than theory,
economic and business thought, entrepreneurship and geopolitics.
He has been an adviser to various governments, central banks, financial institutions, and other corporates and
has been a member of the board of directors of multinational organizations.
Watching yesterday the opening speech of the final phase of German Chancellor Angela
Merkel's election campaign, I was pleasantly surprised to hear in her argument that
"European integration is about the protection of human dignity" that Germans should
stop targeting and stigmatizing Greeks as lazy and thieves... I congratulate Mrs. Merkel
for her statement and I hope that other world leaders will follow her example.
The stigmatized Greek youth and their despair
Discussing the Chancellor's comments with my daughters and their friends (early- and mid-
20s of age, all university students or graduates), I was sad, but not regretfully surprised, to
realize by their startling and vividly upsetting remarks of how disheartened and demoralized
they are about the "European idea and family". They spoke of their experiences and the
provocative taunting and mocking towards them, the humiliating remarks and resentment
just because they are Greek not only by Germans as they exclaimed, but also by Dutch and
British, Norwegian, Romanian, Bulgarian, American, and Swiss... itemizing one incident after
I patiently argued with them about politics, geopolitics and polarization, politicians' bigotry
and populism... the importance of critical thinking skills and the lack of these skills in the world
of today as a cause and effect of such attitudes... about prejudice and stereotypes, self-
serving bias and ethnically stigmatized groups... but also about the importance of one
being proud of her/his heritage and history vs. narrow-minded nationalism... about civility,
human dignity... about the significance of the citizen's conduct and behaviour within
the detrimental gaffe of blaming only others for our misfortunes...
I attempted to analyse how it is primarily Greece's fault that triggered the economic
distortions and the crisis in the country, the bailout, the austerity measures and the misery...
How the inefficiently functioning EU is also to blame; not only because of its late to react
and then hastily designed and imposed decisions but also because it is apparent that the
decisions of the EU had been and still are influenced and orchestrated with intention and
premeditation by the most powerful and their pack for own country benefits and
politicians vote mongering...
I attempted to analyse how all these along with a disillusioned Greek society made the
country fertile terrain for populism. How on one hand populists preying on people's fears
secure a political advantage in a time of crisis, change and uncertainty, and how on the
other they, the populists, do very little to help a society to navigate itself out of a painful and
complex reality that requires long-term planning, and compromise simply because most of
their arguments (of the populists) are based on fiction!
Gave the rise of Hitler and Nazism in power as an example, also Brexit and the current
happenings in the U.S. where facts did not and do not matter, only the emotions of
the polarized and manipulated masses...
"It is all showbiz!", they cried. "Showbiz for politics of domestic consumption with both lead
actors and screenplay writers, the hypocritical politicians themselves; mocking us, again
and again, while at the same time stealing our future!".
"But you are also obligated to contribute actively (and not only as sideline critics) to
changing the wrong-happenings", I said. So, I spoke about the ancient Greek philosophers
and their teachings... about social and patriotic values, altruism and self-sacrifice... our
responsibilities as citizens of the world and our obligation towards a learning continuum, and
our social duty to communicate, enlighten and make aware...
My arguments were met with dismay... "Thermopylae cannot exist today" they argued with
dry realism and pragmatism... "neither magnanimity nor nobility" they exclaimed. "Only self-
preservation matters and how one achieves it has been proven to be totally immaterial".
I attempted to respond by comparing Plato's view of the ideal State (the Republic) that its
existence should depend on wisdom, courage, moderation and justice with Thomas
Hobbes' materialistic philosophical approach of the Leviathan that a society can function
only if fear is a weapon under the absolute power of a Ruler as us humans are in our vast
majority selfish, cowards and vein...
"The Greeks have always been on the side of good against evil and look where it got us!"
most of them exclaimed as if in a chorus. "Nobody cares about sacrifices or facts. More,
nobody cares about what triggered the downturns and what contributed to the recession
and the behaviour of the Greek of today! The Greek people for more than 60 years have
never claimed for WWII reparations from Germany. Only when they felt and experienced the
injustice, the humiliation and arrogance of those very same they had "forgiven"! And what
Greece has sacrificed or endured during World War II it is neither acknowledged nor even for
some reason recorded. The world does not know or doesn't want to know".
