Research Paper (postgraduate), 2017
1. Background and Rationale
2. Review of Related Literature and Studies
3. Gap Addressed by the Study
3.1. Research Questions
4.1. Theoretical Framework
4.2. Conceptual Framework of the Study
4.2.5. Statistical Tool
5. Results and Discussions
6. Reflections/Conclusions and Recommendations
Teaching is an art that requires a strategy to hold the learners’ learning engagement and facilitate better academic experience. Teacher, therefore, has to adopt certain approach to meet the purpose. With the advent of modern technology, lots of innovations were introduced to educational setting. However, the problem on learners’ poor performance remains. As observed, this situation is attributed to one of the dominant factors, which is the learners’ poor study habit. From this point, note-taking is perceived to be an apt action considering its advantages cited by McAndrew, 1983; Holley, 2001; Makany, et al, 2008; and Kirkpatrick, 2009). Hence, this study is conducted.
This endeavor tested the effect of graded and monitored metacognitive note-taking on the academic performance of fourth year students in English of Calingcaguing National High School, S.Y. 2014-2015. The study utilized pre - experimental design where only single group is considered and no control group was included. The single group of randomly selected 50 samples, was tested before and after exposure to graded and monitored meta-cognitive note-taking.
The results revealed that: (1) the students mean pretest score is 25.9, (2) students mean posttest score is 42.86 and (3) there is a significant difference between the mean pretest and posttest scores of the students as revealed by the computed t-value of 7.77.
From the result, it is inferred that graded and monitored metacognitive note-taking has a good impact on the learners’ performance in English thus, a helpful approach in classroom instruction.
Recommendations drawn are (1) graded and monitored metacognitive note-taking in other English classes or in the lower level may be adopted, (2) use graded and monitored metacognitive note-taking as an approach in teaching other subjects and (3) another related study to further test the usefulness of the approach may be conducted.
Keywords: Monitored Note-taking, English Performance, Metacognitive
In this modern age of education, many interventions and techniques have been introduced and applied in an organized classroom instruction. These are aimed at meeting the standard competency level for academic achievement. However, it is sad to note that despite the application of these techniques, the learners’ learning level still dwindles. This problem is very much evident among high school students. Most of them exhibit poor performance in different subject areas as indicated by their grades. Such problem is found to have rooted from the modern generation’s undesirable and poor learning habit, which needs to be given appropriate action.
This dilemma is actually tangible among fourth year high school students in English of Calingcaguing National High School. Many of them earn poor grades due to various reasons such as poor comprehension skill, lack of self-worth, impatience, indolence, negative attitude towards the subject, indifference and lack of interest and inattentiveness.
In order to alleviate the problem on poor performance and thereby help the students earn better grades, a certain technique that will push them to pay attention to their lessons must be adopted. The researcher considered the graded and monitored metacognitive note-taking approach as a workable solution.
The concept of note-taking has been a common practice in the teaching-learning process. It has long been adopted in classroom setting. But this is not given due attention because students are not really obliged to have notes (Di Vesta, 1995). Its significance has not been realized, for the fact that notes are not usually and regularly monitored.
It is for this reason that the application of note-taking in this study is highly emphasized that the accomplished notes, following the metacognitive format, of the students will be checked and rated every day.
This approach, on the other hand, may seem irrelevant nowadays due to the advent of technology integration in education (TIED). As TIED is conceived as one of the best ways to engage students in effective learning process thereby reach an optimum level of performance, note-taking may be regarded insignificant. However, it is also a fact that most of the type of the students we deal with nowadays tend to forget their lessons immediately especially if they do not have notes to peruse especially during preparations for examinations. Thus, the graded and monitored note-taking approach appears to be a good supplement for TIED to intensify learning.
Graded and monitored metacognitive note-taking is a two-way process. It requires the students to make notes during instruction. This likewise obliges the teacher to check and rate the notes made by the students every after the session to ensure their involvement in the learning situation. This serves as a motivational technique. Through monitoring, the students will opt to accomplish notes for the day because they also anticipate for their rating. Graded and monitored metacognitive note-taking will stimulate the learners to manipulate ideas of their own while making their notes about the lessons (McAndrew, 1983). This does not deviate from TIED, for this only serves as developmental task which will serve as the basis of the teacher to measure the extent of students’ understanding of everyday lesson. Moreover, the notes taken during lectures can be a strong tool that the learner has in their academic experience. They will be aided in remembering information and will even give them a great chance to memorize or understand the lessons that will consequently strengthen their retention. In addition, through checking the students’ notes, the teacher can identify his lapses in holding instruction, thus finds hint on how he can improve himself to meet his students’ needs. The note-taking output of the students will also help the teacher to find out the ideas caught on as well as those inputs that were not understood (Holley, 2001). The teacher can therefore decide for the next thing to do.
