Factors Contributing to Indiscriminate Dumping of Solid Waste in Bauleni Township, Lusaka Zambia

Research Paper (undergraduate), 2017

37 Pages

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Table of contents

List of Tables

List of Figures

List of Abbreviations/Acronyms

1.0 Introduction

2.0 Statement of the Problem

3.0 Justification of the Study

4.0 Conceptual Framework

5.0 Literature Review
5.1 Management Oo Solid Waste at a Global Scale
5.3 A Summary of Solid Waste Management at International, Regional and Local Level

6.0 Research Question

7.0 Objectives of the Study
7.1 General Objective
7.2 Specific Objectives
7.3 Definition of Terms

8.0 Research Methodology
8.1 Table of Variables
8.2 Study Design
8.3 The Study Area
8.4 Target Population
8.5 Inclusion/ Exclusion Criteria
8.6 Research Instruments
8.7 Data Management and Storage
8.8 Sampling Methods and Sample Size
8.9 Data Collection Procedure
8.10 Data Analysis Methods
8.11 Pre-Test

9.0 Ethical Considerations

10.0 Time Frame
10.1 Work Plan
10.2 Gantt Chart: Work Plan Of Research Study For 2016/2017

11.0 Budget
11.1 Budget Summary

12.0 Plan For Administration, Monitoring And Utilization Of Results

13.0 References

14.0 Appendices
14.1. Information Sheet
14.2. Consent Form
14.3. Data Collection Tool

List of Tables

Table 1: Summary of solid waste management

Table 2: Variables

Table 3: Plan for data collection

Table 4: Gantt chart

Table 5: Budget

Table 6: Budget summary...

List of Figures

Figure 1: Conceptual framework….4

List of Abbreviations/Acronyms

CBO Community Based Organisation

CSO Central Statistics Office

IWM Integrated Waste Management

LCC Lusaka City Council

MSW Municipal Solid Waste

MSWM Municipal Solid Waste Management

NGOs Non-Governmental Organisations

PI Principal Investigator

SPSS Statistical Package for Social Scientists

SW Solid Waste

UNDP United Nations Development Programme

UNEP United Nations Environment Programme

UNZA University of Zambia

WB World Bank

1.0 Introduction

Since the beginning of time, people have needed to find a way of disposing of their trash” (Bassis, 2000). Proper garbage disposal is important to ensure everyone's safety from possible health hazards. The improper waste disposal of garbage is a major sociological problem today due to its capability of contaminating the area in which we live and it’s potential to be lethal to all living things. Its effects increase the risk of adverse health effects in humans and animals, causes damage to eco-systems and accelerate the destruction of our environment. The more waste we generate, the more we have to dispose of.

Humanity continues to develop and produce waste that characterises contemporary society, dating from the industrial revolution in order to fulfil its most fundamental needs of life. However, the resulting production and consumption of resources end up with prominent problems regarding solid waste generation and management in diverse parts of the world (Ojewale, 2014).

Waste is more easily recognised than defined. Something can become waste when it is no longer useful to the owner or it is used and fails to fulfil its purpose (Gourlay, 1992). According to Miller (1988), solid waste is any useless, unwanted or discarded material that is not liquid or gas. A great mixture of substances including fine dust, cinder, metal, glass, paper and cardboard, textiles, putrescible vegetable materials and plastic characterise solid waste (Simmens, 1981).

As time passes the only certainty is that accumulation of waste will outstrip its control. Throughout the western world, there are no longer enough convenient holes in the grounds into which to tip unwanted matter (Gourlay, 2010). The third world, having refused to become the “dustbin” of the western world, also lacks appropriate storage facilities, treatment technologies, and good methods of disposal for its waste.

