The Effect of the Teachers' Body Language in the Classroom. The Case of Second Year EFL Learners


Master's Thesis, 2017
110 Pages

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Inhaltsverzeichnis

l.Introdiiction

2.Statement of the Problem

3.Significance of the Study

4. Aims of the Study

5. The Research Questions

6. Hypotheses

7. Research Methodology

8. Population

9.Sample

10. Note on the Language

11. Research Design

Dedication

This thesis is dedicated to:

My great parents, who lead me through the valley of darkness with light of hope and support,

My beloved brothers and sisters, who stand by me when things look bleak,
My friends who encourage and support me,

All the people in my life, whose prayers, sympathies steer my way towards success,

I gladly dedicate this research and these words.

Acknowledgements

In the Name of Allah, the Most Merciful, the Most Compassionate all praise be to Allah, the Lord of the worlds; and prayers and peace be upon Mohamed His servant and messenger,

First I must acknowledge my limitless Thanks to ALLAH for the completion of the master’s thesis. I am totally sure that this work would have never become truth and successfully, without His Guidance and Blessings,

I am extremely grateful to my parents for their love, prayers, support, care and sacrifices throughout my life,

I am deeply grateful to my supervisor Miss. Mebarki Amina Zohra who energizes and inspires me to accomplish this work. Her demonstrated confidence in me and her words of encouragement were more valuable than she knew,

I am profoundly thankful to the members ofjury Mrs. MOUSSAOUI Nadjet and DR. REZZIG BETKA Nadia for their help, patience and time to read my thesis

My thanks also go to ALL my friends for their support and valuable prayers,

Hopefully this thesis can give quite a contribution to the linguistic research,

And to all of you, I say

THANK YOU.

Abstract

The present study is an attempt to shed the light on the effect of teachers’ positive body language on EFL learners’ motivation. The study examines to what extent teachers’ positive body language can (1) reduce learners’ boredom and create positive and active energy in the classroom (2) increase learners’ motivation (3) it is a further attempt to determine the major traits of the effective teaching based on the use of positive body language. It takes the form of correlation research since it deals with the effect of teachers’ positive body language on EFL learners’ motivation. Teachers need to know that the way the teacher presents the lesson with different positive body language messages is definitely affected learners' motivation. So, in order to gain a deeper understanding of the effect of teachers’ positive body language on EFL teaching and learning, the data is collected by using observation, and questionnaire. The chosen population for this study has been selected from the second year learners of Ahmed Zaid Middle School of Biskra. Therefore, the two available classes have been selected as representative sample for this research, where the teachers’ body language observed differently. Thus, the researcher has observed learners’ attitudes during six weeks to examine their affection to the positive body language. Moreover, the closed questionnaire has been designed to survey the notion of using different body language messages as a teaching tool, taking into consideration the EFL learners viewpoint. Consequently, the results obtained from this research revealed that the hypothesis suggested in this study about teachers’ positive body language can be applied successfully as a motivational strategy to enhance the EFL learners’ motivation.

Key Terms: Body Language, Nonverbal communication, Motivation, EFL Learners, Positive Body Language, Active atmosphere

List of Abbreviations

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

List of tables

Table Ol.The Effect ofTeachers’ Presentation on EFL Learners’ Motivation

Table 02. Using Teachers’ Smile as a Teaching Tool

Table 03. The Effect of Teachers’ Anger Face on Learners’ Participation

Table 04. The Effect of Using Nodding and Eye Contact

Table 05. Teachers’ Desk Position and Learners’ Boredom

Table 06. Teacher Relevance and Attention with Learners

Table 07. The Effect of Nonverbal Cues on Learners’ Understanding

Table 08. Teachers’ Movement around the Classroom

Table 09. Teachers’ Reaction and Learners’ Motivation

Table 10. The Effect of Thumbs up on Learners’ Motivation

List of Figure

Figure 01. Open Body Position by Pease (1988, p.137)

Figure 02. The Correct Standing Position Pease (1988, pl41)

Figure 03. Different Positions of Arm adopted fromjewelpie.com (2015)

Figure 04. The Teacher is using Different Body Language

Figure05. Teacher’s Eyes Contact during the Explanation (2013)

Figure 06. What Did You Say Pose Goman (2008, p.98)

Figure 07. Explaining the Lesson behind the Desk (2012)

Figure 08.Gestures For Classroom Management (2006)

Figure09.Motivational Teaching Strategies Dornyei (2001, P.29)

Figure 10. Motivational Teaching Strategies Dornyei for the Classroom

List of Graphs

GraphOl. The Effect of Teachers’ Presentation on EFL Learners’ Motivation

Graph02. The Use of Smile as Teaching a Tool

Graph 03. The Effect of Teachers’ Facial Expressions on Learners’ Participation

Graph 04.The Effect of Using Nodding and Eye Contact

Graph 05. Teachers’ Desk Position and Learners’ Boredom

Graph06. Teacher Relevance and Attention with Learners

Graph 07. The Effect of Nonverbal Cues on Learners’ Understanding

Graph 08. TeacherMovements around the Classroom

Graph 09. TeacherReactions and Learners’ Motivation

Graph 10. The Effect of Thumbs up on Learners’ Motivation

General Introdiiction

This study is an attempt to raise English language teachers awareness about the use of their body language in an appropriate and positive way to enhance EFL learners’ motivation.

It also investigates teachers’ body language aspects that affect the learning process, which link between effective teaching and successful learning. Teachers’ positive body language can create a successful learning environment and successful working atmosphere as well. It is that energy that helps the teacher to establish and maintain motivation in the classroom. Since classroom full of positiveness is the best context for learning to take place which reflect directly to learners’ enthusiasm.

l.Introdiiction

The process of teaching and learning requires using both verbal and non-verbal communication. Body language is one form of non-verbal communication which can be in different types: facial expressions, gestures, body movements. Inside the classroom, teachers show different body language messages which affect the teaching and learning process.

In this study, the researcher will try to understand the effect of teachers’ positive body language on EFL learners’ motivation in the classroom. The main focus of the study will be on facial expressions, gestures, and body movements which are considered to be the most important requirements ofbody language communication in teaching and learning process.

2. Statement of the Problem

Nowadays, successful teaching and learning process takes into consideration the non­verbal communication aspects of the language. Inside the classrooms, teachers use different body language messages with various forms; like using facial expressions, gestures, and body movements, which are the main focus of this study. Teachers can use their body language positively to make the teaching and learning process more effective and interested. It can be a tool that stimulates EFL learners in order to increase their motivation in the classroom.

Learners are entirely influenced by classroom setting, the content of the syllabus and especially the way they are presented. This means that the more inappropriate learning conditions are; the more bored the learning will be, and the more unmotivated the learners will be. A lot of teachers focus on what Content they are going to present, but they forget as learners have two ears to listen to the content, they have also two eyes to see how the content is going to be presented. This leads the researcher to study the effect of teachers’ positive body language on EFL learners’ motivation.

The study is a suggestion to use the positive body language as a teaching tool in the classroom that enhances EFL learners’ motivation because teaching is psychological rather than pedagogical. Hence, learners need to receive the information in a motivated way that leads to enhance learning and create an effective classroom environment.

3. Significance of the Study

Through this study, the researcher intends to raise teachers’ awareness towards the importance of positive body language, which affects the teaching and learning process. It is important to spotlight on teachers’ positive body language and their different meanings which can enhance EFL learners’ motivation in the classroom.

The researcher aims in this study to understand the effect teachers’ positive body language in order to increase EFL learners’ level of motivation. Admitting the fact that learners need to understand teachers’ linguistic and paralinguistic messages during the lesson, so they can get the real meaning of the lecture vividly and more accurately. Moreover, they can enjoy the learning process. Studying teachers’ body language can enhance EFL learners’ motivation and develop teaching and learning process.

4. Aims of the Study

Through this study, the researcher aims to:

1- To exploit the positive side of teachers' body language in EFL classroom.
2- Investigate the implementations of teachers’ positive body language in EFL classrooms.
3- To make an analysis of teachers’ positive body language in the context of teaching and learning process.
4- To find out how the mechanism of teachers’ positive body language can enhance EFL learners’ motivation.
5- Then raise teachers’ awareness about the power and the importance of their positive body language in EFL learners’ motivation and education.

5. The Research Questions

The present study is based on the following questions:

1- How can teachers’ use their body language positively?
2- What are the different meanings of teachers’ positive body language?
3- What is the relationship between teachers’ positive body language and EFL learners’ motivation?

6. Hypotheses

As a first attempt to answer the preceding questions, the researcher hypothesizes that:

- If teachers use their body language positively in the process of teaching and learning, EFL learners will be more motivated to work more inside the classroom.

7. Research Methodology

This work will take the form of mixed research (qualitative &quantitative) in a form of correlation research method which is based on the degree of the relationship that exists between two variables since the researcher will deal with the effect of positive teachers’ body language on EFL learners’ motivation. The researcher has decided to choose; Questionnaire and Observation as collecting and analyzing data tools techniques.

After attending several classes the researcher choose two teachers, one with a positive body language and the other with a negative body language, the research give the teacher who use a positive body language requirements, to add some aspects that are missing to embody the whole view of positive body language in the classroom, whereas the classroom with teacher who uses negative body language will be observed by the researcher as it is, then the researcher is going to make comparative observation For, approximately, six weeks by observing learners in academic lesson environment to examine whether the positive body language of the teacher would be a tool that enhances EFL learners’ motivation. Also, the researcher will give questionnaire for learners to gain compelling details about the use of body language. The analysis and the discussion of the results ofboth techniques permit to decide whether the positive body language is an effective motivating teaching tool or not.

