An Evaluation of Initiatives in Optimisation of Industrial Energy Use in South Africa


Master's Thesis, 2017

142 Pages, Grade: 70.0%


Excerpt

i
An Evaluation of Initiatives in Optimisation of Industrial
Energy Use in South Africa.
By
Gracious Banda
In partial fulfilment of the prerequisites for Chartered Engineer
status and the Master of Science degree
in Professional Engineering.

iii
Abstract
Evaluation of industrial energy use optimisation in this project has been approached by
introducing the aims and objectives of the project and asking questions about the research
which seeks to establish how various industries from different sectors utilise energy in
their industrial processes. This is an action research which specifically focuses on the
manufacturing, mining and Commercial industry sectors.
Literature has been searched and reviewed based on global, continental and national
practices through exploration of different perspectives and practices by experts and
practitioners in the field of energy efficiency as well as academia. General reflection and
selection of reference documentation has been governed by the problem statement and
relevant literature considered to provide answers to the research questions posed. The
adopted approach model framework is based on O'Leary, (2004).
The mixed methods approach combining both qualitative research and quantitative
research has been adopted. This has been achieved by designing and introducing a
research model framework as well as adopting existing approaches for execution of energy
audit activities. The designed research model framework has been utilised throughout as
a significant guide in writing this thesis whilst existing model frameworks based on
industrial current best practices and standards have ensured writing in consistency with
internationalised standards.
Based on forty-four (44) firms from a combination of industry sectors of manufacturing,
mining and commercial, the analysis and evaluation of data has entailed a tactic of picking
one firm from each of the sectors, collection of the tariffs and monthly bills of up to a year,
consolidation of the same and then interpret and analyse these in order to draw
meaningful statistical inferences that point to available opportunities in industrial systems
energy utilisation, the identified opportunities being tabulated in relation to each of the
three firms selected representing a sample statistic out of the forty-four audited. Common
energy wastage practices, inefficient equipment designs, unsatisfactory operations and
maintenance regimes observed have been highlighted and substantiated by introducing
applicable engineering formulae and philosophies which aid in calculation for possible
energy savings and provide solutions respectively. Feedback on implementation of energy

iv
audit recommendations for improvement has been a significant inclusion reflecting the
response to recommendations from various industries.
Results have been reflected by inclusion of case studies based on implementation of the
recommendations of this action research. Recommendations from energy audits and
follow-up survey have been tabulated and analysed by coding the audited firms based on
province of location, industrial sector category, investment level, annual savings achieved,
percentage implementation and return on investment (ROI).
Main challenges included persuasions for project buy-ins, limited term of research with
tight schedules, resource organisation for different industrial complexities.
The epilogue includes reflection on the research by presenting strengths, weaknesses,
opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis as well as tabulation of the Gibb's (1988) model
of reflection focusing on stages of; development of research model frameworks, planning
and development of questionnaires, execution of energy audit activities, managing the
research and authoring the thesis.
Key words: industrial energy, evaluation, optimisation, practices, research methods,
operations and maintenance, reflections.

v
Table of contents
Contents
Page
Declaration of originality ... ii
Acknowledgement ... ii
Abstract ... iii
Table of contents ... v
Glossary of terms and abbreviations: ... ix
Overview ... xi
Statement of the Problem ... xi
Rationale ... xi
Chapter 1|Introduction ... 1
1.1. Background
Information:
... 2
1.2. Overall
Research
Aim
...
4
1.3. Objectives
...
4
1.3.3. Research
Questions
...
5
1.4. Value
of
this
Research
... 6
Chapter 2|Literature Review ... 7
2.1. Introduction ... 7
2.2. Forces driving the Modern approach ... 8
2.3. Challenges and Barriers ... 14
2.4. Approach Models ... 15
2.5. Significance of models ... 16
2.6. Journal Reviews ... 17
2.7. Summary and arising issues ... 21
Chapter 3|Methodology and Research Methods ... 22
3.1. Introduction ... 22
3.2. Research Strategy ... 23
3.3. Research Execution Plan ... 24
3.3.1. Research Framework ... 24
3.3.2. Research Methods used ... 25
3.4. Research Design ... 26
3.4. Data Collection ... 29
3.4.1. Planning and organising energy audit activities ... 29
3.4.2. The Energy Audit Process ... 30
3.4.3. Description of the energy audit process steps followed ... 30
Onsite and Field Activities summary (portfolio of evidence) ... 32
3.4.3.1. Partial physical data from a few of audited firms: ... 33