Like other parts of Lusaka, such as Kanyama, Msisi and George compound, Bauleni is engulfed in filth of both conspicuous and inconspicuous places because it has serious problems with its waste management from generation, through storage, treatment, to disposal. Residents’ wrong perceptions and unconcerned attitudes towards waste management might also be the cause of this problem. The researcher therefore, hopes to find out factors that contribute to indiscriminate dumping of solid waste by residents of Bauleni Township so that recommendations can be made to policy makers to put up appropriate interventions. 2.0 Statement of the Problem

Bauleni Township is now characterised by an ever increasing number of waste dumping sites which are randomly distributed in and around the township. This has seen the area having an increased rodent population and also a possible breading site for flies and mosquitoes. Surface dumps present unsightly scenes of heaped decomposed and semi-decomposed domestic wastes which pollute the environment and produce offensive odour. These heaps attract flies and other disease-vector organisms most of which cause serious health hazards to the environs and the inhabitants (Majura, 1997). The stench emanating from these heaps becomes a nuisance to human habitation. This problem of poor environmental sanitation affects all community members especially children who suffer most in the event of disease outbreak. Children are found playing and defecating onto the rubbish dump bare-footed. This may cause disease infection in the children. For example, the outbreak of cholera in Bauleni claimed the lives of at least three (3) children, in Bauleni Township alone more than 30 cases of Cholera were reported during the 2015-2016 rain seasons (Anon, 2017). Disease connected with poor sanitation, such as malaria and diarrhoea are very common.

Solid wastes generated in Bauleni Township are most often disposed of in open areas, gutters, and at the back of or in between buildings, probably due to the inadequate solid waste management equipment or the long distances to the sanitary sites. The business people especially market vendors also leave their wastes in piles for days before they are finally collected and taken to sanitary sites for disposal. The above problems make it clear that the municipal council is unable to cope up with this problem.

From observation, industrial and municipal solid wastes are commonly found in Bauleni. Industrial wastes come from shops and supermarkets within the township. Municipal wastes are the trash from households and commercial establishments. These form the greater part of the solid waste observed on the streets and in gutters. Very little research has been done on solid waste management in the study area or similar to the one the researcher intends to do; therefore, the study will serve as a reference to future researchers doing research which relates to indiscriminate dumping of solid waste.

3.0 Justification of the Study

Improper solid waste management has led to substantial negative environmental impacts such as pollution of air, soil and water. It may also result to health and safety problems such as disease spread by insects and rodents via garbage heaps and unsanitary disposal sites.

Local authorities are charged with the responsibility of providing solid waste management services together with other municipal services. However they find it increasingly difficult to play this role. The difficulty has been aggravated by lack of effective legislation, inadequate funds, inadequate facilities and poor leadership within the municipality. Bauleni Township is a peri-urban area which is growing at a fast rate in terms of population and economy. Equally the solid wastes are produced at an alarming rate. If this condition is not checked environmental health issues particularly diseases will increase; for instance incidences of malaria, dysentery etc. Diseases such as cholera may lead to closure of institutions such as schools and other businesses hence a decline in productivity. Since most of the diseases reported at the health facility are related to sanitation, it is appropriate for this study to be undertaken. The Lusaka City Council (LCC) which services the area has not been able to provide regular waste collection services. Although the LCC has been unable to meet its obligation, this could not be an excuse for communities to indiscriminately dispose off their waste; it is inthis regard that the researcher wants to establish the root cause and or reasons behind thecommunities’ actions.

Uncontrolled dumping of solidwaste can lead to wastage of land where lots of land is being usedas dumping sites. These same pieces of land could later on be neglected by theinhabitants of the area. The researcher therefore seeks to identify factors contributing to indiscriminate dumping of solid waste at Bauleni Township.

The findings of the study would be of significance to the local authority to improve solid waste management (SWM) within the municipality. The results of these findings could also be used in workshops and seminars on solid waste management discussion. The study may also be important to policy makers to improve solid waste management in cities. The findings will also contribute to the body of knowledge on solid waste management by health professionals.

4.0 Conceptual Framework

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Figure 1: Conceptual framework

5.0 Literature Review

This chapter will provide an extensive review of the literature in the area of study and research related to solid waste management in Zambia. The work done by other researchers in the field of solid waste and the extensive coverage of the topic by the researchers will be appreciated in this chapter.

5.1 Management of solid waste at a global scale

Solid waste management has been described as a cornerstone to the prevention of communicable diseases as well as the creation of beauty in towns and cities (Flintoff, 2015). There is obvious environmental degradation caused by ineffective solid waste management. The visual offensiveness of street litter and the destruction of beauty of the countryside by uncontrolled dumping of solid waste are distressing.

