The Use of Geomarketing for the Location and Branch Network Planning on the Example Porsche. A Critical Examination of the Applicability of the Current State of Research

Bachelor Thesis, 2015

73 Pages, Grade: 2,0


Table of Contents

List of Abbreviations

List of Figures

List of Tables

List of Symbols

1. Introduction
1.1. Problem description
1.2. Ambition and boundaries
1.3. Structure

2. Theoretical overview of Geomarketing
2.1. Alignment of Marketing and origin of Geomarketing
2.2. Geomarketing as a strategic instrument
2.2.1. Main principles and functions
2.2.2. 4-Pillar-Model
2.2.3. Micro-geographic data and market segmentation
2.3. Law situation in Germany

3. Utilization of Geomarketing - Location and Branch Network
3.1. Application of Geomarketing in companies
3.2. Geographic Information System (GIS)
3.3. Geomarketing industry
3.3.1. Introduction into Geomarketing business
3.3.2. Advantages and disadvantages
3.4. Location selection
3.4.1. Location and market analysis
3.4.2. Reasons for internationalization
3.5. Setting up a branch network

4. Applicability of Geomarketing on the example Porsche
4.1. General data and history
4.2. Porsche Characteristics
4.2.1. Internationalization of Porsche
4.2.2. Geographical structure of plants and store network
4.3. Geomarketing Implementation
4.4. SWOT of Porsche´s Geomarketing approach
4.5. Comparison with benchmarks
4.6. Room for improvement

5. Conclusion
5.1. Achievement of Goals
5.2. Outlook


I. Monographic

II. Essays/Articles in Miscellanies, Commentary

III. Articles in Newspapers or FACH Magazines

IV. Internet Sources


List of abbreviations

illustration not visible in this excerpt

List of figures

Fig. 1: Marketing Mix plus Area

Fig. 2: How does Geomarketing work?

Fig. 3: Car Densities by Districts in Germany

Fig. 4: Geocoding

Fig. 5: Market-Segmentation Criteria

Fig. 6: Illustration of the GIS functionality

Fig. 7: Customer Profile Analysis with help of Geomarketing

Fig. 8: Porter´s Five Forces Model

Fig. 9: Alternative Motives for Internationalisation

Fig. 10: Typology of Country Markets

Fig. 11: Sprinkler Strategy and Waterfall Strategy

Fig. 12: Worldwide Company Structure

Fig. 13: Porsche Dealer Search

Fig. 14: Luxury SUV Production

Fig. 15: Europe: Purchasing Power Map

List of tables

Tab. 1: Advantages and Disadvantages Geomarketing Provider

List of symbols

illustration not visible in this excerpt

1. Introduction

1.1. Problem description

This thesis with the topic ”The use of geo marketing for the location and store network planning on the example Porsche - A critical examination of the applicability of the current state of research” is about Geomarketing theory and its approach in automotive industry, more specifically surveyed on one explicit example.

The automotive industry is experiencing a development from a sellers' market to a buy- ers' market, as evident in the marginal increase of registration figures in recent years and in the additional price pressure on the car market.1 Equivalently, the increasing degree of individualization in society and thus the differentiation of demand, is leading to a breakdown of markets into smaller market segments which the car manufacturers have to deal with. This prevailing pressure also affects the management level and causes the need to make the right decisions and avoid failures. Analogue to these developments two trends in marketing have gained significance in recent decades. On the one hand, the increasing data and information sets, which allow improved screening of the market, have gained importance. On the other hand, there is the technological development that enables assimilating large amounts of internal and external data on the basis of spatial structures. As a result of this development, the instrument Geomarketing has been es- tablished.2