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Key elements to consider in energy demand side management (EDSM) ... 36
3.4.3.2. Energy Cost data evaluation based on one Manufacturing firm (Karob Plastics) ... 45
3.4.3.3. Energy Cost data evaluation based on one Mining firm (Mooiplaas PPC) ... 50
3.4.3.4. Energy Cost data evaluation based on one Commercial firm (UP Campus) ... 54
3.4.3.5. Characteristics of Energy Use ... 56
3.4.4. Quantification of Significant Energy Users (SEUs)|Why do this?... 57
3.4.5. Measured data based on procedure followed at the audited sites: ... 59
3.4.5.1. Energy system analysis (ESA) based on holistic system. ... 60
3.4.5.2. Energy system analysis (ESA) based on Sub-system. ... 67
3.5. Recommendations in energy audit reports based on specific industry sector ... 75
3.5.1. Commercial sector: Fruition energy audit recommendation on opportunities ... 75
3.5.2. Mining sector: MP PPC energy audit recommendations on opportunities ... 77
3.5.3. Manufacturing sector: PRAGA energy audit recommendations on opportunities ... 78
3.5.4. Energy Audits Report writing in Summary ... 80
3.6. Survey Follow-up on Implementation data ... 81
3.6.1. Energy audit Recommendations implementation follow-up ... 81
3.6.2. Research challenges ... 89
3.7. Conclusion ... 90
Chapter 4|Findings Evaluation and Discussion... 91
4.1. Introduction
... 91
4.2. Results (Case studies) from audited organizations ... 92
4.3. Evaluation and Discussion of findings ... 94
4.3.1. Evaluation ... 94
4.3.2. Discussion ... 94
4.4. Synthesis to global practices ... 95
4.5. Conclusion ... 96
Chapter 5|Conclusions ... 96
5.1. Introduction ... 96
5.1.1. Research Objective 1- ... 96
5.1.2. Research Objective 2- ... 96
5.1.3. Research Objective 3- ... 97
5.1.4. Research Objective 4- ... 97
5.2. Reflections on the Research ... 97
5.2.1. SWOT analysis ... 97
5.2.2. Final Reflections ... 98
Reference List ... 99
Appendices ... 104

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List of Tables
Table 1. China UNIDO pilot programme EE savings data. ... 11
Table 2.Timescale projection of research activities. ... 26
Table 3 Energy audit planning activities ... 29
Table 4 CoJ monthly Tariffs for Karob Plastics 2013/2014 (Baseline) ... 46
Table 5 Large Customer LV-TOU Option Analysis; ... 48
Table 6. Mooiplaas 11kV-TOU 2014 bills Analysis; ... 50
Table 7. UP-GROENKLOOF Campus Energy Bills Analysis. ... 55
Table 8.Pumping system assessment data ... 71
Table 9 Energy audit recommendation table for an agribusiness company ... 75
Table 10. Priority rating in energy system optimisation recommendations ... 76
Table 11. Energy audit recommendation table for a mining company ... 77
Table 12. Energy audit recommendation table for a manufacturing company ... 78
Table 13. Summarised energy audit recommendations for close-out presentation ... 79
Table 14. Implementation of recommendations data by specific industry sector ... 87
Table 15. Case study 1 savings after improving energy management ... 92
Table 16. SWOT analysis of the research project ... 97
Table 17. Final reflections ... 98
List of Figures
Figure 1. Map showing some of the common energy sources in South Africa. ... 3
Figure 2. Working with Literature ... 7
Figure 3. Energy system based on UNIDO, (2005). ... 10
Figure 4. Diagram of energy use by industries. ... 12
Figure 5. Boxing Energy System Optimisation Layout by industries ... 13
Figure 6. Global Industrial Proportionality of Energy demand. ... 13
Figure 7. Research Framework. Source: Banda, G. (2017) ... 24
Figure 8. Chart of Projected timescale of research activities. ... 27
Figure 9. Gantt chart showing research timescale by months of activities. ... 28
Figure 10. Energy Audit process flow diagram. (based on ISO 50002:2014) ... 30
Figure 11. Steel sheet plate feeder (for plate drying in LTG drying/treatment oven) ... 33
Figure 12. Feeder to Foam Compactor at Feltex. ... 34
Figure 13. Grindrod Mews PFC equipment. ... 35
Figure 14. GH PFC equipment ... 35
Figure 15. PRAGA modified old 500ton Press ... 37
Figure 16. PRAGA Press Shop1 ... 37
Figure 17. Grindrod Group old Lifts ... 39
Figure 18. MP PPC Quarry PFC equipment ... 40
Figure 19. Cooling tower system at PRAGA ... 41
Figure 20. Key energy saving opportunity areas at AFRIPACK ... 42
Figure 21. Brick firing process at NOVA BRICKS ... 42
Figure 22. Pneumatic energy generation at PRAGA ... 43