At a global level, the day to day solid waste management is complex and costly undertaking. The volumes of the waste generated by various sectors of the growing economies of the third world have considerably increased posing a major environmental problem. Holmes (1984) agrees with the view point and further suggests that the economic conditions of the developing countries demand less capital intensive systems. Labour intensive methods will also reduce the foreign exchange required for vehicles and other spare parts which may be difficult for a local authority to obtain (Holmes, 1984). Unfortunately, municipalities in developing countries often still prefer more complex vehicles where handcarts or tricycles would suffice. Expensive mechanised composting and incineration plants are imported and not often used due to unsuitability of high running costs.

In most developing countries the major problem in towns and cities is the uncoordinated planning of residential and commercial areas. Lack of planning often shows itself in the form of inadequate provision of social services. This in turn encourages indiscriminate dumping of solid waste. The spontaneous settlements are relatively a new phenomenon which is giving rise to a number of sanitary problems in most developing countries, one of them being solid waste management. These informal settlements are often situated outside the boundaries of the cities and towns but are functionally part of the city because the majority of the inhabitants earn their living in the city (UNEP, 1995). Sanitary conditions in urban settlements are frequently worse than those in remote rural areas.

A lot has been said, written, and demonstrated about the inadequacies in solid waste management and its associated problems. According to a United Nations Conference on Human Settlement report, one third to one-half of solid waste generated within most cities in low- and middle-income countries, of which Zambia is no exception, are not collected. They usually end up as illegal dumps on streets, open spaces, and waste lands (UNCHS, 1996).

Despite the importance of adequate solid waste management to the urban environment, the performance of many city authorities in this respect leaves much to be desired. According to Malombe (1993), irregular services rendered to producers of refuse by municipal councils compel them to find ways of disposing of refuse. He observed that the main methods adopted by the producers are burning, composting, or indiscriminate dumping.

This is very pertinent in Zambia where waste management services are largely inefficient and ineffective. It is estimated that about 83% of the population dump their refuse in either authorised or unauthorised sites in their neighbourhood, and due to weak capacity to handle solid waste, unsanitary conditions are created (Benneh et al., 1993).

Benneh et al., (1993) observed that residential domestic waste forms the bulk of all sources of solid waste produced in urban areas. These household wastes are known to have high densities with high moisture content and the organic component of solid wastes, which properly accounts for about 70% to 90%, while tins, cans and paper are probably responsible for about 5% to 10% of the total waste produced. They further argued that because the capacity to handle all of the household waste generated is still weak, about 83% of the population dump refuse in either authorised or unauthorised sites in their neighbourhood which creates unsanitary conditions. They also argued that insufficient communal facilities can lead to open defecation along beaches, drains, and open spaces and the tendency for faecal materials to become intermixed with household refuse.

This view expressed by Benneh et al., (1993) is relevant to the study because areas like Bauleni Township are densely populated and are low-income areas. They are also not served with adequate sanitary facilities. These inadequacies lead to indiscriminate disposal of refuse into drains, gutters, and waterways, and to open defecation in these areas. Benneh et al. proposed the involvement of local groups in solid waste management side by side the operations of governmental agencies.

Edmunson (1981), in his study on refuse management in Kumasi, pointed out that most sites used for refuse dump are chosen without taking into consideration the distance to be covered by residents. Thus, he recommended that sanitary sites should be cited close to waste generators. Adelaide (1995) also observed that disposal sites in Accra are situated quite a distance away from inhabitants or sellers. Thus, one cannot dispute the fact that long distance disposal sites discourage inhabitants and sellers from making use of them. They therefore resort to littering their surroundings. He also argues that inhabitants, sellers, shoppers, and industrialists dispose of waste on the street, into troughs, and at other unauthorised places. He attributes these unacceptable habits of indiscriminately disposing of waste to the public’s lack of waste disposal culture as well as inadequacy of waste disposal facilities. This testifies to the importance of attitude in waste management issues.

The study of Asamoah (1998) revealed that lack of adequate sanitary facilities results in indiscriminate dumping of refuse and defecation at places not designated for such purposes. He suggested that big containers should be provided at specific intervals in the cities where residents can dump there refuse for collection by the municipal councils.