Since this study is about understanding the effect of teachers’ positive body language on EFL learners’ motivation. The researcher has decided to choose the second year EFL learners at Ahmed Zaid Middle School of Biskra in order to observe their reaction during the process of the lesson, while the teacher uses different body language to explain the lesson.

9. Sample

The researcher will choose 40 second year EFL learners at Ahmed Zaid Middle School BISKRA as a sample of the study, they will be chosen randomly and anonymously to help the researcher fulfill the current study with useful and reliable data, in order to observe the effect of teachers’ positive body language on their motivation.

For the needs of this study, the researcher prepares a questionnaire delivered to middle school second-year learners to gain details about the use of positive body language. The analysis and the discussion of the results ofboth techniques permit to decide the effect of positive teachers’ body language on EFL learners’ motivation.

10. Note on the Language

In this research paper, terms like (Body Language), (Nonverbal communication) are used interchangeably. Concerning the tense used when taping the research paper is the present tense and the past tense. Furthermore, although there are other aspects ofbody language, the researcher focusjust on three aspects of body language such as, facial expressions, gestures, and body movements, Finally, in order to refer to the conductor of the research, the subjective pronouns are avoided; instead the term “researcher” is used.

11. Research Design

The dissertation is composed of three chapters. The first chapter introduces the term ‘Body language’ the definition, explains its aspects, and its significance in EFL teaching, and how can the body language create a positive atmosphere for better learning. The second chapter is concerned to give a general overview about EFL learners’ motivation. Through this chapter, the researcher tries to define the concepts of motivation and as well as other concepts which are related to motivation. The third chapter devoted to the field work. The researcher starts by analyzing the results of the observation. After that, the researcher analyzes questionnaire prepared for learners and discusses the results gathered, to provide some recommendations.

Chapter One: Body Language

Table of contents

Introduction
1.1. Communication
1.1.1. Types of Communication
1.1.1.1. Verbal Communication
1.1.1.2. Non-Verbal Communication
1.2 Definition of Body Language
1.3 Aspects ofBody Language
1.3.1 FacialExpressions
1.3.2 Gestures
1.4 Positive and Negative Body Language
1.4.1 ThePositiveBodyLanguage
1.4.2 TheNegativeBodyLanguage
1.5 Kinesics
1.5.1 Facial Expressions Aspects
1.5.1.1 Eye Contact
1.5.1.2 Smiling
1.5.2 Mimicry
1.5.3 Postures
1.5.4 Proxemics
1.6 The Power of Body Language inside the Classroom
1.6.1 Body language and EFL Learners
1.6.2 Body language and Symbolic (codes-signals)
1.6.2.1 Thumb-up
1.6.2.1 Pointing Finger
1.6.2.2 Smiling and Nodding
1.6.2.3 Power Posing
1.6.2 Teachers’ Movements
1.6.3.1 Active Teacher
1.6.3.2 Passive Teacher
1.7 The Implementation of Teachers’ Body Language in the Classroom
1.7.1 Body Language and Teachers’ Attitude
1.7.2 Positive Body Language in The Classroom
1.7.2.1 Making Eye Contact
1.7.2.2 Teachers’ Smiling
1.7.2.3 Pay Attention to Posture
1.7.2.4 Use Power Poses
1.7.2.5 Thumbs up
1.7.2.6 Body Movements
1.8 The Benefit of Teachers’ Positive Body Language in the Classroom
1.8.1 Body Language and Classroom Management
1.8.2 Body language and Supporting
1.8.3 Body Language and Emotions
1.8.4 Body Language and Energy
1.8.5 Body Language and Confidence
1.8.6 Body Language and Memory
1.8.7 Body language and Motivation

Conclusion

Through this chapter, the researcher tries to define positive body language in the context of teaching and learning as well as other concepts which are related to the use of positive body language in the classroom setting.Also, the researcher gives an idea or an explanation about the implementation and the importance of teachers’ body language in education

1.1 Communication

Communication is known as the social interaction between one or more people with one or more other people, it occurs in special context and setting. According to Rickheit and Strohner (2010), communication is means of exchanging information between two parties or more, it is the process of transmitting information, ideas, opinions, messages, and facts between the sender and receiver.

Communication is also about sending and receiving meaningful messages that help the addressee to convey the intended meaning, it is found in a special physical context where the communication takes several forms or types such as; verbal and non-verbal communication.

1.1.1 Types of Communication

1.1.1.1 Verbal Communication

Verbal communication refers to the use of sounds and language to send and receive different messages. Verbal communication acts as the primary tool for expression ideas and thoughts between two or more people. Kukulska - Hulm (1999) identified that “verbal communication through language is about presenting a comprehensible message to the user, as well as understanding people's use oflanguage.” (p. 15).

Without verbal language, it would be impossible to exchange ideas, thoughts, and information, but the use of verbal language is not enough, people need to use both verbal and nonverbal communication to convey successful messages as far as possible. Although verbal communication is a primary means of expression, nonverbal communication such as body language can greatly affect the way a message is perceived.

1.1.1.2 Non-Verbal Communication

Communication is a broad concept which includes both verbal and non-verbal aspects of communication. People cannot communicate only with verbal language, but they need paralinguistic features such as facial expressions and gestures ext, According to Berko, Aitken, Wolvin (2010) the term nonverbal communication such as body language can greatly affect the way a message is perceived, it refers to communication affected by means or behavior other than words. Furthermore, Johnson (2012) stated that body language and non-verbal communication are two terms that can be used exchangeably, that help people to send and receive meaningful cues to convey effective messages.

1.2 Definition of Body Language

Body language is a term used to refer to the process of communication using facial expressions, gestures, and body movements instead of sound or verbal language. According to Raah (2015), “Communication is much more than words...Body language is the language you speak without words ” (p.23). Several recent studies investigating the impact ofbody language in the different communication setting support the position that body language variables play a major role in affecting peoples’ communication. Mehrabian (as cited in Pease, 1988, p. 9).Stated that the total impact of a message is about 7 percent verbal (words only) and 38 percent vocal (including tone of voice, inflection, and other sounds) and 55 percent boy language.

Every part of the body can speak as words; it means that body language can give equivalent meaning to the verbal language. According to Callahan (2012), stated that “Body language is the unspoken or non-verbal mode of communication that we do in every single aspect of our interaction” (p.4). Body language is widely regarded as the transfer of meaning without the use of verbal symbols. That is, body language refers in a literal sense to those actions, gestures that either communicate directly or facilitate communication without using words. Harmer (2007) stated that “we can convey a number of meaning through the way in which we use our bodies”(p.44).

The awareness ofhow to use the body language is the key to successful personal relationships and it can be the secret that enables peoples to manage an effective communication in different conversations. For example, several recent publications in the domain of foreign language teaching show that body language forms of communication are very important not only for teaching foreign language but also for raising learners’ interaction and motivation inside the classroom.

Body language is a significant means through people communicate with each other. To sum up, body language is a kind oflanguage through Facial expressions, gestures, and body movements that make the communication more effective, vivid, and powerful which create active atmosphere.

1.3 Aspects ofBody Language

1.3.1 Facial Expressions

Facial expressions are a vital part of communication. They are a form of nonverbal communication, and the primary means of conveying social information between humans, according to Ekman (1977) facial expressions are universal language, it is the unspoken communication between people; they play a significant role in communication; through facial expressions, people can express sadness or happiness, without the need to use words, they are the primary source ofinformation, next to words, in determining an individual’s internal feelings, and to kept the listener motivated and interested during the conversation.

1.3.2 Gestures

Gestures are those movements or positions of the hands, arms, body, head, or face that are expressive of an idea, opinion, or emotion. Oxford dictionary defined body language as movements in a different part of the body, especially a hand or the head, in order to express an idea or meaning.

Pease (1988) wrote a book about How to read others’ thoughts by their gestures, the author tackled how gestures can help the speaker to send effective and successful messages. Pease stated that like any other language, body language consists of words, sentences, and punctuation. Each gesture is like a single word and a word may have different meanings. It is only when putting a word into a sentence with other words we can fully understand its meaning. Gestures come as body language cues that support the verbal messages depend on the context, during the stream of the conversations. In addition to looking for gesture as an integral part of the communication, also gestures should be considered in the context in which they occur. Moreover, in the book of Goman (2008) The advantage of nonverbal communication, the author introduced The Five C’sof Gestures which are; Context, Clusters, Congruence, Consistency, Culture.

Goman made a relation among the five C’s of gestures. The relation represented that the context can change the meaning of gestures, the receiver can decode the gestural clusters that are congruence with the verbal messages, with the consideration of the cultural background, if the non-verbal messages are coherent and consistent with the verbal messages, the message will be sent effectively.

1.7 Positive and Negative Body Language

1.7.1 Positive Body Language

Positive body language can be defined as these nonverbal movements and gestures that are communicating interest, enthusiasm, and positive reactions. It is considered as an important aspect of communication as it sends different positive and negative signals.

In the communication process, people use different body language messages which have relevant and meaningful meaning that support and encode the content of verbal messages. According to Goman (2008) positive body language place the speaker in a position of comfort, dignity, and likeability. So they feel comfortable in the interaction. If the body movements convey the opposite, then body language is not positive and hence, needs to be improved, the usage of positive body language includes:

S The use of open body position: keeping shoulders back and upper body relaxed, show hands and use open-palm gestures.

illustration not visible in this excerpt

FigureOl. Open Body Position by Pease (1988, p.137).