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Figure 23. Solution offered to PRAGA compressed Air system woes. ... 44
Figure 24 Distribution chart of energy spend based on table 3 ... 47
Figure 25. Trending energy usage by cost. ... 47
Figure 26. Alternative Tariff type for cost comparison ... 49
Figure 27. Energy use optimisation chart based on power factor correction. ... 52
Figure 28. Fuel used by Contractors' Trucks at PPC Mooiplas Quarry. ... 53
Figure 29. UP-GROENKLOOF electric power demand distribution. ... 56
Figure 30. Typical SEUs of a System ... 58
Figure 31. Sub-metering the main incomers ... 59
Figure 32. Main incomer Load profile with efficient PFC equipment. ... 61
Figure 33. Main incomer Load profile without modulating equipment. ... 62
Figure 34. Rotapak Main incomer p.f. profile. ... 63
Figure 35. Main incomer Load profile with efficient PFC equipment. ... 64
Figure 36. Main incomer Load profile with good working condition PFC equipment. ... 65
Figure 37. Plant section load profile with faulty PFC equipment. ... 66
Figure 38. DCS diagram showing a boxed out pumping system ... 68
Figure 39. Boxed sub-system suction and discharge condition measurements ... 69
Figure 40. Pumping system performance analysis comparison chart ... 72
Figure 41. Resource utilisation and cost comparison analysis ... 73
Figure 42. Use of PSAT to assess possible pumping system optimisation (PSO). ... 74
Figure 43. Facial interviews data ... 85
Figure 44. Online questionnaire data ... 85
Figure 45. Telephonic follow-up data ... 86
Figure 46. Statistic of total energy audited companies ... 86
Figure 47. Industrial energy efficiency optimisation in South Africa ... 88
Figure 48. Economic benefit distribution on implementation of recommendations ... 89
List of Appendices
Appendix 1| Ethics Approval, Consent Letter, Energy audit docs ... 104
Appendix 2|Evidence of implemented EE projects ... 117
Appendix 3 | Graphs, Measurements and Calculations ... 118
Appendix 4 | Formulae used and list of software tools used ... 129

ix
Glossary of terms and abbreviations:
CEng :
Chartered
Engineer
CPD :
Continuing
Professional
Development
CMMS :
Computerized
maintenance
management
system
DfID
: Department for International Development (UK)
DSM
: Demand Side Management
EC :
Engineering
Council
EDSM
: Energy Demand Side Management
EE :
Energy
Efficiency
EEF :
Enterprise
Environmental
Factors
EIA :
Environmental
Impact
Assessment
EMS
: Environmental Management System
EnMS
: Energy Management System
EnPI
: Energy Performance Indicator
ESKOM
: Electricity Supply Commission (RSA)
ESO
: Energy System Optimisation
FCU :
Fan
Coil
Unit
GHG :
green-house
gases
GPS :
Global
Positioning
System
HBi3
: High Bay Induction Lighting gen3
HID :
High
Intensity
Discharge
HVAC :
Heating
Ventilation
and
Air
Conditioning
IEA
: International Energy Agency
ISO :
International
Organisation
for
Standardisation
kVA :
kilovolt-ampere
kVAr
: reactive kilovolt-ampere
kW :
kilowatt
kWh :
kilowatt-hour
LED
: light emitting diode
NAC
: Network Access Charge
NCPC
: National Cleaner Production Centre
NERSA
: National Energy Regulator of South Africa
NGO :
Non-governmental
Organisation
OECD :
Organisation
for
Economic
Co-operation
and
Development
OEE :
Overall
Equipment
Effectiveness

x
OEM
:
Original
Equipment
Manufacturer
OHSA
: Occupational Health and Safety Act (South Africa)
OPA
:
Operational
Process
Assets
PESTLE
: Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Legal and Environmental (factors)
PFC
:
Power
factor
correction
PSEE
: Private Sector Energy Efficiency
QMS
: Quality Management System
RAE
: Royal Academy for Engineers
RE
: Renewable Energy
ROI
:
Return
on
Investment
SEMP
: Standard Environmental Management Plan
SEUs
: significant energy users
SPB
: Simple Payback
SWH
: Solar Water Heating
SEP
: Statement of Ethical Principles
SMART
: Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic, Timebound
SOE
: Society of Operations Engineers
SWOT
: Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats
tCO
2
:
Tonnes
Carbon
dioxide
TPM
: Total Productive Maintenance
TQM
: Total Quality Management
TOU
: Time of Use
UD
:
University
of
Derby.
UNIDO
: United Nations Industrial Development Organization
UK-SPEC :
UK
Standard
for
Professional Engineering Competence (the EC)
VRF
: Variable Refrigerant Flow
VRV
: Variable Refrigerant Volume
VSD/VfD
: Variable Speed Drive/Variable frequency drive
VSBK
: Vertical Shaft Brick Kiln
VVVF
: Variable Voltage Variable Frequency
ZAR
:
South
African
Rand