It targets a realistic illustration of internal data based on spatial structures and then link those with external market data. Using the integration of these internal and external da- ta, management should be able to prepare strategic business decisions, complex market- ing decisions and support. Such strategic decisions include the site planning and branch network planning. As mentioned above, making the right decisions is essential in a highly competitive market. Therefore this work will deal with the thesis of whether Ge- omarketing is the best medium for location planning and for supporting the branch net- work planning. Furthermore, the discussion of Geomarketing application in a single company is missing in literature so far. Up until now, only entire branches with regard to their position towards these topics have been studied with the focus on retailers by SCHÜSSLER, F. (Geomarketing - Anwendung geographischer Informationssysteme im Einzelhandel, 2006) or with a focus on the entire automotive industry by TRESPE, B. (Geomarketing - Eine Analyse der Erfolgspotentiale aus Sicht der deutschen Automo- bilhersteller, 2007). The chosen company for this work, Porsche AG, is the largest and also one of the traditional manufacturers of sports cars and the most profitable automo- tive manufacturer in the world, therefore being a unique example that has different characteristics from other automotive manufacturers.3 Due to its portfolio of products and its price segment, Porsche is viewed in the sports car and sports utilisation vehicle (SUV) automotive segments. Porsche are in their fourth straight record breaking year in a row and their goals are set on the strategy 2018 of selling more than 200.000 cars a year4 despite facing the fact of a saturated European market. They have to identify pos- sibilities to achieve their plans. In this context, the analysis of internal and external data with the help of most current information technologies, for example the usage of Geo- graphical Information Systems (GIS), demonstrates potential for competitive ad- vantages.5 Aspects like “customer orientation”, “locations” and “target groups” are part of strategic planning and gain significance in marketing. The starting points of these aspects relate to the realization of competitive advantages, which led to implementation of different instruments with the aim to improve the competitive situation. A final out- look in this paper at hand shall assume that if Geomarketing provides enough benefits, especially for location and branch network planning, it will take a larger role in Por- sche´s marketing in the future.

1.2. Ambition and boundaries

With respect to the problem description in chapter 1.1., this work at hand deals with the elaborate assessment of the application of Geomarketing within location as well as branch network planning and practice. More specifically, this thesis handles the ap- proach of the car manufacturer Porsche AG. The overall aim of the paper is to explain the role of Geomarketing for strategic planning processes in an automotive company with special focus on location and branch network decisions. The aim also is to find out how far Geomarketing causes benefits. In order to achieve that, firstly the theory of Ge- omarketing is explained and the overall functions are investigated. Secondly, one of the targets is the evaluation of the performance Geomarketing provides in decision making processes and therefore utilization in companies is explained. Finally, the role of Geomarketing for Porsche AG shall be analysed to offer a broader understanding of its significance for strategic management and especially for location and branch network planning. In order to categorise Porsche´s approach, a SWOT analysis and a comparison with benchmarks aim to classify the actual situation.

All in all the so far mentioned aims can be summed up in the following theses:

- Porsche AG is unique in its plant structure and production strategy, and operates internationalization and Geomarketing theory given recommendations different from its benchmarks.
- Literature does not provide an examination of Geomarketing on one specific ex- ample from the automotive industry.
- Geomarketing enhances full service as an instrument for location and branch network planning applied on the company Porsche AG.

Due to the scale of the thesis, examinations will focus mainly on the German market and German law circumstances and will only give sporadic considerations within international context. This thesis is not going to make a new detailed investigation of Geomarketing as this would enlarge the scale of this work too far. With regard towards the practical example of Porsche, only the operative business site will be covered, which includes car manufacturing plus slight inclusion of service and consulting companies as part of the analysis, but the task Porsche SE fulfils will be left out.6

1.3. Structure

This work is organized in five chapters: Introduction (1), Theoretical overview of Geomarketing (2), Utilization of Geomarketing - Location and Branch Network (3), Applicability of Geomarketing on the example Porsche (4) and Conclusion (5).

A general introduction to the handled topics is given in chapter one and the proceedings are explained, including the structure of the thesis. In chapter 2, the general theoretical framework regarding Geomarketing as a discipline of marketing will be displayed. It starts with information on Geomarketing including general definitions, its origins and the approach of theoretical process. As a next step, the functionality is explained by describing the main elements of Geomarketing.