-/ Taking the time to make eye contact. Look at individuals, at least three to five seconds to send effective messages.

S Standing centered with both feet.

S Affirmative movements: to show empathy, with simple actions of agreement like nodding the head.

1.7.2 Negative Body Language

Negative body language is any kind of movement of the body, head, eyes that cause individuals being unhappy or displeased by someone. Claridge (2010) suggests that negative body language may simply be a bad habit that affects individuals’ perception about the speaker. This idea is supported by Louis (2006), it includes:

S Standing on one leg: standing on one leg does not give a direct negative impression still it can reduce the overall positive impression. A confident person will usually stand with his both legs.

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Figure2. The Correct Standing Position Pease (1988, pl41).

S Closed gestures: Closed gestures such as folding the arms or crossing the legs give uncomfortable, and lack of confident impression to people.

S Negative facial expressions: annoyance, nervousness, and boredom.

S Too much stillness: the speaker talks without non-verbal language.

S Shoulders in down position.

S Arms crossed over the chest: too close arms to body make the speaker look unsure.

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Figure3. Different Positions of Arm adopted from jewelpie.com (2015)

1.8 Kinesics

Kinesics cues are those visible body shifts and movements, which can send messages about the needs of the other person. Kinesics behaviors are an important part ofbody language communication. According to Simonds &Cooper (2014) “ kinesics is the study of facial expressions, eye contact, and gestures” (p.128). Malandro (1989) stated that kinesics serves six functions: complementing, substituting, accenting, contradicting, repeating, and regulating verbal messages.

S Complementing

Cambridge Dictionary defined “complementing” as the act of making something seem better when combining with something else. Body language supports verbal communication and vice versa. In other words, the use ofkinesics in body language communication is complementing the interpretation of verbal messages. Complementing generally adds more information to messages.

S Substituting

According to (Oxford Advanced Leamer’sDictionary) “substituting” is the act of replacing something that acts or serves the same place of another. Body language can be used without verbal communication, in some situations kinesics cues work more effectively than the verbal language. For example: Holding the thumb straight down means “bad idea” or “no.”

S Accenting

Oxford dictionary defined “accenting” as the act of making something more noticeable or prominent. In another word, accenting is the act of emphasizing in particular point. In body language communication, the pause is like the accent, it means that the skillful speaker would pause before and after the speech, to get attention and motivation from the audience.

S Repeating

Repeating is the act of doing something again and again (Cambridge dictionary). People use body language messages to repeat a point in their verbal language. For example, someone gets hardness to understand what speaker said, the speaker can repeat the verbal message with the use of kinesics cues to facilitate the verbal message, and reduce the ambiguity.

S Contradicting

The Longman Dictionary define the term “contradicting” as the act of the difference between two things that they cannot both be true. In some situations, body language messages contradict with the verbal message. For example; many times people try to lie, but their body language can say the truth.

S Regulating

Regulating it is the act of controlling something (Cambridge dictionary), it serves to organize the verbal dialogue between people, to be exact, body language communication work to manage the flow of communication. For instance, the speaker can use his/her body language for turn-taking to indicate or direct his/her speech.

1.8.1 Facial Expressions Aspects

Facial expressions are those muscles that used to communicate or to convey the mood Ekman (1977). Faces are rich of the information about individual identity, and also about mood and mental state. Mccormack (1984) showed the importance of facial expressions in his famous expression “I will often fly great distances only to meet someone face-to-face” (p.16)

Studies reveal that the most expressive way humans display emotions is through facial expressions. Facial expressions are the primary source ofinformation, next to words, that determining an individual’s internal feelings or intentions.

1.8.1.1 Eye Contact

Eye contact means the act oflooking directly into another’s eye, it means that meeting of the eyes of two persons. According to Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary, “Eye contact occurs when two people look at each other's eyes at the same time.” Eye contact is important in the communication process. This technique speaks louder than words; it can show interest, understanding, respect, and appreciation of the audience.

1.8.1.2 Smiling

The smile defined in Cambridge Dictionary as the act in which the ends of the mouth opened slightly, with the lips moving apart so that the teeth can be seen. The smile has the power to release stress, calm down, and make the difference in the stream of conversation, so it causes happiness.

A smile is a “universal language” in human beings society, it means that everybody around the world can communicate with the smile, no matter what the person’s attitude or disposition; they normally put their negative attitudes aside for the moment and return the smile when they receive it. Humans can show their feelings and emotions through their smiles, such as happiness and warmth which create positiveness and motivated environment.

1.8.2 Mimicry

Mimicry comes from the Greek word “mime” which means the performer who silently imitates gestures and expressions, according to Oxford advanced learner's dictionary, “Mimicry is the action or skill ofimitating someone or something”. In the 1960s Asher, an American professor of psychology creates an approach was called “Total Physical Response”. The TPR is an effective technique for teaching, particularly for teaching English to EFL learners, which combining movement with language. For example, instead of teaching new words like ‘close’ and ‘door’in traditional way, the teacher can link between the word and movement,by asking each learner to get up and close the door while he/she says the word, because actions help learners to remember the new words, and get vocabulary faster. The TPR is a great technique which keeps the classroom active, focused, and motivated in teaching and learning process.

1.8.3 Postures

Posture is the position of a body while standing or sitting, the way that the body is posed can communicate many different messages and can affect the way is perceived by others. According to Miller (1988) postures are the different ways of body position, which can express self-confidence, energy, or fatigue. There is one chance to make afirst impression and Postures are an important source that can convey different messages. For example; the good straight posture indicates confidence, or the down shoulders indicate a lack of confidence and or low self-esteem.

1.8.4 Proxemics

The term Proxemics It usually refers to the way humans manage space during the interaction, according to Axtell (19 95) proxemics study the way people stand from their interlocutor conveys something about their personality or attitude and relationship with the interlocutor. To understand fully how proxemics works and how it affects communication, a distinction should be made between personal spaces.

1.6 The Power of Body Language inside the Classroom

The effective teachers use body language to communicate with learners and make them feel motivated and supported. Tai (2014) stated that teachers’ Body language helps learners to get teachers’messages effectively and rapidly, it creates a supportive and communicative learning environment in the classroom that leads to learners’ engagement and motivation. There is constant interaction between teachers and learners in teaching and learning process, gestures, facial expressions and body movement work as tools that attract and motivate learners toward the lesson. Successful teachers use their physical presence to enhance teacher- learners motivation and interaction in the classroom.

1.6.1 Body language and EFL Learners

An effective communication rests not only on the verbal message but also on the meanings that are exchanged through non-verbal language. Teachers-leamers communication takes place at multiple levels, through the integration of different semantic and semiotic resources, which all contribute to the transmission and reception of messages. Mitra (2014) mentioned that teachers use their body language to describe different objects of the lesson, EFLleamers do not rely on teachers’ words alone, they interpret difficult words and messages through teachers’ gestures and the facial expressions. EFL teachers need to use body language to facilitate learners understanding messages and to communicate more effectively. For example, the following picture represents bringing the palm at shoulder level and shaking the fingers forward and backward. In this picture, the teacher indicates the past times and is likely to be used with expressions like ‘once upon a time’, or ‘a long time ago’. According to Grazia (2015) body language can play a major role in EFL classroom, include promoting lexical disambiguation, enhancing comprehension and create an enthusiastic atmosphere where learners stay active, curious and motivated about the lesson.

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Figure 4.adopted from sonamics.com (2007)

1.6.3 Body language and Symbolic (codes-signals)

The following behaviors represent actions which speak louder than words because Allan& Pease (2004) noticed that many body language messages could replace verbal words and expressions in an effective way;

1.6.3.1 Thumb-up

This symbol is widely recognized as the sign of approval or agreement is actually used in the classroom by the teachers to reinforce learners toward positive events.

1.6.3.2 Pointing Finger

It is considered a gesture to single out an individual from a crowd. Teachers may use this gesture to select one of the learners to answer a question during the participation time.

1.6.3.3 Smiling and Nodding

It represents the acceptance and satisfaction during classroom discussions between the teacher and the learners.

1.6.2.4 Power Posing

Researchers at Harvard Business School found that the position of people; shoulders back, open the chest, and the head up, show that the person is more confident, and the most confident is perceived by others. This is called power posing. (Wilmuth, Carney, & Cuddy, 2012)

1.6.3 Teachers’ Movements

Teachers’ movements should reflect the aim of the activity in the classroom. According to Nash (2009) engaging and motivating learners is central to effective teaching, but it can also be a teacher's greatest movements’ challenge. Teachers’ movement can motivate learners and keep them active during the process of teaching and learning. There are two kinds of teachers; active teacher, and passive teacher.

1.6.3.1 Active Teacher

Teachers’ body language play a large part in the energy levels in the classroom, and it is difficult to create any kind of energy if teachers remain seated the whole time. An active teacher is the one who Stands appropriately, and according to the need and the object of the lesson. For example, standing is important when the teacher wants the attention of the whole class, for clarifying a point in the lesson or giving instructions, because learners are attracted to movements and brains are programmed to pay attention to what is active. Some experienced teachers know how to hold the attention and motivation of a large group while seated, but there is definitely a greater possibility oflosing some learners' attention and motivation if they are seated. According to Brophy (1979) teachers need to remember that they are learners, and this is where the movement comes in, and they need that active teacher who moves around the classroom and spread the energy and motivation through the movement which creates an active atmosphere.