xi
Overview
Within the context of industrial energy use, this research seeks to explore, examine,
understand and critically reflect on the common initiatives that the industries incorporate
in use of industrial energy for different business activities.
Statement of the Problem
This thesis seeks to investigate the current perspectives, culture, practices, technologies
and approaches in industrial energy utilisation as its specific subject matter. It is envisaged
that this study will predictively test the result of such activities and then prove them
against the fulfilment of the specified objectives and set out a theme for the outcomes to
be reliable and validated for any desired future academic or industrial use.
The philosophical assumption
Based on descriptive understanding of the title for this research, the assumption being
tested is that when energy is supplied to a system and is optimised in use, the following
should hold; careful management of energy systems, creation of reserve or surplus
energy, no energy starvation within energy systems, minimal or close to no waste of
energy within and around energy systems. The result of this would be sustainability,
economic and reliability benefit in those energy systems
.
Rationale
The common denominator in the analysis of industrial energy use optimisation initiatives
is that any wasted energy in any system can bring an adverse impact on its surroundings
because the word "waste" pertains to movement and therefore there would be an element
of energy transfer to the unobjectionable space of matter. Gengel and Boles (2012)
approach the Second Law of Thermodynamics as an essential principle to substantiate the
fact that because energy can never be created nor destroyed, it should for the benefit of
sustenance of humanity and the environment be conserved, optimised in use and
minimised in wastage. To evaluate the different patterns in industrial energy use, specific
focus in this research will generally be on the demand side energy management (DSEM).
Department of Energy, USA (2013) states of conservation as one way to manage energy
resources. Conservation includes reducing wasteful energy use, using energy for a given

xii
purpose more efficiently,
making strategic choices as to sources of energy, and
reducing energy use altogether. The key word is conservation.

1
Chapter 1|Introduction
This thesis, through qualitative and quantitative data analysis, seeks to examine the
different initiatives or lack thereof which different industries in South Africa embark on in a
quest to improve their industries' energy demand management. The qualitative data
acquisition entails interaction with stakeholders and responsible officials or focus groups at
the identified sites and establishments while quantitative data is about acquiring historical
economics data of the facility as well as asset data collected or recorded from rated energy
demand codes or from energy measurements. It further searches on drivers which trigger
intuition in the users' desire to understand concepts in energy management approaches
and techniques which energy optimisation experts and energy management technologies
offer to the benefit of the energy user and the environment. The project also reviews what
the perceptions are from different energy users at corporate level when posed with the
question of what their initiatives are regarding optimisation of energy use and how they
understand the impact of such perceptions on business activities. Perceptions about energy
efficiency optimisation especially from apex management of any organization including
governments matter when approaching the concept of optimisation of the efficiency of
energy in any system. Nakicenovic and Jefferson (1995;
WP-95-127, pp.1,7.) in an
approach to global energy perspectives state that "the anticipated rise in energy use, most
of it coming from what are now termed the developing countries, requires the greater
harnessing of existing resources and the accessing of new resources. It also requires
considering the options available, over realistic time frames and at affordable costs, bearing
in mind the wide variability of resource endowments between countries but also income
and wealth between individuals and/or organisations and countries. New energy
technologies on the supply side and for energy-using devices or demand side are expected
to lie at the heart of efficiency improvements, cost reductions, and better services provided
by energy." This notion directly relates to political, economic, sustainability, technological,
legal and environmental (PESTLE) factors as key enablers when exploring and making
strategic decisions for optimisation of energy efficiency in systems that demand energy in
any establishment. Stacey (2013) wrote about Systems being highly sensitive to some
changes but remarkably insensitive to many others yet these systems contain some

2
influential pressure, or leverage points. Managers can exert influence at these points and
so can have a major impact on the behaviour of the system but the problem is that they
are difficult to identify. Engineering Council, UK-SPEC (2013) states of Chartered Engineers
as developers of solutions to engineering problems using new or existing technologies,
through innovation, creativity and change. They may have technical accountability for
complex systems with significant levels of managing the associated risk. Developing a
solution to a complex energy system problem like optimisation of energy use requires
identification and development of a strategy and its associated tactics to solving the
problem. Knowledge, technology, tools and expertise are at the heart of implementation of
energy efficiency optimisation in an energy system.
1.1. Background Information:
The evolution acceleration in energy utilisation started in the 18
th
century during the
industrial revolution when physical man power and biomass fuel of wood was too limited to
meet the pace of industrial development demand. The limitation led to the discovery of
fossil fuel technology, steam engines and steam plants and then petroleum powering of
industrial engines. The industrial revolution age mainly entailed that energy is safely
generated, distributed and utilised to meet the demand without much scientific analysis of
the impacts of by-products on the environment and sustainability of the earth and its beings
including humanity.
It is until early 21
st
century that in-depth scientific analysis of industrial energy by-products
and their impacts started to become popular. This in part can be attributed to the popularity
and use of modern and instant communication methods of internet (web-based) and
television modes of communication.
Energy use in the South African industry is complex because any industrial sector utilises
different forms of energy from different sources. Some examples of the sources of industrial
energy are Coalfired power plant electric, hydroelectric, nuclear station electric, pumped
storage electric, open cycle gas turbine electric, windfarm turbines electric, solar power
electric, diesel compression ignition electric, diesel, petrol, gasoline and Liquefied petroleum
gas (LPG) fuel. Industrial energy is classified as either clean or unclean based on the level
of unavoidable waste products that result from its use. The word optimisation will be
explored with the context of how to optimise, can manage as well as reduce waste of