The above details speak of the advantages of graded and monitored note taking. However, nowadays, this is less valued due to the influx of technology that makes the researching endeavors easier. Besides, it is observed by the researcher that learners tend to be lax during classroom instruction that they don’t even care to take note of the important information imparted to them. This results to low class proficiency level (CPL) that consequently leads to poor performance in the subject because there is no means that the learners can study their lessons, especially that the number of books is insufficient. With this premise, the application of graded and monitored metacognitive note taking approach is deemed to be an apt solution, which served as the impetus for the conduct of this study.
This study took into account viewpoints from some literature as reflected below.
Teaching and Learning
Teaching is the direction of learning. It is a process of providing learning materials, activities, situations and experiences that enable the learners acquire knowledge, attitudes, values and skills (Calderon, 1998).
John Dewey and his followers in progressive education programs have defined teaching as guiding students to construct their knowledge. He said that teachers should prepare a real life situation at school to let children learn (Ezzatkhah, 2000). This cited idea suggests that teaching is an art where the teacher has to adopt a strategy or technique that will meet the goals. It is therefore quite frustrating on the part of the teacher if these intentions are not met-a situation which is actually evident in the recent educational scenario. Despite the advent of modern technology that indeed offers interesting learning opportunities and motivating environment, the issue on students’ poor academic performance remains and even gets worse. In spite of the innovations that most of the teachers adopt, still the standard level of academic achievement is barely reached. This is accounted to the behavior and attitude of the students, themselves.
Hence, it is imperative that the coming in of technology integration in education must be supported with a technique that will boost the learners’ positive attitude towards learning and sustain their concentration on their studies. Graded and monitored metacognitive note-taking seems to be the way out.
The proposition above can be supported by the fact that aside from the truth that note-taking aids comprehension, makes learning active and study time more efficient, it also develops listening skills and other related standards of learning (Makany, et al, 2008). For instance, in English the students will develop narrative, expository and informational writings to inform, explain, analyze or entertain. This allows the learners to participate in and report on small-group learning activities because they have access to information presented in the discussion through their notes (Ornstein, 1994).
Moreover, taking lecture notes is of great significance. This forces one to listen carefully, thus making him concentrate in class. This also tests one’s understanding of the material utilized in lecturing processes and helps one remember information. The writing down of important points for personal notes provide a gauge to what is indispensable in the text and aids one to recall them even before he has studied the material formally. Likewise, this is also very useful in preparing for periodical and other types of test. It must be remembered that one’s notes often contain information that cannot be found elsewhere (Kirkpatrick, 2009). Note-taking is therefore important in retaining facts and data for further use or reference.
Note-taking is a necessary skill for all persons who believe in studying. Parvane, et.al. (2013) mentioned in his study that more than 99% students in universities take notes of the lectures, and 94% believe that note-taking is an important part of the educational experience. Some researchers have demonstrated that this idea has been accepted widely by the instructors and teachers that note-taking is a valuable instrument to help increase information preservation (Haghverdi, 2010).
One study compared two methods of note-taking (Cornell method and the guide notes) in English course on 29 students. The results showed that the students who used the guide notes had a better performance compared to those who used the Cornell method. The rate of their correct responses increased from 51% to 84% (Boyle, 2001). It is not the note-taking method, however, that is considered in this recent study but the impact of it on the performance of the learners which is highly emphasized.
Research on note-taking indicates that taking notes in class and reviewing those notes (either in class or afterward) have a positive impact on student learning. Not surprisingly, the preponderance of studies confirms that students recall more lecture material if they record it in their notes (Bligh, 2000). Students who take notes score higher on both immediate and delayed tests of recall and synthesis than students who do not take notes (Kiewra et al., 1991). Moreover, the more students record, the more they remember and the better they perform on exams (Johnstone & Su, 1994). In summary, notetaking facilitates both recall of factual material and the synthesis and application of new knowledge, particularly when notes are reviewed prior to exams.