1.6.3.2 Passive Teacher

Teachers who remain seated throughout the whole lesson are considered passive teachers, and they may create learning problems, in other word, teachers can give learners demotivated atmosphere when they are sitting down, in front of them, the whole session. This position will be reflected on the learners, and it can give them the impression ofboth lack of interest, and motivation.

It is better for the teachers to sit in a place which is easily accessible to all learners when they are explaining, in the middle of the classroom, to be available to get or to answer learners’ questions, also they need to stand and move from time to time, to refresh the energy and motivation in the classroom.

According Bendoski (2011) if teachers could use their body language well, they would create good studying atmosphere and enhance teaching effectiveness. For instance, when a learner gives a wrong answer, the teacherjust encourage him/her with a smile, instead of criticizing him/her with an angry face.

1.7 The Implementation of Teachers’ Body Language in the Classroom

1.7.1 Body Language and Teachers’ Attitude

Teachers should use positive attitudes through creating suitable and relaxable atmosphere. It can be through teachers’ body language which reflects positiveness to learners' motivation, for example, the smile, it is known that the smile is the best medicine, and it is true. A smile can relieve stress, elevates mood, and enhances motivation, it is also good for teachers-leamers relationships. The use of positive body language, like a smile in the classroom, can play the major role that builds up the relationships between teacher and learners rather than breaking it down. Moreover, Henrik (2006) shown that a large percentage of communication and how people perceive others comes from their body language. This includes; gestures, and facial expressions, and body movements. Teachers’ body language can be the key that motivates and facilitates the learning process.

A positive attitude brings out greater overall effort on the part oflanguage learners and typically results in greater success, because positive attitudes are very important in language learning, and they need to be used for exciting, stimulating, and interesting learners. Consequently, teachers' body language can the reflect of teachers attitude which can be the stimulus oflearners’ motivation toward the content that they are going to receive.

1.7.2 Positive Body Language in The Classroom

1.7.2.1 Making Eye Contact

When teachers maintain eye contact, in the process of teaching and learning, they seem more confidence with learners, and if teachers lose eye contact or focus on something else, the learners may not take what is saying seriously or they may lose their attention. This last may create a lack of interest among learners. Miller (1988) remarked that Teachers can have individual contact with every learner in the classroom, through eye contact. Furthermore, The eye contact conveys the inner thoughts, emotions, and desires, of the teacher that can establish the connection with learners.

Eye contact helps the teacher to establish rapport and trust, and it shows that the teacher is engaged and listening to the learners. In spite of the fact that teachers' body language behavior affects the educational process, Davis (1975) discovered that teachers were not completely aware of the influence their body language behavior had upon their learners.

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Figure 5.Teacher’s Eyes Contact during the Explanation adopted from hufflngtonpost.com (2013)

1.7.2.2 Teachers’ Smiling

Keith, Tomatzky, & Pettigrew (1974) noted the importance of the teachers’ smile in affecting learners’ positive perceptions of their instructors. For instance, when the learner gives a wrong answer, it’s better for the teacher to encourage him/her with a smile than to criticize him/her with an angry face. Teachers need to keep learners optimistic, comfortable and happy in the process ofleaming, and teachers’ smile has this magical function, that change learners’ mood no matter how bad they are feeling.

1.7.2.3 Pay Attention to Posture

Teachers seem to be more confident to learners if they stand with a good posture. When teachers stand or sit with down position (shoulder and face down) that displays a lack of confidence to learners, this position says that they are unsure of themselves and learners will not listen seriously to someone who appears unconfident or spineless. Teachers need to walk tall and with straight shoulders, to reflect their confidence on the learners which will make the latter more motivated and willing to learn.

1.7.2.4 Use Power Poses

Social psychologist Cuddy (2012) revealed that standing or sitting with certain poses for little two minutes raises testosterone (Dominance hormone) levels and lowers cortisol (the stress hormone).

The poses involve opening body and taking up space, which makes the teacher feel more confident and powerful, the power pose involves using open gestures, smiling and nodding, and mirroring the expressions which involve the combination of verbal messages with physical pauses. For example, the expression; listen carefully, or what do you say with the following pause.

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Figure06. What Did You Say Pose Goman (2008, p.98)

1.7.2.5 Thumbs up

It's quick and simple action that can show teachers’ appreciation toward learners’ answers; this action let the teacher gain time, instead of praising every learner verbally, all the time, the tactics of thumbs up can make a major difference how learners perceive the lesson, change the mood of the classroom, and motivate learners to participate and to do more.

1.7.2.6 Body Movements

A body movement is to shift or to change from place or position or posture to another one (Cambridge Dictionary). Anderson & Myers (2010) noticed that classrooms are interactive social environments where teachers need to experience the curriculum through their bodies, in order to engage learners physically and mentally with what they are learning. Teachers need to create a communicative atmosphere through their body language which is the source of the energy in the classroom; they need to avoid explaining the lesson from or behind the desk and to move around the classroom to activate the classroom environment. Learners' attention can be lost if teachers remain seated the whole time, that can give learners the impression of a lack of interest and motivation and create a lazy atmosphere, which affects the learning process. Teachers’ movements are the mean through which the lesson is organized and the interaction is structured.

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Figure 7.Explaining the Lesson behind the Desk adopted from Teachers-corner.com (2012)

Classroom management is the term educators use to describe methods of preventing misbehavior and dealing with it if it arises. In other words, it is the techniques teachers use to maintain control in the classroom Kelly (2005). Messages between teachers and learners occur in classrooms every day. The teacher has the primary role as director of the classroom and learners respond to the instructions, whether positively or negatively. Every teacher wants to have learners’ attention and focus during instruction. There are obvious ways to accomplish this task with verbal and nonverbal communication. Teachers use nonverbal communication in their classrooms whether they realize it or not, and it can be either positive or negative. Therefore, they should pay attention to their body language, and make sure that they are using it in a positive way, Teachers need to stand up straight because, the Poor posture; slumped shoulders, stomach sticking out is not only physically unhealthy and negative, but it can convey a whole range of attitudes and degrees of interest and respect. Also, the Smiley face conveys happiness and encouragement. Frowns show sadness and anger, it is not necessary for the teacher to show anger face when the classroom is very noisy, the teacher might use body language by putting the finger on the lips instead of shouting and saying “please calm down” to maintain classroom management.

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Figure 08.Gestures For Classroom Management adopted from http://files.eric.ed. (2006)

Teachers can use their body language in the classroom as supporting tool. For example, if the teacher wants to explain the lesson, body language can work as a supporter that avoids lexical ambiguity.In the same time, teachers’ body language can support learners during the interaction in the classroom.For example, when learners give answers to the teacher questions, the teacher can encourage learners when they give answers by different body language messages like nodding and smiling and making eye contact.

1.8.6 Body Language and Emotions

Teachers’ body language mirrors their feeling, when teachers are Happy or sad, feeling Interested or bored, Fear or anger or stress, their body language is a more reliable indicator of their emotions, and their abilities or competence they have. For that reason, teachers need to prepare the content that they are going to present because as learners have two ears to listen to the content they have also two eyes to see how the content is going to be presented. Teachers need to know how to utilize different body language messages to deal with different situations that appear in the classroom.

1.8.4 Body Language and Energy

Body language help teachers to reflect positive energy, in order to keep learners engaged, motivated, and enhance their understanding. Teachers who stand in front of classes without movement or excitement in their actions will create a boring atmosphere which affects the learning process.

1.8.5 Body Language and Confidence

Teachers’ poor body language do not only affect learners energy and ability to perform the lesson, but it also creates a lazy atmosphere for learners and this appears through their body language like; slouching down in their chairs, putting their heads down, and not paying attention to the lesson.. Having a good body language while presenting the lesson include making eye contact with learners, talking with enthusiasm, explaining with gestures, and moving around the classroom. Teachers have to be confident and let their learners know that they know what they are talking about through their body language.Therefore, they need to present the lesson with both body and words. Similarly, teachers who demonstrate positive body language had more active, motivated, and engaged learners.

1.8.6 Body Language and Memory

According to the behaviorist approach, body language plays a great role in memorizing different words and foreign language expressions or phrases. Hoge (2014) presented a series of videos and books that connect different EFL new words with body actions (gestures, facial expressions, movements) that represent their meaning. For example, the new word is “loathe” which mean “to hate intensely” when the word used in the phrase like; He loathes icecream. The EFL learner needs to think about movement connected to the meaning. Like a face represent hate, because the movement of the body shows the meaning of the word or phrase. Hoge (2014) mentioned that body language and the meaning are connected to the mind so the EFL learners can explore their body language to memorize foreign language subconsciously, more deeply, automatically, and with high energy and with physical experience.

Motivation is the condition ofbeing inspired to act or work with energy (Cambridge Dictionary). In the classroom, motivation leads to increases the amount of effort and energy which is the key to achieving academic success. Learners are most likely to show the beneficial effects of motivation when they are engaged with the teacher performance, it is the responsibility of the teacher to keep the classroom active during the explanation, through the use of verbal and non-verbal communication.

According to Ford (2010), the positive body language can create motivation atmosphere in the classroom. It is the energy of teacher that can be reflected to learners’ motivation and lead to success in language learning, like the use of smile in the teaching process. Whereas negative body language can create a lazy atmosphere which leads to learners demotivation, like using anger face in the process of teaching.