3
energy. The generalisation of energy sources based on originality is split into two main
groups namely Fossil fuel based and Renewable based. The interest in this research is to
explore the optimisation of energy use and the technologies employed, the associated
challenges as well as benefits.
1.1.1.
Geographical position of the Research Area.
The regional area of research is South Africa, located in the southern hemisphere in
southernmost part of the continent of Africa bordered by other African countries namely
Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe and Mozambique but also the waters of Indian and Atlantic
oceans as shown in map below.
Figure 1.
Map showing some of the common energy sources in South Africa.
1.1.2.
Research Focus and Delimitations
As a work-based research, the focus area within the subject matter of this research is to
critically evaluate both qualitative and quantitative data collected from diverse industry
sectors grouped according to their commonality in industrial activity and type of respective
output commodities or service. The focus group is medium to large scale industries
comprising forty-four (44) companies which utilise higher levels of energy in their day-to-

4
day operations. The research is based on a selection of actual industrial energy consuming
systems in facilities or plants spread across all provinces of the Republic of South Africa.
1.2. Overall Research Aim
The overall aim of this research is to identify, explore, analyse, review and critically
evaluate the current practices in energy use within a South African industry perspective
and how they impact on sustainability of humanity and the environment. Furthermore,
the research aims to draw an inference from the results to propose an approach which
could set out a benchmark for a global approach in evaluation of industrial energy use.
1.3. Objectives
1.3.1.
The main objective
By engaging into a survey and an action research as the key approach in effecting the
activities of this study, the main objective is to identify, evaluate and analyse the
opportunities available or which could be made available should energy use in the industries
be optimised for efficient and effective processes in works and services across sectors of
Commercial, Manufacturing, Mining industries. In so doing, discuss and critically reflect on
the results and impact of the research.
1.3.2.
Specific Objectives
These are to;
i.
Identify different industries and their activities that demand different forms of energy
to enhance or drive processes and make these a target group for the research.
ii.
Explore the common practices, methods and technologies employed in demand side
energy management in the target group or sample statistic.
iii.
Evaluate Critically what the impact of the common practices is in terms of human
benefit and environmental benefit.
iv.
Formulate Recommendations of approach for sustainable practices in optimisation of
industrial energy use and bring forth analysis of results based on timescale activities
of the research design.

5
1.3.3.
Research Questions
Why should there be industrial energy literacy?
What is energy conservation?
What is an energy system?
What is energy system optimisation and how is it different from energy efficiency?
Why should industrial energy audit be a necessity?
Can economic and social security be impacted by energy?
Is national security impacted by energy?
Does energy use optimisation ensure sustainability?
Does commercialisation of technology innovation simplify the process industry energy
optimisation?
How does a typical energy system demand proportionality look like at an industry
sector?
1.3.4.
Research Structure
Research layout is based on a generic University of Derby Master of Science dissertation
structure in which;
Chapter 1 introduces the study of energy systems in industries of the identified research
area
Chapter 2 covers the searched literature and how it is applicable and relates to the study
Chapter 3 details the research strategy, ethics approvals, methods and tools as well as
technology used in data collection analysis of both the primary and the follow-up
survey including typical primary survey energy-audit reports summaries.
Chapter 4 presents description and analysis of findings as well as synthesis of the findings
to literature reviewed.
Chapter 5 concludes the research by revisiting the specific objectives and summarising the
findings of each. It also includes final reflections on the study.
The rest of the thesis incorporates reference list and appendices.

6
1.4. Value of this Research
By fulfilling the requirements stipulated in specific objectives of this study and answering
the research questions, the value of this research, with the support of qualitative and
quantitative data analysis, findings, conclusions and recommendations, will seek to
produce an informed and reliable systems approach to the evaluation and analysis of
industrial energy optimisation applicable to the research area but also by synthesis with
literature from global systems, probably provide for a general technique in systems
approach in sustainable evaluation, auditing and implementation of industrial energy
efficiency and system energy optimisation.
1.5. Conclusion
This chapter has detailed the theme of what this study seeks to explore and provide
analysis on. It has also stated the background of the idea, the targeted research area, the
overall aim and objectives. Furthermore, the research questions to guide on the what,
when, who, where and why aspects of the study have been listed. A summarised structure
of the research has also been inserted.