The mentioned advantages of note-taking served as the springboard of this study.
Several literature and studies have underscored the significance of note taking in the teaching-learning process. The positive effects of this approach using other methods has been noted. However, these ideas simply elaborated the general scope and perks of note taking both for the students and teachers. Whereas, the use of the graded and monitored metacognitive note-taking technique in boosting the learners’ interest to learn was not emphasized yet as another significant approach. Metacognitive note-taking refers to the process where learners are given an opportunity to generate knowledge and develop their own thoughts through note-taking, which follows a certain format. The method is not used yet as part of teaching practice specifically in English. Hence, this study is conducted in order to find out whether this will also have a good impact on learners’ performance and be considered as one of the significant techniques in teaching.
This study investigated the effect of graded and monitored metacognitive note-taking on the academic performance of the fourth year high school students in English of Calingcaguing National High School. Specifically, this sought to answer the following questions:
1. What is the mean pretest score of the fourth year students in English?
2. What is the mean posttest score of the fourth year students in English?
3. Is there a significant difference between the mean pretest and posttest scores of the fourth year students in English?
There is no significant relationship between the mean pretest and posttest scores of the students.
This part presents the theoretical and conceptual framework, research design, instrument, respondents, procedure and statistical tool for the treatment of the data.
Basically, this study is anchored on the cognitive evaluation theory (Bustos, 1996)). This theory is also known as the self-perception theory. This theory states that each individual evaluates the task as it relates to how it fulfills our needs and desires. In the event that we feel like we will be able to finish the task adequately, we will be more willing to attempt such tasks. Often, motivation is thrown in as a factor. Some people are motivated by internal and immaterial rewards, while others are motivated by external factors. Some people would carry out the task for the sake of a greater sense of mental and emotional well-being. Others carry out the requirements of the task for material gain.
This theory underscored the use of evaluation in relation to fulfilling one’s desire or needs. In an educative process, the need of the students and the desire of the teacher to meet his objective are of importance. To determine whether these are attained, an evaluation is needed. Likewise, this has also mentioned the motivation as a factor. Considering that graded and monitored metacognitive note-taking is a motivating technique for the students to be attentive in classroom instruction, this theory therefore applies. In addition, as far as evaluation is concerned, the process of monitoring and rating the students’ notes definitely serves the purpose. This definitely stimulates the students to keep record of the lessons and thus utilize this in studying thereby acquire a better grade in English. This further determines whether the efforts exerted in the learning process is fulfilling or not.
Another evaluation theory and method was formed by Kirkpatrick (2009), President of the American Society for Training and Development. His model of evaluation consists of four parts. The four stages of evaluation are aimed to measure the leaning outcome exhibited by the learners. Thus, evaluation is therefore necessary in order to find meaning of a certain practice. This accentuates the idea that people with more motivation and better support and encouragement tend to receive better evaluation result than others.
With the application of graded and monitored metacognitive note-taking approach, the learners’ interest towards the subject will be cultivated. Moreover, with the constant evaluation of their notes, they will be compelled to do the task that will eventually contribute much on their process of reviewing what they have captured from the lesson of the day. Consequently, this will boost their readiness for the next session. In doing so, their behavior during the instruction will be reformed and will promise a better academic performance.
These theories are found very significant bases for the pursuit of this study.
The study employed English instruction with graded and monitored metacognitive note-taking approach. The group was tested before and after the conduct of the study covering the topics in English IV. The result served as the basis for the formulation of the feedback to determine whether the treatment in the study is remarkable or not.
The following diagram shows the conceptual framework of this study.
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Fig.1 Conceptual Framework of the Study
This study utilized pre - experimental design where only single group is considered and no control group was included. The single group was used to determine the effect of graded and monitored meta-cognitive note-taking on the academic performance of fourth year students in English.
The instrument used in this study is a 60-item test in English lifted from books and National Achievement Test (NAT) reviewers appropriate and parallel to the competencies for fourth year students. This was administered to the learners before and after the conduct of the study.
In the metacognitive note-taking process, a format is adopted that is shown below.
Metacognitive Note-Taking Format
The preceding format is adopted in the note-taking task of the learners under the experimenta
l. group. It is divided into three sections: notes, commentary and summary. The students were required to write important information they obtained from the lecture or discussion on the space for notes. They were also obliged to summarize the main points they learned from the instruction, which also honed their summarizing skill. The area for commentary is for the teacher to write comments, corrections and other inputs to let the learners know the strength and weakness of their notes for the day from which the learners will also learn some ideas.