Abrokwah (1998) observed that lack of law enforcement to punish sanitary offenders and low level of technology in waste management are the major causes of waste management problems in Kumasi. He suggested that awareness should be created among residents to manage household refuse and educate them on the hazards that ill-disposed waste could pose to the environment and to residents themselves.

According to Agbola (1993), cultural derivatives, beliefs, perceptions and attitudes are learned response sets. They can therefore be modified or changed through education. This point to the fact that people’s unconcerned attitudes towards solid waste can be changed for the better through education. According to Pacey (1990), formal education for women is a pre-requisite for change in sanitation behaviour.

5.2 Role of the Public in Solid Waste Management

The role of the public in waste management and in solid waste management in particular, has become indispensable and can be through various ways. According to Tsai (2007), a society that is willing to work together presents an opportunity for “creativity and innovation” in dealing with the waste problem. Tsai’s observation brings out the importance of the will of the people/public to work together on matters of waste. Mutual understanding and agreement is vital in having the members of the public to work together.

Bekin et al., (2007) recommended that purchasing second-hand items as a way of waste reduction is important before people can resort to recycling and composting. This can go a long way in having potential waste kept at the minimum. It is a form of re-use of items which implies that less new items on top of the already under-use items will be purchased.

Despite the emphasis on waste reduction and recycling as compared to disposal, avoiding or even reducing disposal is easier said than done specifically in developing countries (Chung and Poon, 2001). The developing countries especially in Asia and Africa usually import second-hand items from Europe and America. A large volume of these second-hand items are either obsolete thereby ending up as waste sooner than expected, or they just have a very short lifespan remaining and thus becoming out of use. This scenario is not very different from the argument that rich countries negatively contribute to the waste burden in the developing countries by exporting second-hand items (Bournay, 2006). The appropriateness
of this suggestion as a way of waste reduction is brought under check, especially in the poor
countries which may not have adopted effective and efficient recycling systems.

5.3 A summary of solid waste management at international, Regional and Local Level

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Table 1: summary of solid waste management

6.0 Research Question

What are the factors contributing to indiscriminate dumping of solid waste by residents of Bauleni Township?

7.0 Objectives of the Study

7.1 General Objective

1. To assess the factors contributing to indiscriminate dumping of solid waste by residents of Bauleni Township

7.2 Specific Objectives

1. To identify solid waste storage and collection methods used in Bauleni Township.

2. To establish the proportion of households that is willing to participate in solid waste management in Bauleni Township.

3. To determine knowledge levels of respondents on the consequences of improper solid domestic waste management in Bauleni Township.

7.3 Definition of terms

Solid wastes: Are all the wastes arising from human and animal activities that are

Normally solid and are discarded as useless or unwanted.

Refuse: It is a general name given to all wastes except liquid waste. It includes

all putrescible and non-putrescible wastes.

Waste Management: Refers to the “collection, transportation, processing, recycling or

Disposal of waste materials”

Municipal Waste: Refers “to wastes from domestic, commercial, institutional,

Municipal and industrial sources, but excluding excreta, except when it

is mixed with solid waste”

8.0 Research Methodology

This section outlines the procedures that will be used in conducting the study. The section focuses on research design, target population, sample and sampling procedures, research instruments, data collection and data analysis.

8.1 Table of Variables

The study variables are divided into dependent and independent variables. The dependent variable will be used to measure the problem which is the core study where as independent variables will be used to measure the factors assumed to influence the problem.

Table 1 shows the dependent and independent variables, the indicators and the scale of measure of each indicator.

Table 2: Dependent and Independent Variables

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Table 2: Variables

8.2 Study Design

This study will employ a cross sectional study design to determine factors associated with indiscriminate dumping of solid waste in Bauleni Township, Lusaka Zambia. Cross-sectional study design will be used because it covers the behaviour of people and the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and opinions that may help to explain why people dump their solid waste indiscriminately.