Conclusion

To conclude, this chapter gives a clear idea about the implementation of positive body language in teaching. Because, Teachers’ body language can engage, motivate, and activate learners’ performers. For that reason, teachers need to be aware of the positive and the negative features of their body language. In order to use their body language positively to create the best context where learning can take place effectively which reflect directly to learners’ enthusiasm, and enhance teaching and learning effectiveness.

Table of contents

Introduction

1. Definition of Motivation

2. Typesof Motivation
2.1 Extrinsic Motivation
2.2 Intrinsic Motivation

3. MotivationStrategies

4. Teachers’Efficacy

5. FactorsAffectMotivation
5.1 Classroom Environment
5.2 Teachers’ Motivation
5.3 Learners’ beliefs
5.4 Teachers’ beliefs
5.5 Teachers’ attitude
5.6 Teachers’ Body Language
5.7 Affective Filter hypothesis

6. MotivationalConditions
6.1 Creating the Basic Motivational Conditions
6.3 Maintaining and Protecting Motivation
6.4 Motivational Strategies: Encouraging Positive Self-Evaluation

7. Tips for Motivating EFL Learners

8. The Lack of Motivation

9. The Power of Motivation Inside the Classroom

Conclusion

Introduction

Motivation plays a significant role in the learning process. It is part of teachers’ pedagogy to develop in students the desire for new knowledge and understandings, known as motivation. Educators, through implementing a variety of motivational techniques, can have considerable influence on learners’ participation and motivation. Teachers have the capability of making learning empowering, thus allowing the energy of the classroom. The purpose of this chapter is to understand the importance of motivation within the classroom as part of the process of developing lifelong learners and to develop effective teaching.

1. Definitionof Motivation

A number of researches in language learning have been made in the foreign language learning context to deal with learner’s motivation. Although many studies have looked into learners’ motivation and to the position of motivation in language learning, there is no agreement about the exact definition of motivation Oxford, R. & Shearin, J (1994). Dornyei (1998) comments, “Although motivation is a term frequently used in both educational and research contexts, it is rather surprising how little agreement there is in the literature with regard to the exact meaning of the concept” (P.l 17).

At its beginnings, the concept was examined and understood within a behavioral framework trying to understand what motivation is, Weiner (1990) “.. .what moved a resting organism into a state of activity such as instinct, drive, need, energisation” (P.09).

Gardner (1985) defined motivation as a “combination of effort plus desire to achieve the goal ofleaming the language, plus favorable attitudes towards learning the language."Because motivating EFL learners’ reduce difficulties in learning a foreign language. Researchers in classroom motivation have found that a certain teachers’ strategies can help learners’ to adopt more positive attitudes and to become more motivated in teaching and learning process.

Learning a foreign language is different from learning other subjects. Williams (1994) argued that learning a foreign language involves far more than simply teaching skills or a system of rules or a grammar. For example, an empirical survey of motivational strategies in language classrooms in Hungary Domyei & Csizer (1998) resulted in commandments for motivating language learners, because learners’ motivation plays a very important role in enhancing learners’ English performance. Therefore numerous researchers investigated the influence of motivation on learners’ process. Dornyei (1997) put a stress on the influence of classroom motivation, that motivation is considered as a “ key” to learning a second or foreign language, and it seems to be the biggest single factor that affecting language learners’ success.

In addition, in Wood’s (1998) perception, one of the factors influencing how successful a person in learning L2 is the learners’ motivation. The lack of motivation is observed in low attendance, participation, and performance. Harmer (1991) also agreed that” students who are in some way motivated do significantly better than their peers”. (P. 51).

Motivation has been differently defined from various perspectives of psychology, sociology, and linguistics. Some psychologists defined motivation in terms of certain needs. Ausubel (1968) identified some main needs which help construct learners’ motivation; The need for stimulation, the need to be stimulated by the environment, by other people or by ideas, thoughts, and feelings. As stated by Gardner (1985) “motivation L2 acquisition refers to the combination of effort plus desire to achieve the goal of learning the language and favorable attitudes towards learning the language”. (P. 10).

In this sense, teachers need to apply motivation strategies to make foreign language class more vividly and active. According to Rebecca (1999) teachers around the world find that learners who are motivated learn more and faster than others. For this reason, teachers need to try to find ways to make their learners motivated to learn the target language.

The learning process is also influenced by a number of intrinsic and extrinsic motives. For example according to Leong (2012), in extrinsic motives, courses are related to the syllabus, the teaching materials, the teaching method and learning tasks. In intrinsic motives, teacher concerns the motivational impact of the teacher‘s personality, behavior and teaching style.

According to Brophy (2004), motivation to learn is a competence acquired "through general experience but stimulated most directly through modeling, communication, and direct instruction or socialization”(P.29). Consequently, in the classroom, educators should be aware of the importance and the need of motivation in the classroom.

2. Types Of Motivation

2.1 Extrinsic Motivation

Extrinsic motivation refers to accomplish an activity in order to get a special outcome and it is the opposite of intrinsic motivation. It is that motivation that comes from the outside influences of the individual. Karageorghis, & Terry (2011) “Motivation can come from the outside, such as the motivation to win medals, receive financial rewards, and attract attention.” (P.63). Extrinsic rewards can be used to motivate people to acquire new skills or knowledge. Once these early skills have been learned, people may then become more intrinsically motivated to pursue the activity. For example, extrinsic motivation can be used to get people to complete a work task or school assignment in which they have no internal interest. Without motivation, learners had no inspiration to learn, and they would not get that deep breath that pushes them toward accomplishing their learning process. It is the key when it comes to getting learners to take long terms process and it dependents upon external factors and outcomes.

Teachers can increase and develop leamers’motivation in the classroom. Through facilitating and engaging learners, teachers enthusiasm can affect learners’ motivation by creating a supportive learning environment that can assist in the development of successful learners. For example, thejoy that comes with the accomplishment of goals can motivate learners to continually wish to succeed in all aspects of their life. Sternberg & Williams (2002).

Intrinsic motivation can be increased through engaging learning and teaching experiences. Teachers need to deliver content in a way that grabs the attention of their learners’ Metcalf & Game (2006) noticed that “A teacher’s passion significantly impacts upon the energy of the classroom, which enhances the value of the task and pushes learners’ to know more”(P.33). Moreover, Metcalf & Game (2006) Teachers can demonstrate learners’ enthusiasm for learning through various “facial expressions, body language and tone of voice” (Palmer, 2007, p.41). Teachers need to ‘move’ their learners to motivate curiosities and develop lifelong learners. According to palmer Positive energy in a teachers’ body language can lead learners to believe that the content has intrinsic value, and motivate learners to want to know more.

3. Motivation Strategies

In the process of teaching and learning, teachers need to encouraging learners’ participation by applying activities that require active involvement from each participant or learner, and presenting the task in an attractive way to get learners’ attention and involvement which can create motivation atmosphere that enhances teaching and learning process, According to Dornyei (2001), “Motivational strategies refer to those motivational influences that are consciously exerted to achieve some systematic and enduring positive effect.” (P.28).

Teachers need to motivate learners’ so that the learning process becomes a continuing, improving, interesting and enjoyable. Teachers must develop and encourage classroom motivation, for example, thinking of and find ways to motivate learners to reach the lesson object. There are so many ways to develop learners’ motivation.It’strue that teachers will come across learners who are difficult to be motivated but they have to create incentive ways to motivate such learners.

S Teachers need to remember that humor in the classroom is a great way to motivate learners.

S Doing unique activities, creating situations where they can work in small groups, and creating a reward system.

S Instructors can greatly enhance techniques for motivating learners, through teachers’ behavior that have motivating effects. In fact, teachers’ can influence their learners when they are exposed to their behavior. For example, positive teachers’ behavior like a smile can communicate and rapport positive influence with learners.

S The pleasant and supportive classroom atmosphere can enhance learners’ motivation. For example; making the classroom more vivid and fresh when presenting the lesson can create an active and motivated environment, it is the teacher responsibility to create and maintain active environment during the presentation of the lesson that keeps learners’ active and awake.

S Teachers’ behavior is considered to be the most motivational tool for learners. Teachers can show enthusiasm for teaching English by being committed and motivating themselves. Consequently, it is assumed that the teacher instinctive motivation can be spread contagiously to their learners which create an atmosphere of the interaction between both.

S Keller (1987) emphasized the need ofbuilding an atmosphere of curiosity around learning. For example, any sudden or unexpected teachers’ action, can change the classroom environment and activates learners’ attention such as when there is a change in teachers’ voice level, body language, or humor, in order to engage learners’ and to make the process of teaching and learning more effective.

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Figure 08: Motivational Teaching Strategies Dornyei (2001, P.29).

4. Teachers’ Efficacy

For over the years, teacher efficacy has been defined Guskey & Passaro (1994) as “the extent to which a teacher believes he/she can influence students’ behavior and their academic achievement especially pupils with difficulties or those with particularly low learning motivation.” (P.35). According to Guskey & Passaro, the conceptualization of teacher efficacy is based on the breadth of the teacher’s role. In most studies, this involves the classroom as a stage in which the teacher engages learners in education and teaching.

Bandura (1977), a leader in the development of self-efficacy theory shared vision which centered on creating a student-teacher centered atmosphere that able to make a difference in the learning process and to improve learners achievement by working to raise the collective depends on the development of a teacher’s sense of efficacy.

5. Factors Affect Motivation

It is important to understand what affect learners’ motivation because motivated learners’ are more likely to be engaged in activities that help them to learn and achieve better in the process oflearning. The different types of learners can be motivated by different combinations of factors.