7
Chapter 2|Literature Review
2.1. Introduction
Reviewing of literature is an art governed by clear understanding of the research title as
well as identification of several literature sources and selection of applicable literature.
O'Leary (2004) approaches literature review in a form of a flow chart of how to work with
literature as shown below:
Find it
Manage it
Use it
Review it
Know literature
types, Use
available resources,
Hone research
skills
Read efficiently, Keep
track of references,
Relevant writing
Argue the rationale,
Inform the work with
theory
Understand literature review
purpose, Ensure adequate
coverage, write purposefully.
How to work with Literature
Figure 2. Working with Literature
Literature review for this research included articles in professional magazines and journals,
articles in academic journals, papers in the proceedings of conferences, published
brochures, books, e-books in University of Derby library, internet websites of specific
professional Engineering institutions, governmental and policy documents, international
standards and reports in the industrial energy space written by experts, other practitioners
and peers. The review contrasts and critiques content reported or recorded in other
Literature sources by citing the authors and their corresponding themes. Sylin-Roberts
(2000) establishes an approach that considers the purpose of literature review as to show
that one has good understanding of the background of one's topic of investigation or
research. Blaxter, Hughes and Tight (2001) describe different types of research as
characterised by shared views that they are of the nature that aim to be of planned,
Based on O'Leary, (2004).

8
cautious, systematic and reliable ways of finding out or deepening understanding. Pertinent
to the objectives set out in this research, exploration of the common practices, methods
and technologies employed in demand side energy management in industries is broad with
various approaches. According to ISO 50001 (2011), approach to systems energy use
optimisation starts with the establishment of an energy policy which ultimately gets
followed up by energy review activities. Murombo and du Plessis (2013) summarise the
South African National Energy Act 34 of 2008 as to ensure that diverse energy resources
are available, in sustainable quantities and at affordable prices, to the South African
economy to ensure economic growth and poverty alleviation, taking into account
environmental management requirements in diverse economic sectors and that there is
efficient generation and consumption of energy and energy research and that energy
efficiency (EE) means economical and efficient production and utilisation of an energy
carrier or resource. Also, that, according to Electricity Regulation Act, demand side
management (DSM) is a potential source of electricity as energy saved or conserved is in
fact energy generated. DSM and optimisation of system energy use can improve energy
efficiency and render unnecessary the construction of new generation capacity. This
approach requires that policy and legal framework is facilitative enough.
The Engineering Council (2017) approaches the increasing complexity of sustainability
challenges advising that, engineers working alone cannot solve all the sustainability
challenges that the globe faces. There is need to engage with stakeholders and listen to
perspectives of others including non-specialists.
2.2. Forces driving the Modern approach
Modern approach to industrial energy utilisation is significantly governed by the progress
to which scientific technology and commercialisation of technological innovation results in
manipulation of nature and the level to which this has taken the world today. According to
Betz (2011), internationalisation and eventual globalisation have historically been
accelerated by simplification of communication and travel based on scientific technological
innovation and engineering research. According to Nallaperumal (2013), it is the purpose
of engineering research to find approximations to the problem that can be solved.

9
2.2.1
. Industrial energy use and awareness
Energy use
The effects and results of excessive wastage of industrial energy at both supply side and
demand side since the industrial revolution has meant that emissions from burning of fossil
fuels including petroleum to generate energy have incrementally accumulated in the
atmosphere leading to global warming, climate change and environmental degradation.
While these activities have had adverse impacts on sustainability of the earth and life, it
has posed a challenge to the globe to seek solution to the created problem resulting in a
positive viewpoint in creating opportunities for Innovation in Energy Technologies and
Sustainability in both the engineering industry and higher educational establishments.
In South Africa, since its inception in 2010, United Nations Industrial Development
Organisation (UNIDO) has been facilitating international cooperation in the development of
energy management standards for best practice in industrial energy use.
Awareness
Awareness is well approached in the philosophical term of epistemology. Epistemology
according to the Greek philosophers, Aristotle and Plato is a question about knowledge that
states, "What is it that we know about something when we say, we know it?" Now, focussing
on some of the research questions in Chapter 1 and attempting to connect the questions
to literature searched, it is noted, according to Department of Energy, U.S (2013) that
industrial energy literacy has a significance of making sure that the end user of energy or
energy demander with a better understanding of energy can make informed decisions,
improve the security of a nation, promote economic development, implement sustainable
energy use, reduce environmental risks and negative impacts, help individuals and
organizations save money.
2.2.2. Industrial Energy System
According to UNIDO (2007), an industrial energy system encompasses everything from
power incomer at the municipal authority substation to the production end uses. In a typical
example of understanding an energy system, the flow diagram below details one;