"At more or less the same time Churchill was stating that "Heroes fight like Greeks" and
not the other way around, he was orchestrating the destruction of Greece during and right
after the War. As a result, Greeks had to go through a bloody civil war for four very long
years thereafter. And then our very same allies, those very same that had been praising and
glorifying us during the War, orchestrated again the establishment of the junta that ruled
Greece for another seven years... and then more civil war... While the rest of Europe was
rebuilding itself, we were fighting their wars in our country... Where is justice, magnanimity
or nobility in all of this?"
"And just to clarify", they highlighted, "Goebbels's children are not to be blamed for the
wrongdoings of their dad! They were also victims and helpless martyrs, like all the millions of
children that were "sacrificed", whether those were German or Greek, Japanese or American,
Bulgarian or British and so forth... They were both victims of a madman and his conscious
followers as well as victims of those forces within the "Allied Powers" that could have put an
end to the War long before it started but chose instead to shut their eyes and/or ignore the
signals because of personal or geopolitical benefits... We, your children, are today victims of
similar packs, of similar politicians, using in principle the same modus operandi to dominate
the rest of us, as if we learned nothing from our so recent and devastating history...".
It was my turn to be dismayed... to the point of "depression", I have to emphasize.
And they continued: "The fact remains, that the EU and the IMF placed rescue of their banks
far above any concern of the consequences of such exploit to the Greek people; an
undignified action! They, the EU and the IMF, committed a financial fraud to a bankrupt
nation, there aim to differ inevitable losses by alleging that the Greek debt was sustainable
(Basic Economics teaches that you do not grant new loans to a bankrupt entity but
restructure its debt); a fraudulent action! And proudly projected then in 2011, (which is a
perjury even by the standards of the most cynical of all cynics), that the inevitable sharp
fiscal adjustment would produce a recession of a decline of about only 5% of GDP with full
recovery by 2013... Greek output instead dropped 25% and never recovered since; a
"Conceive also this if you can", they sarcastically contended, "Greece's creditors demanded
amongst so many other to increase the shelf life of fresh milk from three to seven days. As
ludicrous as it may had seemed they only wanted to extend market access to non-Greek
diaries... What audacity? And you are telling us about dignity and sacrifice? Sacrifice our
future for whom? Sacrifice for the crook? The criminal, the perjurer, the opportunist that
sucks the blood of its victim? Are these leaders, these politicians foreign and domestic
(including their indoctrinated or not supporters), people worth sacrificing anything for? What
nerve... them vultures calling us crooks? And how pitiful their followers and supporters must
be... living in ignorance; living in essence, a shallow life; mouthpiece of these hypocrites and
criminals they voted for, we voted for; them leaders who are supposed to create a better
future for their children, us, their children... Isn't it a crime to steal the future of your
children? Shouldn't this be the most despicable of all crimes? Is this what the EU was
supposed to be all about?".
What have we done? What have we forced our children to become? Traumatized cynics,
without a civic purpose but "political correctness", an anathema to collective responsibility,
alien citizens with valid passports of European Union countries that belong in essence to
no Union... disillusioned with poisoned souls...
"So, you wish to become and behave like all those opportunists and ignorant?", I uttered.
"You wish to replace compassion with cruelty and goodness with greed, just like they do?
Become just like those that you very much accuse of, selfish and Machiavellian? Would
you wish your children in turn to feel so lost as you clearly currently do?".
"But it is Your generation, You, our parents, that have chosen this path for us. Isn't You that
taught us to be whatever it is that we are?", they replied.
Our European legacy
Whether the ratification of the policy of the economic desolation of Greece had been
effected for its transformation into a country that would be controlled and exploited by the
European powerful and whether this is premeditated and deliberate I wouldn't know. I can
only interpret and deduct: How can one explain policies that,
(a) are based on presumptions that are fundamentally erroneous? (Greece was and is
bankrupt; its debt was and is unsustainable; bankrupt entities cannot receive loans but
their debt restructured).
(b) lead to forced emigration of Greek capital and talent?
(c) lead to merciless wages and pension cuts and to a handicapped nation?
(d) lead to tax shortfalls that force more and more spending cuts?
(e) lead to an avalanche of
l oan defaults, foreclosures and bankruptcies?