According to Dornyei (2001), learners’ motivation may be dependent on varied factors:

5.1 Classroom Environment

A positive school environment reinforces learners’ motivation and causes to achieve higher levels and create motivation, it appears that teachers can influence learning processes and outcomes by structuring learning environments because there is a strong link between achievement and learners’ perceptions of classrooms qualities to achieve better results.

5.2 Teachers’ Motivation

Among classroom factors, the teacher is probably the single and the most powerful source of pupils’ motivation. Guajardo (2011) argued that teachers must be conscious of the powerful impact that they can have on their learners’ and make every effort to ensure that they impact positively rather than negatively. For example, learners are motivated by teachers who show that they are concerned about their well being, that they have answers to their questions, that they can be mothers, fathers, and friends.

5.3 Learners’ beliefs

Learners’ who believe they can, they will do well and they are much more likely to be motivated in terms of effort, persistence, and behavior than learners who believe they are less able to succeed. According to Pintrich (2003), when learners’ expect to do well, they tend to try hard, persist and perform better. In the same time, the qualities of a classroom environment might impact on learners’ motivation and teachers’ subjective performance.

5.4 Teachers’ beliefs

Teachers’ beliefs can influence teaching and learning process positively if they believe that learners themselves have a powerful influence on their motivation, and they can achieve better if teachers believe in their abilities. According to Slavin (2006) if teachers hold a positive attitude towards the ability of all students, then all students are more likely to be motivated to learn and achieve. Consequently, teacher beliefs strongly influence teaching process and, learner development.

5.5 Teachers’ attitude

Teachers’ emotions have a great impact on learners’ motivation. If teachers have negative emotions such as anger, frustration, and resentment towards the classroom environment, then they will affect learners’ motivation levels that affect learners to be less likely to achieve good academic outcomes.

5.6 Teachers’ Body Language

The body language of teachers plays an important role when they are teaching. It refers to the aspect ofhow the course is presenting in an enjoyable, interested, and motivated way. For example, if teachers vary the tone of their voices and use different body language according to the course object, and provide different active teaching methods, they might create interest and motivation among learners. Some students seem naturally enthusiastic about learning, but many need their instructors to stimulate them. Kelly (2012) emphasized that effective learning in the classroom depends on the teacher's ability to maintain the interest and motivation that brought students to the course in the first place.

5.7 Affective Filter hypothesis

The Affective Filter hypothesis embodies Krashen’s (1991) view that a number of “affective variables” which include: motivation, self-confidence, and anxiety. Krashen claims that learners with high motivation and a low level of anxiety are better equipped for success in second language acquisition. Low motivation and anxiety can combine to ‘raise’ the affective filter and form a ‘mental block’ that prevents comprehensible input from being used for acquisition. In other words, when the filter is ‘up’ it impedes language acquisition. On the other hand, the positive effect is necessary, for motivation so that acquisition can take place.

6. Motivational Conditions

6.1 Creating the Basic Motivational Conditions

Motivation is an important factor that teachers can target in order to improve learning. It is an essential element that is necessary for the quality of education, teachers need to adopted different strategies that can enhance learners’ motivation in the classroom. According to

Guilloteaux & Domyei, (2009) “Motivational strategies referto instructional interventions applied by the teacher to elicit and stimulate student motivation” (p. 57).Consequently, Dornyei (2001) created motivational strategies in the language classroom. These strategies can influence EFL learners. Teachers can maintain the basic motivational conditions, by following these strategies:

S To speak and show enthusiasm for the course material, which affects learners’ motivation.

S To promote interaction, cooperation and the sharing information among the learners. S Show learners’ the value of L2 learning and to share a meaningful experience that produces enriches their motivation.

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Figure09: Motivational Teaching Strategies for The Classroom Dornyei (2001, P.29).

6.2 Generating Initial Motivation

Motivating students is one of the challenges that instructors face, teachers need to create motivation and protect the motivation environment in the classroom. Dornyei (2001) stated a number of strategies that are suggested to generate student motivation; teachers can generate the initial motivation, by following these strategies:

S To encourage the learners to apply FL in real-life situations.

S To have learners negotiation and their individual goals, and their attitudes toward teachers’ way of presentation.

S Draw attention from time to time to the class goals through different actions to attain learners.

6.3 Maintaining and Protecting Motivation

The role of the instructor is to facilitate learning, and it is a formidable and time­consuming task to find ways to motivate students that will achieve the academic goals of the course. In order to enhance learners’ motivation to learn, and creating enthusiastic atmosphere in the classroom, teachers need to take into consideration the following strategies as a part of teaching process;

S Present the tasks in a motivating way, so teacher motivation will prevail to learners and the entire classroom.

S Provide appropriate strategies to carry out the task, so that learners stay engaged with teacher presentation

S Encourage students to adopt, develop and apply self-motivating strategies.

6.4 Motivational Strategies: Encouraging Positive Self-Evaluation

The motivational perspectives in FL combine the educational research with the psychology oflearning to investigate new the motivational dimensions. Researchers argued that learners’ motivation had a much impact on teaching and learning process. So that, teachers need to encourage motivation in the classroom, by following these strategies;

S Use grades in a motivating manner, and reducing, as much as possible, teachers’ demotivating impact.

S Promote learners' interactions, contributions, and efforts.

S Encourage learners in their failures, by introducing the lack of the appropriate strategies that they applied, rather than by their insufficient abilities.

7. Tips for Motivating EFL Learners

Teachers need to build and maintain motivation in FL classrooms, by following different strategies, Reid (2007) stated different Tips for teachers, that are the keys to motivating learners, these tips are the following;

S Presenting tasks in a motivationally conducive manner.

S Teaching actively, with positive behavior, and energy.

S Make things stimulating and attractive, to get learners’ attention, and to create curiosity to know more.

S Use active activities Such as games, role-playing, English comer...There are many activities that can be used to motivate and engage learners in the learning process.

S Adopting an active teaching style, by Projecting enthusiasm and demonstrating the motivated behavior.

S Using a range ofleaming styles in class lessons, it is important to ensure that each student’s learning style is accommodated for in some way.

S Celebrating success, and encourage failure learners

S Using motivationally appropriate feedback, praise, and rewards.

S Applying motivation plan in teaching English, as a foreign language.

S Healthy competition can be a very inspiring motivation if the teacher know how to approach it.

S Moving around the classroom.

S Using smiley face in the process of teaching.

S Putting some excitement into the speech; vary the pitch, volume, and rate S Using eye contact in teacher-learners interaction, and nodding with head to follow learners’ answers when listening to them.

8. The Lack of Motivation

The lack of enthusiasm and energy in the classroom can create lazy atmosphere or environment which impact directly on teaching and learning process. According to Gok9e (2013), if the teacher is acting enthusiastically and energetically, learners will be affected by teachers’ motivation. So that, teachers need to know how to deal with the lack of motivation in the classrooms, because motivation is one of the keys that will push learners to do more, and it can contribute to successful language learning. Another reason that can avoid a lack motivation in the classroom is teachers’ voices. If the teacher uses his/her voice appropriately he/she can raise learners’ attention toward the lesson, also teachers’ body language has a role in fostering learners’ motivation and reduces boredom in the classroom.

9. The Power of Motivation Inside The Classroom

The positive environment can lead to learners’ comprehension and to supportive classroom atmosphere. Teacher’s warm and appreciating attitude like the smile during the presentation of the lesson, the use ofhumor in teaching and learning process, or the positive reinforcements such as verbal and nonverbal praises can make teaching enjoyable and, hold great importance in promoting learners’ motivation during the lesson.

Also, classroom motivation can enhance participation, and engage learners. It leads to increase the effort and the energy in the classroom, which reflects and to increase the amount of effort and energy that learners expand in activities directly related to their needs and goals (Csikszentmihalyi & Nakamura, 1989; Maehr, 1984; Pintrich, 1993). Moreover, motivation can enhance learners’ performance, effort, and energy, because the learners who are motivated to learn tend to be better achievers in the classroom.

Conclusion

Lack oflearners’ motivation is a problem that is faced by teachers across all educational levels. Unmotivated learners exhibit behaviors ofbeing unengaged, distracted, and unwilling to put forth the effort, whereas Learners’ motivation shows interest and engagement, which may lead to successful learning. The purpose of this chapter was to investigate the issue of learners’ motivation, and factors that influence leamers’motivation, and how can teachers’ create the basic motivational conditions that contribute to successful teaching and learning process.

CHAPTER THREE: FIELD WORK

Introduction

3.1. Observation
3.1.1. Results and Discussions of the Classroom Observation
3.2. Questionnaire
3.2.1. The Description and Data Analysis of the Questionnaire
3.2.2. Results and Discussions
3.3. Recommendation
3.4. Limitation of the Study

Conclusion

Introduction

So far, the two chapters were related to body language and EFL learners’ motivation in teaching and learning. The next step, it is necessary for data to be collected analyzed and discussed in order to draw the final conclusion. This chapter is devoted to the findings of the research, some recommendations, and suggestions.