8.3 The Study Area

The study will be conducted in Bauleni Township of Lusaka. The township is characterised by high business activity during the day which results in high production of waste. Bauleni was originally settled by Farm workers; however after the owner of the farm left Mr Bauleni, an ex-farm worker was unofficially in charge of the settlement. Then with the increase in population, the activities changed from agricultural to service based. Alternative means of earning a living had to be found. Bauleni was a traditional village, which then transformed into an informal urban settlement and in 1998 was declared an improvement area. Due to an increase in population, the amount of solid waste produced in Bauleni Township has increased over the years. Most of these wastes that are produced end up in streets due to indiscriminate dumping. Solid waste management within the township is the responsibility of the Lusaka City Council ( LLC).

8.4 Target Population

The target population will consist of all households within Bauleni Township. According to the CSO (2010), Bauleni has 8331 households with a total population of 35882. The study population will include all the households in Bauleni compound. This will portray the broad picture of solid waste management within the township.

8.5 Inclusion/ Exclusion Criteria

The inclusion criteria will include all the households in Bauleni Township that have been in Bauleni for at least a year and exclusion will include all the households whose residents have been in Bauleni for less than a year.

8.6 Research Instruments

The main research instrument that will be used by the researcher is a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire will consist of closed ended questions so as to make analysis easy. The researcher will use the questionnaire because it is easy to establish rapport, explain the purpose of the study and explain the meaning of items that may not be clear. Questionnaires will be administered to the selected households to obtain information on waste management practices, type of storage containers, frequency of waste collection and mode of transport used and method of waste disposal.

The data collection techniques that will be used in this study include face to face interviews, record review and observation. The general sanitary conditions of the township will also be observed.

8.7 data management and storage

In order to maintain the integrity of the data, project data will be protected from tampering, loss, or theft. This will be done by limiting access to the data. Electronic data will be protected by ensuring that the computer anti-virus is updated and maintaining up-to-date versions of all software and media storage devices. Electronic data files will be backed up regularly and both hard and soft copies will be created. Hard copies such as Paper questionnaires will be kept in a safe, secure location away from public access for example locked file cabinet.

8.8 Sampling Methods and Sample size

The researcher will use a probability sampling using stratified sampling technique to select the zones to be studied. This method will be used because the setup of each zone is different in terms of low cost and high cost areas and other social economic characteristics. From each zone that will be selected, a probability systematic sampling method will be used to select the number of households to be studied. The households will be chosen at a regular interval of every 22nd household as shown by the calculation below. There are 26 zones in Bauleni and the number of households to be studied in each zone will depend on the proportion of households that each Zone contribute to the total number of households in order to ensure that the sample is the representative of the whole population. From the selected households, a credible respondent will be interviewed and the questionnaire filled. A credible respondent will be the owner of the house or any senior member of the household. Systematic sampling will be used by the researcher because it is usually less time consuming and easier to perform.

The sample size will be calculated at 95% (1.96) confidence interval with an estimated proportion of 50%. The calculation is as follows:

Sample Size [illustration not visible in this excerpt]

[illustration not visible in this excerpt] Households as the total sample size

Sampling fraction = total population / sample size = 8331 / 384 = 22

Where; Q = the proportion of support, usually 100% or 1.

N = total number of households

Z = 1.96 (confidence interval at 95%)

P = estimated proportion,

e = standard error

8.9 Data Collection Procedure

The data for the study will be collected by the Principal investigator (PI) with the help of two Research assistants.

The researcher and the research assistants will administer the questionnaire to the respondents to collect primary data. The other source of primary data will be observation. The selected households will be visited and the questionnaires administered to the respondents. The researcher will also observe the conditions of the storage containers or bins. The table below gives a plan on how activities will be conducted in order to ensure successful data collection.

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Table 3: the Plan for Data Collection

8.10 Data Analysis Methods

Collected data will be cleaned to ascertain their accuracy and identify those items wrongly

responded to. The data collected will be entered into the computer for analysis using the statistical package for social scientist (SPSS). The data will be presented using tables, percentages and charts. Chi-square test where appropriate, will be used to determine associations between the response (Dependents) and Explanatory (Independent) variables. P-values of less than and equal to 0.05 will be considered to be statistically significant.

8.11 Pre-Test

The tools are going to be pre-tested in order to determine whether they are going to allow the collection of reliable information. This is very important as it will help to know where corrections can be made and to estimate how much time is needed to administer the questionnaire. Pre-testing is going to be done before the study and outside the study area (Bauleni Township) in order to avoid sensitization which can be a possible source of bias.