(f) ultimately lead to a foreign takeover of the banking system and asset stripping of public
(g) lead to suffocation of a whole nation's economy and dependency on foreign elements
Now, is the economic desolation of Greece and its total dependency to powerful non-
Greek elements only, part of a grander despotic plan? A plan that would incorporate later
on and when "appropriate" Portugal, Spain and Italy for instance?
I wouldn't know. What I do know though is that our actions as European Union turn our
youth into "monsters", the unfeeling monsters that we have proven to be.
I also know what history taught me so, and I am sure Chancellor Merkel knows, that
populations revolt when the Government does not work for regular people thus market
unpredictability, volatility, and chaos maybe part of the reason of her yesterday's hopeful
message was related to it.
Every sane person and every
successful leader should know, that
putting the interests of the regular
people last, and long after serving
the interests of big corporations,
financial institutions, military
contractors, lobbyists, the rich and
powerful, will eventually force
populations to revolt. There must
be a balance that commands
capable leadership skills, humanity,
appropriate justice and vision.
Mrs. Merkel's yesterday statement, "European integration is about the protection of human
dignity", is a beacon, a beacon of hope for humanity. Just like when not so very long ago,
Greece's heroic resistance and sacrifice against the Axis Forces became humanity's beacon
of light and hope, demolishing the invincibility of evil and its despotism.
Despotism aims to suppress, minds and the souls of the free, the dignity of the individual,
the ability to think, the essence of life. And Mrs. Merkel knows that despotism can only lead
to one outcome: Civilization and humanity to descend to chaos.
About the Greeks in WWII their sacrifice, its importance and their humanity
What were those Greeks made of?
Let's attempt to comprehend it if we can: A handful of a nation, a poorer nation, of a bit
more than 6 million against four enemy nations with two of the most technologically
advanced armies of the time; Germany of 80 million, Italy of 40 million, Bulgaria of 6.5
million and Albania of 1 million or so. Greece, the only invaded country that fought against
four armies simultaneously, was aware of its destiny and its chances against such superior
When France, a world power of the time, crumbled in just 43 days and other much
wealthier ones, triple and quadruple the population of Greece, surrendered to the Axis in
just 3 or 4
As the world of today is so
intertwined, having Germans for
instance only "content" while the
neighboring countries are suffering is
no longer wise enough. Moreover,
every populist undignified statement
made or action taken has a direct
Extract from "Lest we forget That noble and immortal nation Greece",
negative impact on the generations
F. W. Saville, 1943. A collection of periodical clippings of the time.
follow and the legacy that is left
behind. Naturally, no "real" leader, no successful leader, would ever wish for history to say
that the chaos that we become to live in was partly or wholly because of her or his decisions,
implemented policies and doings.
days or in no days at all, without firing a single shot. Greece was capitulated after 219 days
Who in her or his right mind fights a war that is knowingly going to lose? Yugoslavia's
partisan movement for instance fought the Axis Powers with bravery and the whole
country paid dearly for it, with one of
the highest population losses during
the period of the War. Yugoslavia,
however, surrendered in just 3
days... Couldn't the Greeks had
chosen to do the same?
So, what were those Greeks made
of? I know that the answer to this
question, the answer to this lesson of
dignity that the Greeks gave to
humanity for humanity, will assist
Chancellor Merkel to find the solution
and the way to protect human
dignity. I also know that it will
provide guidance on how to
empower the generations to come
for leadership with dignity.
It is therefore paramount, I feel and
believe, to share in the next few
pages that follow a few words, facts
and quotes about the Greeks in
World War II. It is imperative
because the sacrifices that the
Greek people then endured for all of
us, and their courage during one of
the darkest periods of humanity, are
lessons that should be reminded
more than often.
At the end of the day there are truths that we all have to grow into...
As it is also paramount and it is our
responsibility to respond to those
Extract from "Lest we forget That noble and immortal nation Greece",
unfeeling and brutal critics of the
F. W. Saville, 1943. A collection of periodical clippings of the time.
people that intentionally and
systematically attempt to brand them as thieves and opportunists... those ignorant critics that
possess not only a selective memory but also a selective sense of justice... it is sacrifices and
actions such as those the Greeks endured during WWII that remain a main obstacle for
humanity and civilization to descend to chaos.