This study used the fourth year high school students of Calingcaguing National High School who were taking English subject, school year 2014-2015. Fifty (50) of the 103 total number of learners enrolled in English IV were chosen randomly and used as samples in the study.
Prior to the conduct of the study, the 50 respondents were randomly chosen through fish bowl technique. Then the samples were pre tested before they were exposed to the graded and monitored meta-cognitive note-taking approach in teaching. After a month-long utilization of the method, the same group of the study was post tested to determine the effect of the note-taking technique.
Before the conduct of the study, necessary permission was secured. In order to avoid problems in term of learners’ negative and varying reactions if some of them are not undergoing the same approach in the teaching-learning process, all the fourth year students underwent the graded and monitored metacognitive note-taking technique but only 50 of them, who were randomly chosen and whose scores are considered in data analysis, were used as samples of the study. Results of the test were held confidential.
The results gathered were analyzed via t-test to test the significant difference between the pretest and posttest results. The study used 0.05 level of significance of a two-tailed test which means that if it is reached, the researcher customarily rejects the null hypothesis and concludes that a real difference does exist.
This section presents the result of the study where the frequency of scores and the percentage of the total number of the sample who got specific scores are displayed. From the data, the significant difference between the mean pretest and posttest score is identified.
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Table 1. Pretest-Posttest Mean Scores of the Students
The table shows that during the pretest, out of the 50 samples that were selected randomly only 2 of them got the score that belongs to the 41-45 bracket; 7 within the 36-40 score bracket; 5 within the 31-35 group; 8 in the range of 26-30; 10 fell within the set of 21-25 and 18 got scores within the of 16-20. This depicts that the scores are low. However, there is a significant change signaled by the result of the posttest wherein none from the sample got a score lower than the range of 31-35 and there were already 7 students who got scores within the 51-55 score group that led to a higher mean score.
It can also be gleaned from the table above that prior to the conduct of the study, the students got the mean pretest score of 25.9 with standard deviation of 55.64. After the students were exposed to the graded and monitored metacognitive note-taking approach, the mean score has increased by 16.96 as shown by the posttest mean result of 42.86 with standard deviation of 45.11.
In testing the effect of the approach, a two-tailed test at 0.05 level of significance and 49 degree of freedom was used. As reflected, the computed t-value of 7.77 exceeded the critical value of 2.01. This means that there is a significant difference between the mean pretest and posttest scores of the students that obviously shows the remarkable effect of the teaching approach on the performance of the students in English IV.
This section presents the ideas that were thought of after the analysis of the results and the recommendations that may be adopted.
From the results of the study, the following ideas are arrived at:
1. Graded and monitored metacognitive note-taking has a good impact on the learners’ performance in English.
2. Graded and monitored metacognitive note-taking is a helpful approach in classroom instruction.
The remarkable findings of the study led the researcher to recommend the following:
1. Graded and monitored metacognitive note-taking in other English classes or in the lower level may be adopted;
2. Use graded and monitored metacognitive note-taking as an approach in teaching other subjects.
3. Another related study to further test the usefulness of the approach may be conducted.
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Boyle JR, Weishaar M. (2001). The effect of strategic note-taking on the recall and reading comprehension of lecture information for high school students with learning disabilities. LDRP;16: 133-41. http://www.jpma.org.pk/full_article_text.php?article_id=4894
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C. UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS
Haghverdi HR, Biria R, Karimi IA. (2010). The effect of note-taking strategy instruction on the students' academic achievement. Asia Tefl 7: 123-51. http://www.jpma.org.pk/full_article_text.php?article_id=4894
Parvane S. et al. (2013). The effect of note-taking skills training on the achievement motivation in learning on B.A students in Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman and Kerman University of Medical Sciences (Iran)
Shaughnessy, Michael F., and Evans Robert. (1995). “The educational psychology of note-taking: Effects of prior word/word knowledge”. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Rocky Mountain Educational Research Association, . 13 pp.
D. ELECTRONIC SOURCES
http://depts.washington.edu/cidrweb/TAHandbook/2003. The Graduate School and Center for Instructional Development and Research University of Washington.
http://mailman.stanford.edu/mailman/listinfo/tomorrows-professor, Tuesday, September 14th, 2010.
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