The next chapter deals with the overall application of Geomarketing in companies, which serves as object of investigation for achieving the objectives of this thesis. The way companies realize it in practice is explained. In 3.2 the Geographic Information System (GIS) is described and the functionality and its relevance are set in context with Geomarketing. Subsequently, Geomarketing industry is briefly presented and the ad- vantages and disadvantages this segments offer are shown, which will be used for the evaluation part. Then the use of Geomarketing is especially explained in the thesis head- line context, explicitly focussing on location and branch network approach. General location and market analysis from business studies are delineated in order to give a scope of all perspectives that are considered in location and branch network applica- tions. Furthermore, global market description and entrance is illustrated, because the further evaluation requires a global scope of investigation to facilitate comparison in automotive sector.

Chapter 4 starts with a general overlook of Porsche´s structure and then the case will be integrated into the context. In 4.3 a general description of how the car manufacturer Porsche implemented Geomarketing into their business is given and it is examined where it finds its usage. Due to the lack of internal information, assumptions are made based on theoretical information explained in chapter 2 and 3. In the following part, a SWOT analysis will evaluate the current state of Porsche’s approach and will lead into a comparison with other benchmarks. This chapter closes with an assessment of poten- tials.

Chapter 5, the conclusion, finally summarizes the gained knowledge in terms of assessing the objectives on their achievement. Moreover, it provides an outlook on the further development of Geomarketing initiatives as a company’s instrument for making the right decisions and staying competitive. In addition, further opportunities for broadening the gained knowledge will be identified.

2. Theoretical overview of Geomarketing

2.1. Alignment of Marketing and origin of Geomarketing

On the one hand, marketing describes the full management process for a company, in- cluding planning, coordination and control of all activities to target current and potential markets.7 On the other hand it indicates the function of commercialization for products or services.8 The term of marketing enhances many disciplines and theories that support management decisions in various ways. Geomarketing is, similar to online or operative marketing, just one discipline of the overall term, whereby these disciplines often over- lap or complete each other.9 Finding a suitable definition for Geomarketing is complex due to different approaches. The first kind of a definition was given by FRÜHLING & STEINGRUBE in their article “Geomarketing: Neue Begriffe = neue Methoden?” in which they say that Geomarketing is a discipline consisting of multiple marketing in- struments like “micro-geographic segmentation” and “Business Mapping”.10 In year 1997 SCHLÜSSLER, F. defined Geomarketing as following,

Geomarketing describes planning, coordination and control of client oriented market activities due to GIS, methods are used that make it possible to analyse and illustrate researched data and give spatial reference.

Certainly this definition puts GIS in the centre and Geomarketing is just a side part of it.11 When putting the two terms like “geo” and “marketing” together, it becomes possible to draw off a definition which concludes evidence of above mentioned definitions. Geomarketing is the use of location knowledge to frame marketing efforts, using digital mapping to organize and display data for review and decision making.12 Geomarketing is a tool marketers use to analyse current and potential markets to determine strategies and market activities with help of GIS.13

Specifying the exact origin of Geomarketing is not an easy task, but there were occa- sions in history which, over the years, led to the development of term people are using today. Geomarketing is based on classic regional research that describes areas and mar- kets, which observes client behaviours and determines economic centres.14

The origin of micro geographic market segmentation can be found in the main princi- ples of social classification in small geographic units defined in 1889 by researcher CHARLES BOTH, when he illustrated spatial barriers of social class in London.15 In scope of his investigations he divided London by streets, merged characteristics like occupation, income and living standards into a model and illustrated them on a colour- coded map in order to show spatial differences in social structure. Although this exam- ple is primary a social political topic, his procedure corresponds to a lot of Geomarket- ing characteristics of today.16 For further usage in companies required data was lacking and a necessary approach was missing, therefore the commitment was not possible in the following decades. In the 70´s, the first micro-geographic information system en- tered the American market, caused by US government´s decision to release detailed information in population census for commercial purpose.17 Because the census was managed in electronic shape, a technique to segment target groups in areas could be developed and thus the so-called “consumer targeting” was born, which is still relevant today. Different from Germany, these markets benefit from their postal code system that allowed them to classify areas, whereas Germany’s system is not in-depth enough to examine markets and their structures by postal code.18 Their postal codes capture small- er, more homogeneous areas with maximum 16 to 17 households, which made it easier to evaluate a system.19 Due to limited rules in data and privacy rights, population census in Germany could not provide analogue bases to the American one. Regarding the de- velopment of Geomarketing, the year 1978 implies a major development in the first data privacy rights coming into force, which enabled commercial use of public data bases, the “Kraftfahr Bundesamt” (KBA) being an example of this. However, the only data beneficial for regionalising were the licence numbers to determine the particular licens- ing office. That generated the challenge to investigate an approach that provided various criteria, like spatial segmentation in fine areas, to provide privacy rights and still link addresses to business relevant data.20 A work group consisting of German car manufac- turers has accomplished to bring a solution for spatial organisation that fulfilled re- quirements for their approach. They created a concept in cooperation with the KBA, which is capable of providing data about car registration, broken down to districts. This organisation includes 15.000 communities, and within 300 cities 15.000 more statistical districts, that allow commercial use and enables execution for Geomarketing analyses.21 Today, KBA provides car license lists that can be related to on the smallest geographic unit and can give information about car segments (small-, middle- and luxury-class) and about performance. It also includes new and used products that can be used as parts for micro geographic systems.22