9.0 Ethical Considerations

Ethical considerations will be put into maximum consideration by ensuring that permission to undertake the study in Bauleni Township is obtained from the Lusaka City Council and the University of Zambia, School of Medicine Research Ethics Committee (UNZASOMREC). The researcher will protect the anonymity and confidentiality of individuals that will participate in answering of the questionnaire by use of identification codes (numbers) and assurance that the information given will be confidential. Other ethical considerations will involve informing the respondents about the purpose for the study to obtain an informed consent before the interview. A consent form will be filled in by the participants to confirm there voluntary participation.

10.0 Time Frame

10.1 Work Plan

The study is going to be conducted by the PI with the help of two (2) Research assistants. Training of Research assistants, data collection and entry is scheduled to start after approval of the study from the ethics committee. It is anticipated that the report of the study is going to be ready by May 2017. The researcher aims to do the project within 4 months (January to May) after approval from the ethics committee. Below is the time plan for the project.

10.2 Gantt chart: Work Plan of Research Study for 2016/2017

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Table 4: Gantt chart

11.0 Budget

The estimated budget for the research study is shown in table 5.

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Table 5: Budget

11.1 Budget Summary

The items catered for in the budget can be summarized as personnel, material and transport.

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Table 6: budget summary

The researcher will spend approximately K3, 862 in order to ensure successful completion of the research. The researcher will oversee all activities of the study including utilisation of resources.

12.0 Plan for Administration, Monitoring and Utilization of Results

To ensure proper running of the research project, the Principle Investigator will be responsible for smooth administration and implementation of the proposal. The research assistants that will assist the principle researcher in data collection will be trained for a period of 3 days so that they develop thorough competence in collection of data. The project will be monitored by the Supervising Lecturer and any challenges encountered that will entail making of changes during the project implementation will be communicated to the Supervising Lecturer. After successful completion of the research study, the findings and the results obtained coupled with the necessary recommendations highlighted will be communicated and disseminated to the relevant stakeholders.

13.0 References

Abrokwah, K., 1998. Refuse management problem in central Kumasi. Status Report on Population, Human Resource and Development Planning and Policy in Ghana 1960–1991. National Population Council.

Adelaide, A., 1995. Waste Management and Sanitation at James Town and Accra Central. A dissertation.

Agbola T, 1993. “Environmental education in Nigerian schools”. In Filho W.L. (Ed) Environmental Education in the Commonwealth, the Commonwealth of learning,

Anon, 2017. [online] Available at: http://reliefweb.int/report/zambia/zambia-cholera-outbreak-unicef-situation-report [Accessed 12 Apr. 2017].

Bekin, C., Carrigan, M. and Szmigin, I., 2007. Beyond recycling:‘commons‐friendly’waste reduction at new consumption communities. Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 6 (5), pp.271-286.

McGranahan, G., Benneh, G. and Songsore, J., 1993. Environmental problems and the urban household in the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area (GAMA)-Ghana. Stockholm Environment Institute.

Bournay E, 2006. Waste recyclers and recycled, In Planet in Peril: An Atlas of Current
Threats to people and the Environment. UNEP/GRID- Arendal and Le Monde

Cotton A. and Ali M, 1993. “Informal Sector waste recycling”. 19th Water, Sanitation, Environment and development Conference Preprints, Ghana.

Edmunson R, 1981. “Refuse Management in Kumasi” Land administration research Centre Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and technology, Kumasi.

Flintoff, F., 1976. Management of solid wastes in developing countries. In WHO Regional Publications South-East Asia (Vol. 1). WHO.

Gourlay, K, 1992. World of waste. 1st ed. London: Zed books.

Holmes, J.R., 1984. Managing solid wastes in developing countries. J. Wiley & Sons.

LCC and ECZ, 1997. Solid Waste Management Master Plan Project for the City of Lusaka- Final Report.

Council, L.C., 2008. Lusaka City State of Environment (SoE) Outlook report.

Malombe, J.M., 1993. Sanitation and Solid Waste disposal in Malindi. Water, Sanitation, Environment and Development. Ghana, Accra: WEDC.