3.1. Observation

The classroom observation took place in February and March 2017 with two classes of the second year learners’ at Ahmed Zaid Middle school ofBiskra. It lasted six weeks, in which the researcher attends the first three weeks, with the teacher who uses positive body language than the other three weeks with the teacher who uses negative body language. Therefore, the researcher was making comparative observation between the two classes. Throughout this classroom observation, the researcher aims to investigate the effect of teachers’ positive body language on the EFL learners’ motivation. The observation was direct; the researcher has not used any recording or filming devices. In addition, the researcher depended on a passive observation that was followed with classroom observation checklist as well as personal observation through examining learners’ motivation during teachers’ presentation. Moreover, the classroom observation was been assisted with authentic sources about the use ofbody language in positive and in a negative way that guides the researcher to set the results about the effect of teacher's positive body language on the EFL learners’ motivation.

3.1.1. Results and Discussions of the Classroom Observation

Considering that “English” is perceived as a hard module by the EFL learners, because it is a new and a foreign language. The researcher has added and sheds light on teachers’ positive body language to simplify the process learning through creating a motivated atmosphere in the classroom.

The researcher had chosen tow classes from 2nd year learners at Ahmed Zaid Middle school; the first teacher, teacher A was already applied positive body language, the teacher was asked to add different procedures that represent positive body language such as “thumbs up” and “smiley face” and other gestures that are mentioned on the checklist observation to embody the whole positive body language in the classroom. In fact, they intend to entertain the learners to motivate them in the task oflearning, so they can achieve better in the process oflearning. Whereas teacher B was applied negative body language, the researcher left him/her without any remark and observes the classroom.

The Comparative Observation Teacher A + Teacher B Facial Expressions

Item 1: Teachers’ Facial Expressions and Learners’ Motivation

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Teacher A asked learners different questions with a smiley face, and when learners’ gave incorrect answers, the teacher smile and correct learners’ answers. Consequently, learners’ feel motivated to do more and they showed continuous follow to the lesson presentation, it means that learners felt secure to give their answers freely and without being anxious, they showed their motivation through their continuous follow toward teacher reaction. Whereas teacher B showed an anger face when learners gave incorrect answers learners felt upset and anxious to gave their answers, they show less motivation and participation next time, it means that the learners need that a teacher who shows smiley face during the interaction in the classroom which makes learners’ feel safe and motivated to participate more.

Item 2: Teachers’ Eye Contact and Learners’ Motivation

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Teacher A explains the lesson or interacts with learners, maintaining eye contact with the individuals, learners were attentive and support to the teacher presentation, they feel the importance of the lesson when the teacher stress on the words and open his eyes much more. The classroom atmosphere was so participative and attentive where the teacher moving by his eyes between his learners who listened well to the teacher and keeping cool, the teacher attracts learners’ attention and motivates them to follow the lesson, at the same time; there is no existence ofboredom. However, the Teacher B avoid the direct connection with learners; the teacher B focusjust on special group in the classroom and direct the view and the focus just in special part oflearners during the explanation, which makes the other part of the classroom felt bored and neglected, so they keep silent and they show their demotivation toward the teacher presentation. It means that the learners need that teacher who maintains eye contact with the whole classroom during the explanation, which makes learners’ feel supported and motivated toward the teacher presentation.

Item 3: Teachers’ Nodding and Learners’ motivation

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In the process of interaction, the teacher A receive learners’ answers with the use of nodding and following until learners complete their answers, learners’ feel secured and relaxed when they give their answers, they show their motivation through relaxation and constancy toward teacher presentation. Concerning the classroom atmosphere was more participative where the teacher uses class time effectively according to the lesson activities and listening to learners’ answers in an organized way. In the same time, learners are observed courage to give their answers while the teacher used nodding to receive their answers. Whereas the teacher B receives learners’ answers without nodding, learners seem anxious when they were giving their answers, because they need someone always encourage them to answer and follow their answers to feel relaxed, it means that the teacher can impact on learners’ relaxation, satisfaction, and constancy, so learners’ can be motivated to participate more in the classroom.

Gestures

Item 4: Teachers’ Gestures and Learners’ Motivation

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Learners get difficulties to understand difficult concepts because English is considering as a foreign language for learners. The teacher A explains the lesson using open postures which mean the use of gestures to give additional information about the topic. For example, the teacher use “open hands” and say the word “big” so learners can understand better the meaning of the word. Consequently, they get motivated when they show that they want to know more about the lesson. Whereas teacher Bjust cross the arms or put them in the pocket without exploits them in the explanation of the lesson, learners get difficulties with some word, so they get lost and they feel bored to follow the teacher performance. It means that teachers’ body language can reduce the lexical ambiguity that learners face and it make learners feel attentive and supported to understand the lesson better and get motivated to learn a foreign language.

Item 5: Teachers’ Thumbs up and Learners’ Motivation

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The teacher A used thumbs up when learners give correct answers to show his/her satisfaction and to encourage them to do more and enhance their participation, learners show happiness when the teacher showed them thumbs up. The action of thumbs up gave learners energy, power, as well as this action creates competition and motivation between learners which show their motivation through the highly participation. Moreover, each learner tries to get more likes from the teacher when he/she participate which creates a high level of performance and interaction inside the classroom. Whereas the teacher B show no positive reaction when learners gave a correct answer, the teacherjust move to the other steps of the lesson without giving importance to praise the learner. Learners seem discarded, and they show a lack of interest, response, and disappointment to the teacher questions. It means that the action of thumbs up can create difference and lead to encourage and create learners’ motivation.

Body Movements

Item 6: Teachers’ Movements and Learners’ Motivation

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The teacher A presents the lessons in the middle of the classroom in front ofleamers or in the position where everybody can see him/her and feel that energy that creates an active atmosphere which reflects on learners’ mood and motivation. Moreover, when the teacher gave activities for the learners, he/she stays moving and checks learners’ understanding and gets their questions, it is something good especially for the shy learners who often show their participation or feel shy to ask their questions in front of their classmates. Learners have been showing that they are interested and motivated to the lesson, and they negotiate and ask questions which mean that they are motivated to know more about the subject. In contrast, the teacher B give a negative impression to the learners, by presenting the lesson from the desk, and sitting in the chair all the session which create a lazy atmosphere in the classroom that reflects learners’ boredom.

Results

1. Most of the learners of the teacher A have responded positively. They have shared a sense of unity and sense ofbelongingness together. Learners have considered the classroom as a community where they are an integral part of it, they appreciate the use of positive body language as a pedagogical strategy, and they show they are motivated to learn through their satisfaction, participation, and interest.
2. An important point should be mentioned is that the teacher B gets less classroom interaction. Learners’ interaction has been lower, they show boredom and dissatisfaction to the teacher presentation. In spite of different topics, and subjects that have been discussed in the session.
3. Learners are easily influenced by their teacher’s behavior. So teachers’ positive body language leads learners to be in a good mood or atmosphere that allows them to focus on the a subject that is presented and makes them interested in what is coming next.
4. In spite of giving importance to the linguistic context, learners enjoy the positive teachers’ actions to be in the classroom process since it makes them active, maintain their engagement and most importantly lead them to be at ease in the interaction. In addition, teachers’ positive body language breaks the formality of the educational context and enhances learners’ motivation.

3.2. Questionnaire

This questionnaire is distributed to the second year learners at Ahmed Zaid Middle School ofBiskra, the researcher decided to choose two classes and give (20) questionnaires to each class, at the and the researcher receives (40) questionnaires which enrich the current study with useful and valuable data. The aim of distributing the questionnaires to the middle school learners was for checking the effect of teachers’ positive body language on the EFL learners’ motivation in the classroom.

3.2.1. The Description and Data Analysis of the Questionnaire

This questionnaire is composed of one section which includes different questions; these questions are close-ended questions. The section includes ten items or questions. It is for the purpose of gathering information regarding the learners’ point of view toward the use of teacher body language inside the classroom, includes the use of the facial expressions, gesture, and the body movements.

Questions:

3.2.2. Results and Discussions

Item 1: The Effect ofTeachers’ Presentation on Learners’ Motivation

Do you think that the way through which the teachers present the lesson can affect your motivation to learn more?

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The importance of teacher performance

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Based on the result, the table shows that there are different views on the effect of the teachers’ presentation on the EFL learners’ motivation. From the table (38) of the learners answered “Yes” which means that the teacher presentation affects their motivation, (2) of learners answered “No” showing that they are not interested in the way of the presentation of the teacher.

According to the graph, most of the subjects (95%) were interested in the way of teacher presentation, the rest (5%) see that the teacher presentation is not necessary for their motivation. From the results, this idea gained acceptance from the most of the participants. This could be due to learners’ belief that teachers’ performance may support their learning so that it will be helpful for their process, and their motivation inside the classroom. Moreover, the diverse learners’ perspectives about the necessity of teachers’ way of presentation in classroom indicate that learners’ affected by teacher presentation in the classroom.

Item 2: The Effect of Teachers’ Smile on Learners’ Engagement

Do you feel happy and willing to be more engaged with the lesson if the teacher uses his/her smile when teaching?

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Table 02: Using Teachers’ Smile as a Teaching Tool

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This question spots the light studying the importance of teachers’ smile on learners’ process, based on the results from the table, teachers’ smile is viewed as an important teaching tool by (39) oflearners, andjust (01) learner show the opposite.

The graphic clarify the results and show that the majority oflearners (97.5%) advocate the smile as a supporting teaching tool, whereas (2.5%) show the opposite based on the results of this question, learners appreciate the use of smile in the classroom as a teaching tool since the smile is magical bonuses, it creates the positive classroom atmosphere, motivation, interest, enthusiasm, and satisfaction. Moreover, the smile is considered as a supporting teaching tool because it gives a positive energy that reflects on learners’ motivation. It creates a healthy atmosphere where feel attentive and curious to know more about the lesson. Teachers’ smile serves as a tool which breaks routine, changes the learning mood and make the learning process more motivated to enjoy the lesson performance.