Quotes about the Greeks during WWII signifying their contribution and sacrifice
"It must be said for the sake of historical truth, I must verify, that only the Greeks, of all the adversaries
who confronted us, fought with bold courage and defiance of death..."
From a speech, delivered to Reichstag on 4 May 1941.
"The entrance of Italy to the war was proven catastrophic for us. Had the Italians not attacked Greece
and had they not needed our help, the War would have taken a different course. We would have had
time to capture Leningrad and Moscow, before the Russian cold weather set in."
From the memoirs of Leni Riefenstahl quoting Hitler (1944); Hitler's cinematographer and member of
his "inner circle".
"The word heroism I am afraid does not render the least of those acts of self-sacrifice of the Greeks,
which were the defining factor in the victorious outcome of the common struggle of the nations,
during WWII, for the human freedom and dignity. If it were not for the bravery of the Greeks and their
courage, the outcome of WWII would be undetermined."
Paraphrased from a speech, delivered to the British Parliament on 24 April 1941.
"Until now we used to say that the Greeks fight like heroes. Now we shall say: The heroes fight like
From a speech, delivered from the BBC in the first days of the Greek-Italian war.
Joseph Vissarionovich Tzougasvili Stalin:
"I am sorry because I am getting old and I shall not live long to thank the Greek People,
whose resistance decided WWII."
From a speech, broadcasted by the Moscow radio station on 31 January 1943 after the victory of
Stalingrad and the capitulation of marshal Paulus.
Charles de Gaulle:
"I am unable to give the proper breadth of gratitude I feel for the heroic resistance of the People and the
leaders of Greece."
From a speech, delivered to the French Parliament after the end of WWII.
Maurice Schumann, Minister of the Exterior of France:
"Greece is the symbol of the tortured, bloodied but living Europe... Never a defeat was so honorable for
those who suffered it."
From a message, addressed from the BBC of London to the enslaved peoples of Europe on 28 April
1941, the day Hitler occupied Athens after Greece fought a 6-month war defeating Mussolini's army.
Moscow Radio Station:
"You (Greeks) fought unarmed and won, small against big. We owe you gratitude, because you gave
us time to defend ourselves. As Russians and as people we thank you."
When Hitler attacked the U.S.S.R.
Georgy Zhukov, Chief of the General Staff and Minister of Defense of the USSR:
"If the Russian people managed to raise resistance at the doors of Moscow, to halt and reverse the
German torrent, they owe it to the Greek People, who delayed the German divisions during the
time they could bring us to our knees."
Quote from his memoirs on WWII.
"The war with Greece proved that nothing is firm in the military and that surprises always await
From a speech, delivered on 10/5/1941.
More quotes about the Greeks during WWII King George VI, King of
Great Britain 1936-1952:
"The magnificent struggle of Greece, was the first big turn of WWII."
Paraphrased from a speech, delivered to the parliament in May 1945.
Sir Robert Antony Eden, Minister of War and the Exterior of Britain (1940-1945), Prime Minister of
"Regardless of what the future historians shall say, what we can say now, is that Greece gave Mussolini
an unforgettable lesson, that she was the motive for the revolution in Yugoslavia, that she held the
Germans in the mainland and in Crete for six weeks, that she upset the chronological order of all
German High Command's plans and thus brought a general reversal of the entire course of the war
and we won."
Paraphrased from a speech, delivered to the British parliament on 24/09/1942.
Sir Harold Leofric George Alexander, British Marshal during WWII:
"It would not be an exaggeration to say that Greece upset the plans of Germany in their entirety
forcing her to postpone the attack on Russia for six weeks. We wonder what would have been Soviet
Union's position without Greece."
Paraphrased from a speech, delivered to the British parliament on 28 October 1941.
Franklin D. Roosevelt, President of the United States of America (1933-1945):
"On the 28th of October 1940 Greece was given a deadline of three hours to decide on war or peace
but even if a three day or three weeks or three years were given, the response would have been the
same. The Greeks taught dignity throughout the centuries. When the entire world had lost all hope,
the Greek people dared to question the invincibility of the German monster raising against it the proud
spirit of freedom."