The technological development and the invention of computers accelerated regional science capabilities and helped invent database marketing.23 Data base marketing is built on detailed information about customers or companies and contains information on sales, address, action and reaction data with the aim to store and use this information.24 Further developments like geographic databases led to analysis of consumer behaviour, political orientation by districts and characteristic of living circumstances, for example how people live, which level of education they have acquired or what their financial situation is.25

More and more companies realize the significance of spatial data and focus on geo- graphic analysis, which took a big step forward with the invention of Windows 97, which brought a new dynamic into the business.26 The first software of a so called “desktop-mapping-program” made geographic analysis and database marketing possible to be carried out on personal computers in offices and due to this significant occasion the term “Geomarketing” became part of German parlance.27 The unique combination of maps and data sheets increased the significance of spatial components. The ad- vantage of micro-geographic analysis in Geomarketing simplifies finding selected target groups for a company.28 By gaining more attention and significance, more and more companies are interested in the advantages of Geomarketing, which generates potentials for business. Companies like “pan-Adress”, “AZ-Bertelsmann” and “Schober Infor- mation Group” are known to have been the earliest to cooperate with Geomarketing specialist to optimize their own data base as well as optimize their use out of it.29 With the help of “infas”, the “Schober Information Group” collected concept information about nearly every single house in Germany by doing on-site visits.30 Different occa- sions processed Geomarketing to be an important instrument for management processes with its use of “Geographical Information Systems” (GIS) and it is used for supporting decision making processes.31

In English speaking areas the terms Business Mapping or Business Geographic’s are used more often, which in general have the same meaning.32 Independent from different terms, Geomarketing has developed various fields of application. As it initially was used for qualification and selection of addresses for direct marketing, the instrument nowadays supports location planning, target group analysis, media selection and determination of regional market potentials.33

2.2. Geomarketing as a strategic instrument

2.2.1. Main principles and functions

Geomarketing is a marketing discipline with an additional spatial focus. The combination of basic marketing tools and methods like Porter´s marketing mix with spatial components provide new possibilities for companies. Marketing mix is a tool that assists managements to implement a market strategy. The target of the marketing mix is to develop a combination that will optimize the performance for the company and simultaneously meet customer needs.34 The following figure describes the construction of Porter´s so called “4 P´s” plus a fourth spatial factor.

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Fig. 1: Marketing Mix plus Area

With this addition, there are applications feasible that could have major impact on a company´s performance, like the optimization of a branch network, product distribution separated by purchasing power and observation of spatial different prices.36

The four key elements in Geomarketing, which make the discipline valuable, are IT, Cartography, Geography and Statistics. These four combined equal a strategic instru- ment that provides a planning and analysis tool that supports controlling and manage- ment tasks.37 The question of how it works can be put into simple words: Geomarketing is the connection of corporate data with external technical data, which is evaluated, ana- lysed and prepared with help of GIS to enable visualisation.38 Typical corporate data contains client addresses and related turnover or average purchase, external technical data for example would be the purchase of power or demography. By using a Geograph- ical Information System, this data will assign coordinates and illustrate them on maps. Then, external market data is aggregated with corporate data on selected spatial territories. The following figure illustrates the steps to a valuable visualization and explains advantages for company analysis.