10
Figure 3. Energy system based on UNIDO, (2005).
2.2.3. Industrial Energy System Optimisation
Approaching this term in 2.2.3 above by first describing each word, would seek to design,
redesign or alter operational regime to achieve excellent support to end use processes
whilst using the least cost-effectively achievable energy amount.
For a Pumping System Optimisation (PSO), the take-off point would be to check and avoid
throttling the system then make sure that pumping system operates at the Best Efficiency
Point (BEP) by measuring performance and comparing against manufacturer's pump
curves.
For an energy system to be optimised in energy usage, thorough assessment and or audit
of an energy system is required which would, if requirements are thoroughly understood,
result in reconfiguration of inefficient energy uses and practices to match least possible
energy utilisation but with an aim of profitably and safely attaining better than previous
results or at least maintaining the quality. Improvement in reliability of a system by
correcting defects and improving maintenance are but a few of approaches towards
ensuring energy system optimisation as per conference presentation by Tiep (2010).
Utility feed or
incomer
LV transformer
MCB
MCC
Motor
Pump
Ultimate goal
Chiller FCUs
Fluid System

11
2.2.4. Benefits of industrial system energy efficiency optimisation.
Reported by Private Sector Energy Efficiency (2015), National Cleaner Production Centre
(2014), Ploutakhina (2015), ISO 50002 (2015), it has been demonstrated time and again
that energy efficiency and energy system optimisation saves industrial firms' money,
increases reliability of operations, enhances competitiveness and improves productivity,
offers attractive financial and economic returns, reduces exposure to rising energy costs
and increases security of energy supply as it leads to energy conservation.
As reported by UNIDO (2006) on China pilot programme, an example of economic benefit
from an energy system optimisation and energy efficiency through investment in system
improvement as shown in table below:
System/Facility
Total cost
(USD)
Energy savings
(kWh/year)
Payback period
(years)
Compressed Air/forge plant
18600
150000
1.5
Compressed Air/machinery
plant
32400
310800
1.3
Compressed Air/tobacco
industry
23900
150000
2
Pump System/hospital
18600
77000
2
Pump System/pharmaceutical
150000
1050000
1.8
Motor System/petrochemicals
(an extremely large facility)
393000
14100000
0.5
Table 1. China UNIDO pilot programme EE savings data.
Based on UNIDO, (2005)

12
A typical energy system demand proportionality at an industry sector based on
Energetics, (Australia) in UNIDO (2015) publication is diagrammatically shown in
figure below;
Figure 4. Diagram of energy use by industries.
Inference: Potential of saving in energy and cost if each of the listed systems may be
improved would generally be proportionate to the listed range of energy
demand.
In this set-up, four key systems can be boxed out for energy system
optimisation (ESO) projects represented as per flow diagram below;
Boilers: 40 to 50%
Pumps: 3 to 5 %
Chillers: 20 to 30%
Air Compressors:7 to 10%
Lighting: 7 to 10%
others: 2 to 5 %
Process Machines:
50 to 60%
Process Machines:
30 to 40%
Fuel
100%
Electricity
100%
Pneumatic
energy
Cooling and chilling lines
UTILITY
PROCESS
Based on UNIDO-Australia, (2015)

13
Source: Banda, G. (2017)
Figure 5. Boxing Energy System Optimisation Layout by industries
According to UNIDO (2012), the proportionality of energy demand in a typical industrial
set-up is as shown in pie chart below:
Figure 6. Global Industrial Proportionality of Energy demand.
Business
as usual
pl
ant
systems
Steam System
Optimisation (SSO)
Pumping System
Optimisation (PSO)
Compressed Air System
Optimisation (CSO)
Motor System
Optimisation (MSO)
Other
Equipment
35%
Pumps
22%
Conveyors
2%
Cooling
Compressors
7%
Air
Compressors
18%
Fans
16%
Pumping systems account for 22% of the
world's electric motor energy demand
Data courtesy of European Commission
Improved
Energy
Efficient
Plant
Systems
Benefits:
Economic
Reliable
Sustainable
Secure
Competitive

14
Consequently, based on China pilot EE project table 1, this has promulgated sustainability
initiatives as evidenced by OECD (2015) report on Sustainable Energy for All initiative which
by using an industrial energy efficiency (IEE) Accelerator as a global collaborative platform
and network of businesses, international organizations and NGOs aim to provide tools,
expertise, technical capabilities and financial capacity to partners to contribute and make
commitments for accelerating the improvement rate of energy efficiency in Industry. It has
a goal of facilitating the implementation of Energy Management Systems, technologies and
practices in global industrial energy use optimisation.
Significantly, National Cleaner Production Centre, S.A. (2014) and National Business
Initiative, S.A. (2016) reported in their respective annual reports on how their UNIDO
Industrial Energy Efficiency (IEE) plus Resource Efficient and Cleaner Production (RECP)
and Private Sector Energy Efficiency (PSEE) national projects helped hundreds of companies
and establishments save several millions in both money and kWh.
In turn, UNIDO, IEE (2013), Mhlanga (2014), Floyd (2017), Matteini (2017) have all
reported on the positive impacts that Energy System Optimisation (ESO) and Energy
Efficiency (EE) in industrial processes bring about on sustainability of the earth, on
profitability and reliability of industries, governments and humanity.
So why other industries fail to benefit from ESO and EE?
2.3. Challenges and Barriers
In view of report by Shreck (2015) as well as earlier Work Paper by Mallett, Nye Sorrell
(2011) and as substantiated in an ESO and IEE training workshop by Ploutakhina (2015),
the
Common barriers and challenges to implementation energy system optimisation
in industries are;
· Policy and regulatory barriers
· Lack of information and awareness of the potential of EE
· Lack of industry initiatives to emphasize energy management as an integral part of total
management systems
· Lack of technical capacity to identify, evaluate, justify and implement ESO and EE projects
· First costs more important than recurring costs and life cycle cost (LCC) hence showing
disconnection between capital and operating budgets