Will you participate again if the teacher shows you an angry face in the incorrect answer?

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Table 03: The Effect of Teachers’ Anger Face on Learners’ Participation the effect of Teachers' Facial Expressions on learners' participation

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According to the table, the results show that (28) oflearners are encouraging the avoidance of teachers’ angry face during their incorrect answers, and (12) oflearners wants to participate again even if the teacher show angry face.

From the graph (70%) oflearners choose to avoid participation if the teacher shows an angry face during the incorrect answer. Whereas, (30%) of the participants choose to participate again. The results clearly indicate that learners’ appreciate the flexible teacher who accepts their mistakes and encourages them to do more. Teachers need to be aware of the influence that they can make on learners’ mood by the use of different facial expressions, they can create a relaxed environment for learning, where learners are motivated to participate freely in a non-threatening environment. Moreover, teachers need to be characterized by some qualities like a smile, peaceful facial traits, and flexibility which are the major features of an effective teacher. Thus, the friendly and containment teacher helps learners feel more relaxed and more motivated, so they can participate in the classroom discussion without being fear to make mistakes.

Item 4: the Effect ofUsing Nodding and Eye contact on Learners’ Motivation

Do you feel relaxed and motivated to give your answer, when the teacher follows your answer with eye contact and nodding until the end?

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Table 04: The Effect ofUsing Nodding and Eye Contact on Learners’ Motivation

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Considering the results of the table, (36) of the learners prefer the teacher who uses eye contact and nodding to follow their answers at different lesson stages or in session, but (04) learners show the opposite.

From the graph, the highest percentage (90%) goes for subjects who support the use of nodding and eye contact. This means that this category believes that teachers’ eyes contact and nodding are an essential factor that should be presented, during the interaction which can make learners’ more relaxed and motivated to give their answers smoothly, whereas (10%) showed the opposite, it means that eye contact and nodding can be used to distress the atmosphere of teacher-learners’ interaction when they are giving their answers, to maintain learners’ engagement, attention and avoid boredom, so that learners get motivated to do more.

Do you feel bored when the teacher is explaining the lesson from the desk?

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Table 05: Teachers’ Desk Position and Learners’ Boredom

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This item is prepared for the sake of determining the use of the desk in the classroom according to learners’ view. Based on the data from the table (32) oflearners feel bored when the teacher explain the lesson from the desk whereas, (08) oflearners showed the opposite.

The graph above summarizes the results obtained (80%) of the subjects believe that the use of the desk makes the lesson bored; against (20%) agree with the use of the desk. The explanation of the lesson depends on some principles that should be followed. For instance, the effective teacher is the good actor who can exploit his/her body language to explain the lesson and maintain an active environment. From the result, the teacher should not overuse the desk since the position of the teacher affected by learners feeling of motivation, and lesson effectiveness.

Item 6: Teacher Relevance and Attention to Learners

Do you feel demotivated to participate when the teacher pays attention to special group/part in the classroom?

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Table 06: Teacher Relevance and Attention to Learners

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Based on the results of the table, (32) oflearners show that they feel demotivate to participate when the teacher pays attention to special group or part in the classroom, whereas (08) learners show the opposite

From the graph, the statistics related to this item shows that the majority of subjects (80%) indicate that they feel demotivated when the teacher gives attention to a special group than others, and (20%) indicates the opposite. Teachers need to give attention to the whole classroom and to be in the position where every learner can see him/her in order to receive learners’ questions or gives the explanation of the lesson. For that, teachers need to recognize that there is a tight relation between their attention, concern, and interest to their learners in the classroom and learner’s motivation.

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Table 07: The Effect ofNonverbal Cues on Learners’ Understanding

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Based on the results of the table, (36) oflearners’ showed that they need non-verbal cues during the explanation to facilitate their understanding, but (04) oflearners showed the opposite.

From the graph, (90%) of the learners understand the lesson better if the teacher uses nonverbal cues; only (10%) disagree. It means that communication can be more effective by the use of verbal and nonverbal communication. For example, if the teacher uses the word “ happy” he/she may smile to indicate what this word mean, or when he/she says the word “small” he may use gestures that indicate the word small like closing arms gesture. Non­verbal cues can reduce lexical ambiguity and motivate learners to know more and follow the teacher explanation.

Item 8: The effect of teachers’ movement around the classroom

Do you feel motivated to work more inside the class if the teacher moves around the classroom to check your understanding and get your questions?

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Table 08: Teachers’ Movement around the Classroom

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Based on the results of the table, (38) learners showed that they feel motivated to work more inside the class if the teacher moves around the classroom to check their understanding and get their questions, whereas (02) learners showed the opposite.

From the graph (95%) of learners say “Yes” for the teacher movements, but (5%) say “No” it means that learners need that active teacher who creates an active atmosphere in the classroom, by his/ her movement, because some learners’ feel shy to ask their questions in front of their classmates, or to say they do not understand some point in the lesson. Teachers’ movement helps the learners to identify their lack of understanding; teachers’ movement around the classroom appreciated by most of the learners and helps the learners to ask their questions without being afraid or shy.

Do you feel demotivated when the teacher shows you no reaction during the correct answer?

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Table 09: Teachers’ Reaction and Learners’ Motivation

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Based on the results of the table (34) oflearners showed that they feel demotivated if the teacher shows no positive reaction during their correct answers, whereas (06) oflearners showed the opposite.

From the graph, (85%) of the learners support the idea that learners’ feel demotivation if the teacher shows no reaction during their correct answers. In comparison, only (15%) think the opposite, it means that learners like teachers’ positive reaction which makes the learning easier and encourage learners to participate and work more in the classroom. Moreover, teachers’ positive reaction causes a positive perception in the learning process, refreshes learners’ energy, and creates a more positive and interactive atmosphere.

Item 10: the Effect ofThumbs up and Learners’ Motivation

Do you feel motivated when the teacher shows you thumbs-up in the correct answer?

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TablelO. The Effect ofThumbs up on Learners’ Motivation

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Based on the results from the table (39) ofleamers showed that they feel motivated, when the teacher show thumbs up during their correct answers, whereasjust (01) learner showed the opposite.

From the graph, (95%) of the learners choose “Yes” option, only (2.5%) of learners choose the opposite. It means that; teachers’ thumbs up can encourage learners to do more, it creates competition atmosphere that makes each learner wants to get more likes than the other one, when he/she performs better, at the same time it makes the teacher gain time instead of praising everyone verbally all the time.

3.3. Recommendations

- Positive body language can create an active environment and energy in the classroom, which can reflect and change classroom atmosphere and stimulate learners’ positively, so they get motivated to perceive the lesson.
- Teachers’ positive body language should be taken into consideration in order to get learners’ satisfaction, happiness, and enthusiasm, which make the schooling experience an amazing one that will be unforgettable.
- Teachers’ need to use positive body language in the classroom, so the classroom will be full of positiveness, which is the best context for learning to take place and it reflects directly to learners’ motivation.

3.4. Limitations of the study

- At the very beginning, it is important to indicate some difficulties when collecting background data. Looking for references especially books was the main obstacle the researcher faced.
- This research is conducted through the use of two procedures: classroom observation and questionnaire. Classroom observation needs a long period of time to watch thoroughly what is going on in the classroom and pay attention to the sudden changes that may take place.
- In this research, the focus was mainly on facial expressions and gestures. Although the tone of voice and other aspects are one of the aspects ofbody language, but the time was not enough to cover these aspects.

Conclusion:

Throughout this chapter, the data collected using the selected procedures is analyzed.

Questionnaire data analysis is presented through statistical tables and graphs showing percentages. Whereas the observation data analysis is presented through stating notes and comments, then the data analysis of each procedure is discussed. This chapter is ended by some recommendations and limitations of the study.

General Conclusion

Admitting the positive impact ofbody language on our daily life, this study is conducted to investigate the positive effect of teachers’ body language in the educational field. The research is an attempt to investigate the effect of teachers’ positive body language on EFL learners’ motivation which can create successful learners and successful working atmosphere as well. As a teaching tool, body language is an important part of communication. It does not only support verbal language to be understood more clearly but have itself voice to create learners’ motivation in the classroom, it is that energy that helps the teacher to make the classroom more vividly and active. Teachers’ positive body language enables the teacher to create a positive and motivated environment where boredom, anxiety, and stress are reduced and support learners to be more motivated in the classroom.

Throughout the discussion of the data collected, the researcher understands how teachers can use different body language messages positively in the classroom and its effect on learners’ motivation. Consequently, the results obtained from this research revealed that the hypothesis suggested in this study about teachers’ positive body language can be applied successfully as a motivational strategy to enhance the EFL learners’ motivation.

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Appendices

Appendix One

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Appendix Two

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110 of 110 pages

Details

Title
The Effect of the Teachers' Body Language in the Classroom. The Case of Second Year EFL Learners
Course
Applied Linguistic
Author
Year
2017
Pages
110
Catalog Number
V376142
ISBN (Book)
9783668551053
File size
1629 KB
Language
English
Tags
Meriem kelala, Body Language, Nonverbal communication, Motivation, EFL Learners, Positive Body Language, Active atmosphere
Quote paper
Mohamed khider Kelala Meriem (Author), 2017, The Effect of the Teachers' Body Language in the Classroom. The Case of Second Year EFL Learners, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/376142

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