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Fig. 2: How does Geomarketing work? 39

If the third dimension, the spatial dimension, is used for marketing, planning and sales, each direct communication and exchange is necessary across the company. Thus, every department has to know what the other is doing, which leads to a more efficient man- agement.40 There are six main principles in theory on which the marketing discipline is built up.41 The first is the area principle and describes the way Geomarketing is investi- gating markets, while the second principle, aerial heterogeneity, explains that markets are spatial and distinguish themselves spatially. For example market structures in Ba- varia are different to those in Thuringia due to GDP per capita42 disparities and similar other factors.43 The third, principle of spatial segmentation is based on the thesis that equal groups of consumers live close together. Market segmentation is a classic tool in Geomarketing and can be used in micro-geographic and macro-geographic segmenta- tion. For example a micro-geographic segmentation is usually an area with a number of households below 400, whereas a macro-geographic segmentation is an area with more than 400 households.44 This principle simplifies the process of finding target groups. Another criterion that can be seen is the correlation between distance and influence. The closer a location is the more influence it has on a customer. The further away, the less influence a location has. This is the principle of distance.45 All goods have certain a range that is the furthest distance customers are willing to overcome.46 Households with similar distance to certain locations often show similar behaviour, this is also known as the “Neighbourhood-Effect”, the fifth main principle.47 The last one deals with the ex- ploration of non-served areas and therefore uses two simple formulas:

- Market = Inventory + Potential

- Potential = Market - Inventory48

Market-coverage principle is applicable to maps. For Example figure 3 shows the car inventory per 1000 inhabitants in Germany, broken down into districts. Hence, theses can be made about different regions. For example, cities like Hamburg or Berlin have a relatively low car density in contrast to regions on the countryside.

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Fig. 3: Car Densities by Districts in Germany49

2.2.2. 4-Pillar-Model

infas 360 GmbH invented a 4-Pillar-Model which explains instruments and coherences of Geomarketing with the following four areas.50 Market information at first provides quality information about economic region and contains consumer data.51 Knowing data on subjects such as consumer behaviour, living standards, level of education, income and car preferences is an advantage for companies, because knowledge about these fac- tors can infer management decisions. Initial basis is a comprehensive Customer Rela- tion Management (CRM), the better and the more detailed customer data is collected, the better is the information standard that the company experiences,52 plus this kind of information directs to a competitive advantage.53 Additionally, treatment of customers can be more professional and potential resigning of consumers can be prevented due to larger knowledge of where they are.54 CRM is also a potential substitution for market research companies and could save costs, however it requires resources and is limited due to legal rights. The second pillar is geo data. Geo data is the basis for spatial information and contains qualitative and quantitative coded data about objects.55

The ability to geocode provides a basic structure, which displays spatial territories organised with postal codes. Geocoding is the process by which non-spatial data like addresses are allied to geographic coordinates and then transformed to map data. This is important to enter geographic coordinates in GIS for further evaluation and mapping.56 The next figure shows the geocoding process.

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Fig. 4: Geocoding57

Each location in Germany has its own geographic key and depending on the requested characteristics, companies can individually create their own maps. This means spatial territory structures make Geomarketing possible at a specific point, because analysed information can be illustrated on maps.58 A good example is the purchasing power map. Data is available on statistical institutions or market research institutions like GfK SE.59 The third pillar is the analysis of market information and geo data. Finding potential markets, supporting distribution management and optimizing network planning are some of the main targets in Geomarketing, but characteristics that are given to particular areas are always objective. Finally pillar four, Geographic Information Systems, is a key part to illustrate geographical and economic data.