Majura, P.B., 1997. Refuse management problems in Lusaka, Zambia. In WEDC CONFERENCE (Vol. 23, pp. 198-200). WATER, ENGINEERING AND DEVELOPMENT CENTRE.

UNCHS. 1996. “An urbanising world global reports on human settlements”, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

George, F., 2008. Problems of solid waste management in Nima, Accra. M. SC, University of Ghana, Legon.

UNEP, 1995. Environmental Management in Developing Countries: Waste Management.

Volume 2, University of Technology and institute for Cooperation, Tiibingen

14.0 Appendices

14.1. Information sheet

Dear participants,

I am Moses Sampa, a 5th year Environmental Health student at the University of Zambia, School of Public Health, am expected to undertake research as a partial fulfillment of Bachelors of Science degree in Environmental Health (BSc.EH). The focus of this research is to investigate factors contributing to indiscriminate dumping of solid waste in Bauleni Township, Lusaka. This will contribute to the body of knowledge to both health professionals and educators in Zambia.I would like you to be part of this research by consenting to provide information which will be useful for data analysis. You were chosen by chance through systematic sampling technique. Please note that if you agree to be part of this research you are at liberty to withdraw from the research at any time without pressure to provide reasons. I also guarantee that any information collected either personal or professional will be regarded as absolutely confidential. Be informed that there is no monetary or any material gain in participating in this study as it is purely an academic exercise.

For any question or a clarification you are free to contact me on cell +260-973285584.

Your support will be highly appreciated.

Research Ethics Committee,

University Of Zambia,

Box 50110,


Sampa Moses. (5th year student),

School of Public Health,

Environmental Health Department,

Ridgeway campus; Lusaka.

14.2. Consent Form

I _____________________ have read and understood the letter of invitation to take part in the research study: A study to investigate factors contributing to indiscriminate dumping of solid waste in Bauleni Township, Lusaka. I have received adequate information regarding the nature of the study and understand what will be requested of me. I am aware of my right to withdraw at any point during the study without penalty. I hereby consent to participate in this research study.

Participants Signature: Date …

Researchers Signature: …. Date….

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Thumb print




Interviewer Sign

ASSURANCE STATEMENT: Note that this study is for learning purposes only, information collected will be confidential. Therefore you should not indicate your name anywhere on the questionnaire.

Social Demographic Information; Please tick where appropriate [√]

1. What is your Sex?

a) Male [ ]

b) Female [ ]

2. Religious affiliation

(a) Christian [ ]

(b) Muslim [ ]

(c) None [ ]

3. Age group in years:

(a) 20-29 [ ]

(b) 30-39 [ ]

(c) 40-49 [ ]

(d) Above 50 [ ]

4. Education level:

(a) None [ ]

(b) Primary [ ]

(c) Secondary [ ]

(d) college/university [ ]

Practices of Solid Waste Management

1. Do you have a waste receptacle?

a) Yes [ ]

b) No [ ]

2. If yes where is it stored?

a) Inside the house [ ]

b) Outside the house [ ]

c) Curb side [ ]

3. What type of receptacle?

a) Plastic bin with lid [ ]

b) Plastic bin without lid [ ]

c) Metal with lid [ ]

d) Polythene bag [ ]

e) Old basket with lid [ ]

4. Presence of community storage receptacle

a) Yes [ ]

b) No [ ]

5. What method do you use to transport your refuse to the dump site?

a) Door to door method [ ]

b) Communal method [ ]

c) Wheelbarrow system [ ]

6. Who transports your refuse to the dump site or communal refuse collection point?

a) Myself [ ]

b) My child [ ]

c) Paid worker [ ]

7. Where do you dispose off your refuse?

a) On the road to dump site [ ]

b) Into a stream/pond/gutter [ ]

c) Into the nearby bush [ ]

d) At the refuse dump [ ]

8. What do you have to say on the distance to the dump site?

a) Too far (250m or more) [ ]

b) Far (200-250m) [ ]

c) Close (100-150m) [ ]

Collection and disposal of solid waste

1. Who is responsible for collection of waste from the household?

a) Employee/ worker [ ]

b) Self [ ]

2. What is the frequency of waste collection?

a) Daily [ ]

b) Once a week [ ]

c) At least twice in two week [ ]

3. In your opinion does the waste you generate collected regularly for disposal?

a) Yes [ ]

b) No [ ] If No proceed to question 4.