Paraphrased from a speech, delivered on 10/6/1943.
"The heroic struggle of the Greek people... against Germany's attack, after she so thunderously defeated
the Italians in their attempt to invade the Greek soil, filled the hearts of the American people with
enthusiasm and moved their compassion."
Paraphrased from a speech, delivered on 25/04/1941.
Benjamin Sumner Welles, U.S. Under Secretary of State (1936-1943):
"Hitler was forced to come to the rescue of his battered satellite. Despite the crushing weight of his
second assault, Greece stood firm. With British assistance, she held the Nazi hordes at bay for
precious weeks, making possible the reinforcement of the Near East, and changing decisively, and
disastrously for Hitler, the time-table of Hitler's attack in Russia."
From a press conference on 6 June 1942 at the presence of King George of Greece
Wilhelm Keitel, Hitler's Chief of the High Command of the Armed Forces & Field Marshall
(1940-1945): "The Greeks delayed by two or more vital months the German attack against Russia; if
we did not have this long delay, the outcome of the war would have been different."
As stated during the Nuremberg Trials.
Lord Halifax, UK's Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs:
"Great admiration inspires all of us the accomplishment of the Greek valour against an enemy so much
more numerous and so much better equipped. These deeds remind us of the trophies of the classical
times. Long live Greece!"
From a speech to the House of Lords.
Primo Levi, Italian intellectual and prisoner at Auschwitz
"The solidarity of Greeks (in Auschwitz), their repulsion for violence, their consciousness for survival
and their effort to preserve human dignity made them the most united national group in the camp. Thus,
the most civilized."
From his memoirs.
Greeks during WWII Historical facts and incidents
On 10 April 1941, after the capitulation to Germany, the northern forts of Greece surrender. The
Germans express their admiration to Greek soldiers, declaring that they were honored and proud to
have such courageous warriors as their adversary such an army and requested that the Greek
commandant to inspect the German army in a demonstration of honor and recognition! The German
flag was raised only after the complete honorable withdrawal of the Greek army. For the rest of the War
German soldiers who fought against the Greeks were authorized to wear a black armband on their
uniforms signifying the role in Germany's toughest battles of World War II.
A Luftwaffe German officer declared to the commander of the Greek Eastern Macedonia division group,
Lieutenant General Dedes that the Greek army was the first army the Stuka fighter planes did not cause
panic to. "Your soldiers" he said, "instead of fleeing frantically, as they did in France and Poland, were
shooting at us from their positions."
The Greeks originally surrendered to the Germans only while it was the only country during WWII that
was at the same time fighting against four other countries (Italy, Albania, Bulgaria, Germany).
Mussolini learned about it and got furious, demanding that the Greek Army also surrender to the
Italians. He ordered additional attacks against the Greeks who were then in the process of surrendering
to Germany. The Greeks resisted, and defeated the Italians once more... After the embarrassment to
Mussolini, Hitler relented and had General Dietrich convince General Georgios Tsolakoglou to include
Italy as well in the surrender.
In the late spring of 1944, Nazi ships of death were making stops in the ports of the Ionian islands;
final destination Auschwitz. The German commandant called Metropolitan Bishop Chrysostomos and
Mayor Lucas Carrer to his office and told them they have 24 hours to submit a list with the names of all
the Jews that lived on the island, together with details of their assets. They returned with an envelope
soon afterwards: The paper contained just two names; the bishop's and the mayor's.
On 23 March 1943, during the Nazi occupation of Greece, the Archbishop of Athens and all Greece,
Damaskinos, along with other prominent Greeks, signed his name on a letter defending the Greek Jews.
When General Jurgen Stroop, an S.S. Officer and police official for Greece, found out about the letter, he
threatened to shoot the Archbishop. Archbishop Damaskinos responded to the Nazi Officer: "According
to the traditions of the Greek Orthodox Church, our prelates are hung and not shot. Please respect our
By the autumn and winter of 1941, Greece was starving. The death toll from starvation and typhoid,
typhus, cholera, pneumonia, and dysentery had risen to more than 1,500 persons daily in Athens and
Piraeus alone. By the following spring, the death rate from starvation in Athens and Piraeus exceeded
2,000 a day. Of every ten children born, only one lived more than four weeks. (Source: American
Greek War Relief Association)
Reports reveal that during WWII Greece lost 7.2-12.9% of its population, Yugoslavia 6.6-6.9%, USSR
2.8%, Czechoslovakia 2.3-2.4%, Holland 2.2-2.4%, France 1.4-2%, Poland 1.8%, Belgium
1.05-1.5%, Luxembourg 1.69%, Norway 0.35%, Denmark 0.16%.