2.2.3. Micro-geographic data and market segmentation

Micro-geographic data provides the most detailed spatial data base with an enormous density.60 It is a unique combination of macroeconomic used data and Geomarketing concentrated on a small area. Its central goal is to evaluate strategies for a differentiated and selective market penetration and aims to generate a valuable data bank, which supports decision making in management processes. To achieve that, two principles are used. At first, marketing activities are divided by viewing them in relation to most profitable clients down to less profitable ones. Secondly, client requirements and claims are analysed and used to create a higher grade of client orientation.61

This structure in small geographic parts is related to the connection between Geomar- keting and direct-marketing. That is caused due to the fact that client and business relat- ed data is broken down to single streets or even houses, which makes it valuable for both marketing disciplines. This stage is the key to a successful usage of spatial related information. The more explicit the enquiries are, the better the results.62 Basic micro- geographic data begins with finest and moves to gross (bottom-up) and rely on Ge- omarketing assumptions about factors like homogeneity in neighbourhoods, similar consumption trends in districts or influence of distance in consumer behaviour.63 Clas- sic characteristics and parts of micro-geographic data have demographic, psychograph- ic, behavioural or geographic bases.64 These characteristics already indicate what kinds of market segmentations are beneficial for companies. The process is basically the divi- sion of markets into submarkets.65 In theory, macro- and micro-geographic market seg- mentations are distinguished. Macro-geographic segmentation is mainly illustrated in large areas and the market is separated by the usage of secondary data, which makes data obtaining simpler and less intense in expenses.66 For a company, it implies specify- ing operational market segments and then allocating resources to these segments and developing marketing programs for them. There is a certain criteria market segmenta- tion that needs to be taken into account, whereas measurability and temporal stability must be presupposed.67 The following figure displays the systematic approach of seg- mentation criteria.

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Fig. 5: Market-Segmentation Criteria68

Demographic basis contains information about income, education, sex, family life cycle and age.69 Consequent markets can be segmented and connections can be drawn in order for companies to benefit. For example, expensive car usage rates tend to be higher for well-educated, older working men. Psychographic basis supports demographic ap- proaches and displays unobservable buyer habits. General attitudes regarding products, advertising or aspects like quality claim provide valuable potential for further segmenta- tion. Behavioural basis enhances segmentation potentials like usage-rate, decision- making unit, brand loyalty or the stage of readiness for innovations. Summing these three bases up und linking them with geographic references, micro-geographic market segmentation will be the result.70 This also implies a tool for media selection, which can be aligned with the micro segmentation, especially for insert media and outdoor adver- tising.71

The question comes up of whether new data is caused by the development of Geomar- keting. It is to say that for all spatial information, Geomarketing falls back on existing data provided by private or public institutions. But by the combination of this data along with attribute related data, which has an enormous volume, and then analysing this with the aid of GIS, it is shown that the emergence of new data is recognizable.72

2.3. Law situation in Germany

Since technology has made electronic data processing conceivable, the significance of privacy and data protection has experienced continuous increase. As mentioned in the beginning, the field of privacy is one of the biggest boundaries for usage of Geomarketing. In Germany, the BUNDESDATENSCHUTZGESETZ (BDSG) came into power on December 20, 1990, and pursues the following purpose:

1) The purpose of this Act is to protect the individual against his/her right to privacy being impaired through the handling of his/her personal data.

2) This Act shall apply to the collection, processing and use of personal data by:

1. Public bodies of the Federation,

2. public bodies of the Länder in so far as data protection is not governed by Land legislation and in so far as they:

a. execute federal law or,
b. act as bodies of the judicature and are not dealing with administrative mat- ters,