4. If not collected and disposed off, how do you dispose of your waste?

a) Municipal container [ ]

b) Back street [ ]

c) open drain [ ]

5. Are you satisfied with Lusaka city council work in handling, collection and disposal of solid wastes in the township?

a) Yes [ ]

b) No [ ]

6. If No, what do you think makes them not collect and dispose off wastes satisfactorily?

a) Lack of modern technology [ ]

b) Negligence of duty [ ]

c) Inadequate personnel [ ]

d) Lack of funds [ ]

7. What do you think they should do to improve collection and dispose waste effectively?

a) Enhance partnership [ ]

b) Buy more trucks [ ]

c) Privatize solid waste services [ ]

d) Employ and train more personnel [ ]

Community participation in solid waste management

1. How do you handle the waste that has no value to your household?

a) Burn [ ]

b) Leave it on the street [ ]

c) Send it in a communal container [ ]

d) Bring it to the dump site [ ]

2. What do you do with your recyclable products?

a) Discard them with other solid waste [ ]

b) Separate them for selling [ ]

c) Separate them for own reuse [ ]

d) Don’t know [ ]

3. Do you think it helps to sort waste before disposing it off?

a) Yes [ ]

b) No [ ] If yes proceed to question 4

4. Which waste items do you think should be sorted for recycling?

a) Hard plastics [ ]

b) Glass [ ]

c) Paper [ ]

d) Metals [ ]

e) I do not know [ ]

5. Do you pay for waste collection services?

a) Yes [ ]

b) No [ ]

6. If NO to question 5 above, what makes you not pay for the waste collection services?

a) Lack of money [ ]

b) Generate small quantities of waste [ ]

c) Misuse of money as the waste is no longer useful [ ]

7. Have you encountered any problems concerning sanitation issues in your area?

a) Yes [ ]

b) No [ ]

8. Have you done anything to respond to sanitation challenges in your community?

a) Yes [ ]

b) No [ ]

9. If the answer to question 18 is No, why haven’t you done anything about it?

a) Lack of energy to do so [ ]

b) Lack of resources to do so [ ]

c) Inadequate information on how to respond [ ]

Knowledge on proper solid waste management and consequences of improper refuse management.

1. Meaning of proper solid waste management to you

a) Sweeping the house and throwing refuse away [ ]

b) Keeping the house neat or clean [ ]

c) Storing, transporting and disposing of refuse hygienically [ ]

d) Keeping the house clean and its surrounding environment [ ]

2. Awareness of consequences of bad solid waste disposal

a) Yes [ ]

b) No [ ]

3. If yes, what are some of the problems caused by improper refuse management?

a) Breeding grounds for disease vectors [ ]

b) Diseases [ ]

c) accidents/Injuries [ ]

d) unsightly/ Bad smell [ ]

4. What are some of the common diseases that affect the community members?

a) Malaria [ ]

b) Dysentery [ ]

c) Diarrhoea [ ]

5. What challenges have you been facing in your area as a result of poor solid waste management?

a) Poor drainage system [ ]

b) Floods [ ]

c) Disease outbreak [ ]

d) Pollution [ ]


Sampa Moses

C/O Department of Environmental Health

School of Public Health


13th April, 2017

The University of Zambia

UNZA-School of Medicine Undergraduate Research Ethics Committee

Ridgeway campus

Lusaka, Zambia.


Reference is made to your letter dated 10th April, 2017. I write to inform you that your comments have been read and understood and corrective actions taken accordingly as indicated below. Thank you for the corrective comments on my research proposal to which it’s approval is subject to my action on them.

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Yours faithfully

Sampa Moses (BSc. EH)-Student

37 of 37 pages


Factors Contributing to Indiscriminate Dumping of Solid Waste in Bauleni Township, Lusaka Zambia
Environmental Health
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Moses Sampa (Author), 2017, Factors Contributing to Indiscriminate Dumping of Solid Waste in Bauleni Township, Lusaka Zambia, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/376657


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