15
·
Technology barriers and sustainability risks that lead to individual ESO and EE knowledge
not being shared within an organisation.
· Cultural context is an important factor in transferring knowledge and embracing change
since cultural context can vary substantially from country to country
Common Lesson Learnt
Top management engagement on an ongoing basis is necessary for ESO and EE
implementation ... but it is not always sufficient (personal and social norms may
interfere)
2.4. Approach Models
Energy systems approach models used when considering implementation of an industrial
Energy System Optimisation (ESO) vary depending on a few factors some of which are
professional background of the practitioner or energy consultant, the nature of design and
installation of systems, geographical conditions, existing or non-existent company standing
policies regarding energy utilisation and/or management.
The Energy Management System (EnMS) implementation model structured in ISO50001
(2011) and ISO50002 (2014) entails implementation steps of an EnMS standard and
industrial energy audit procedure respectively. The stages for implementation of the
standard, according to ISO50001 (2011) are in the cyclic sequence of:
Policy
Plan
Implement and Operate Check
Review
The Deming (2000) management cycle is also commonly used as an ESO and EE tool but
leans more to ISO50002 (2014). It is iterative but generally in the sequence as follows;
Plan
Do
Check Act
The UNIDO, SSO (2012) is popular in steam systems and petrochemical plants and leans
more to energy system optimisation (ESO) assessments. It is iterative but generally in the
sequence as follows;
Corrective measures, monitoring and audits
monitor for continuous improvement

16
Establish Investigate Identify Analyse Implement
2.5
. Significance of models
i.
Adopted or created and designed models can enhance simplification of procedure in
execution of a research project
ii.
May be perceived and considered as enablers in establishment of standards
extensions and adopted for industrial applications
iii.
May guide in development of software tools for use in analysis of energy usage
including measuring, monitoring and reporting.
monitor for continuous improvement

17
2
.6. J
o
urnal Revi
e
w
s
In se
ek
ing
to
unde
rs
tand
the
na
tion
al
,
re
gional, co
n
tine
n
ta
l
and globa
l
tre
n
ds i
n
ind
u
stri
a
l en
ergy u
se op
ti
mi
sa
ti
on,
a
few of t
h
e j
o
urnal
s r
evi
ewe
d
have
b
een summarised as foll
o
w
s;
2.
6.
1.
Nat
iona
l:
(PS
E
E
b
rochu
re_f
in
al_H
I-R
E
S
,2015.
pp.
4
-5
)
The pub
lic
ati
o
n d
etail
s the
resul
ts i
n
"Energy-
Ef
ficiency
Program
m
e:
T
w
o years of
focused energ
y-
eff
iciency
interventions in the priv
ate
se
ct
o
r 2013
­ 2015
" d
eli
vered by
the Nati
ona
l Busi
nes
s Ini
ti
at
ive
(NBI
) and
Pri
vate Sec
tor Energy
Ef
fi
ci
ency (PSEE) through
in
d
epend
ent i
n
d
u
st
ri
al
energ
y
eff
ic
iency
experts i
n
South
Afri
ca. Project fu
nd
ed by
Departm
ent for Interna
ti
o
na
l
Devel
o
pm
ent (DfID)
UK and
supported by the dep
artm
ent of
Energy
- South
Afri
ca
Pr
iv
ate S
ector E
n
ergy
E
ff
icien
cy
(2015).
T
h
e a
u
th
or
o
f t
h
is
pa
pe
r i
s a
n
I
E
E
E
xpe
rt
.
Excerpt out of 142 pages

Details

Title
An Evaluation of Initiatives in Optimisation of Industrial Energy Use in South Africa
College
University of Derby  (Engineering and Technology)
Course
Master of Science in Professional Engineering
Grade
70.0%
Author
Year
2017
Pages
142
Catalog Number
V379357
ISBN (eBook)
9783668616257
ISBN (Book)
9783668616264
File size
9427 KB
Language
English
Tags
Evaluation, Initiatives, Optimisation, Industrial Energy, Africa
Quote paper
Gracious Banda (Author), 2017, An Evaluation of Initiatives in Optimisation of Industrial Energy Use in South Africa, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/379357

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