1 Cp. Kotler, P./ Keller, K.L. (2012), p. 205.

2 Cp. Schüssler, (2006), p. 2.; Trespe, B. (2007), p 2.

3 Cp., accessed on 09/02/2015.

4 Cp., accessed on 09/02/2015.

5 Cp. Smith, C. (2014), p. 347-348.

6 For further information about Porsche characteristics see chapter “4.1. General Data and History”

7 Cp. Meffert, H. et. al. (2008), p. 3.

8 Cp. Homburg. C. (2015), p. 6.

9 Herter, M. (2008), p. 5.

10 Frühling, J.M. / Steingrube, W. (1995), p. 194-198.

11 Cp. Schüssler, F. (2006), p. 9.

12 Cp. Herter, M. (2008), p. 6.

13 Trespe, B. (2007), p. 29-30; Schüssler, F. (2006), p. 9.

14 Cp. Herter, M. (2008), p. 7.

15 Cp. Nitsche, M. (1998), p. 25; cp. Froböse, M. (1995), p. 37.

16 Cp. Trespe, B. (2007), p. 38; Froböse, M. (1995), p. 37-38.

17 Cp. Trespe, B. (2007), p. 38.

18 Cp. Trespe, B. (2007), p. 39.

19 Cp. Trespe, B. (2007), p. 48; Nitsche, M. (1998), p. 36.

20 Cp. Trespe, B. (2007), p. 41.

21 Cp. Trespe, B. (2007), p. 42.

22 Cp. Grohmann, O. (2008), p. 116.

23 Cp. Schüssler, F. (2006), p. 14.

24 Cp., accessed on 04/01/2015.

25 Cp. Herter, M. (2008), p. 9.

26 Cp. Herter, M. (2008), p. 9-10.

27 Cp. Trespe, B. (2007), p. 28-29.

28 Cp. Hertig, L. (2000), p. 39-40.

29 Cp. Herter, M. (2008), p. 11.

30 Cp. Holland, H. (2009), p. 153.

31 Cp. Graul, C. (2000), p.12.

32 Cp. Trespe, B. (2007), p. 26.

33 Cp. Trespe, B. (2007), p. 44.

34 Cp. Moss, G.L./ Shaw-McMinn, P.G. (2001), p. 124.

35 Source: own figure according to: Herter, M. (2008), p. 6.

36 Cp. Herter, M. (2008), p. 10.

37 Cp. Graul, C. (2000), p. 22.

38 Cp. Graul, C. (2000), p.12.

39 Source: own figure according to: Fally, M./ Strobl, J. (2000), p.12; Leichert, P. (1997), p.80.

40 Cp. Herter, M. (2008), p. 14.

41 Cp. Herter, M. (2008), p. 16-19.

42 GDP per capita is a measure of the total output of a region divided by number of people in that particular region. It indicates a country´s economic performance.

43 Cp. bruttoinlandsprodukt/, accessed on 05/01/2015.

44 Cp. Herter, M. (2008), p. 17.

45 Cp. Herter, M. (2008), p. 18.

46 Cp. Church, R.L./ Murray, A.T. (2009), p. 6.

47 Cp. Schüssler, F. (2010), p. 56.

48 Cp. Herter, M. (2008), p. 19.

49 Source: Taken from:, accessed on 10/01/2015.

50 Cp., accessed on 06/01/2015.

51 Cp. Church, R.L./ Murray, A.T. (2009), p. 82-83.

52 Cp. Georgi, E. (2008a), p. 21.

53 Cp. Graul, C. (2000), p. 11.

54 Cp. Tappert, W. (2007), p. 131-133.

55 Cp. Leiberich, P. (1997), p. 40-41.

56 Cp. Czeranka, M. (2000), p. 9-10.

57 Source: taken from:, accessed on 15/02/2015.

58 Cp. Bernsdorf, B. (2008), p. 74-75.

59 Cp., accessed on 05/01/2015.

60 Cp. Mühlbauer, K.H. (2008), p. 83.

61 Cp. Trespe, B. (2007), p. 22.

62 Cp. Petr, C. (2006), p. 281-283.

63 Cp. Schüssler, F. (2006), p. 57.

64 Cp. Dalrymple, D. J./ Parsons, L. J. (1986), p. 237-238.

65 Cp. Becker, J. (2006a), p. 247.

66 Cp. Meffert, H. et al. (2008), p. 192-193.

67 Cp. Meffert, H. et al. (2008), p. 194.

68 Source: own figure according to: Becker, J. (2006a), p. 255; Freter, H. (1983), p. 46.

69 Cp. Dalrymple, D. J. / Parsons, L. J. (1986), p. 238

70 Cp. Grohmann, O. (2008), p. 117-118.

71 Cp. Gossmann, T. (2008), p. 322-323.

72 Trespe, B. (2007), p. 55.

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The Use of Geomarketing for the Location and Branch Network Planning on the Example Porsche. A Critical Examination of the Applicability of the Current State of Research
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Geomarketing, Marketing, Porsche, network planning, Netzwerkplanung, Standortsuche
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