Hitler's troops lost more lives in one day in Crete than in any single day in the 15 months prior to
conquering 15 other countries.
Greece's disruption of Hitler's war timetable forced him into the deliberating Russian winter where he
met defeat. Leaders like Winston Churchill, Joseph Stalin, America's Sumner Welles and even Adolph
Hitler's Field Marshall Wilhelm Keitel, credit Greece with bringing about Hitler's defeat. Greece was the
only "David" in WWII able to inflict a fatal wound that eventually brought down the Nazi "Goliath".
Relevant to the subject extracts from previous articles by H. A. Samaras
[Published by Pytheas Social & Political Review on 11 May 2012 with the title "The failure of the Greek
State engendered a disillusioned society".
Greece is a case of a state that failed, a case of despair that forced its citizens, those that are at least
self-conscious, to exclaim instead of the more than valid "I am proud to be Greek", the self-pitied "I am
sorry to be Greek". These are the same Greeks that abstained from voting in the recent elections or as
an "immature" form of protest voted for radical parties than now possess a catalytic say in the future
of the Country.
Overall the average Greek has been bombarded with jargons, polarized by an ignorant in the vast
majority, populist, irresponsible, anachronistic and scandalous political leadership and labor unions, and
sacrificed in the name of power and political party benefits!
Important to note that the Citizens of the Country are equally responsible for the crisis as are the
country's EU partners.
The conditioned Citizens of the Hellenic Republic accepted the love of ease, a mindless attitude that
was provided to them via political favoritism and moral delusions and lived by it for decades to such an
extent that it became part of their DNA for the vast majority of Greeks not to cheat income tax was
as idiotic as to be efficient and productive while working for the over-staffed public sector; "corruption"
to that effect found in the eye of the average Greek a new synonym: "Bravado" ()!]
[Published by Pytheas Market Focus on 3 July 2015 with the title "More than ten facts and one question
about Greece and the EU Financial Crisis".
While it is a fact that, (a) a number of Eurozone nations were complicit in Greece's fiscal irresponsibility;
(b) the EU was inadequate and "deliberately" reluctant to take a decisive action and to establish a
mechanism to effectively assist member countries with financing problems whilst aware and
acknowledged by the EU itself of the unique problem with the Eurozone, that countries in it share the
same currency but not a unified fiscal, banking or political system, leaving countries especially the
smaller ones with few tools at their disposal during a downturn; (c) Billions of Euros of net wealth have
been transferring from Athens to Berlin, and not only; German in particular, but also other European
leaders' "morality" politics, sermonize endlessly about how their frugal and thrifty taxpayers are being
forced to endure the worse because of Greece's only irresponsibility...
Although Germany is the greatest beneficiary of the European Union and the Eurozone, the vast
majority of Germans feel that Europe lives at their expense: As the largest economy in the EU,
Germany makes the largest contribution to its budget, but the EU's budget is small, about 1% of the GDP
of each member state. This expense pales into insignificance in comparison with advantages from which
To see further how far Germany's populist narrative inverts reality, you only have to remember that
the fact that Greece has a trade deficit (for which Greece is guilty) works to the benefit of the other EU
countries, and first of foremost to the benefit of Germany, which is the leading exporter to Greece.
Salary costs in Greece (another Greek fault) have financed private consumption in Greece, which has
financed German exports.
The "aid" to Greece will not cost the German taxpayer anything. Germany will lend to Greece at a higher
interest rate while Germany itself raises money a lot more cheaply. Greek recovery will serve the
interests of the EU and its member states beyond the common interest in preserving the stability of the
Euro. Despite all these, Chancellor Merkel did not have the courage to tell the Germans the truth...]
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- Quote paper
- Harris Samaras (Author), 2017, The Stigmatized Greeks. Humanity and Legacy within a Disillusioned Europe, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/376096