Emotional Recognition Using Facial Expression by Emoji in Real Time

Master's Thesis, 2017

32 Pages, Grade: 3.6 out 4



Present research focuses on the role of emoji’s in facilitating emotional recognition with the help of pictorial depictions of facial expressions. Today is the era of fast and dynamic internet and communication technologies. Hence, the communication is convenient as compared to the past. Use of communications through different channels, such as mobile phones and computers, are very common in today’s era. E-mails, text messaging, blog entries, and comments are some of the forms of communication which are very common today. To enhance the experience of communication, emojis were developed by the Japanese mobile companies such as Vodafone. Emoji’s are the pictorial depiction of the facial expression of human beings. They are very helpful in the facilitation of human emotional experiences.

This research thesis investigates emotional recognition using facial expression by emoji in real time. Moreover, it also develops the parameters of measuring the facial expression and understanding the facial emotion recognition in real time. The application developed includes six human expressions, which include neutral, fear, anger, happy, sad, and surprise emotions. These expressions are the actual expressions which are being conveyed in human beings. The investigations of such expression are important because of their ability to better express human emotions and the way they facilitate communications among the people. Recommendations on further research will be provided for researchers.


I would like to show my special thanks and gratitude to my most respected thesis advisor and an assistant professor, Dr. Jens Hannemann of the Division of Computer Science at Kentucky State University. Dr. Hannemann gave me the opportunity to conduct the research on the following topic. This research work provided me lot of opportunities to learn new knowledge, and it also helped me to improve my writing skills. In the course of my research work, a lot of work has been done and I came to know about so many new things in my life. This is important, and I am very thankful to him. Secondly, it is an honor for me too to thank my parents and friends. Their emotional and psychological support also helped to learn and to complete the project.

They helped me a lot in finalizing this research project within the limited time frame that was given to me. Therefore, I believe that the combined effort of my parents, my assistant professor, and my own dedication are the reasons behind my success in my present research work, and that is why I am confident about my efforts. I am also hoping that their support will remain with me in the future. This is important for the success in my future career. I am again thankful to them in all aspects.


Communication is an important part of everyday life. Verbal or non-verbal communication allows one to engage in conversations. Today is the era of communication technologies. The internet and other communication devices have made it possible to engage in the fast, dynamic, and affective communication. The emojis are being used for the visual depictions of human emotions. This paper presents the visual expressions of humans using emojis. Therefore, the efforts have always been made to enhance the experience of communication in human beings. The present study has three major objectives to be accomplished. These three major objectives are to investigate emotional recognition using facial expression by emojis in real time. Moreover, another objective is to develop the parameters of measuring the facial expression by emoji texting, as well as to understand the facial emotion recognition in real time.

Therefore, the present study in that realm focuses on the use of the emojis as an important technique that can be used in the field. Hence, the present research will be designed to assess human emotions and their visual depiction in the form of six emotions. These emotions include neutral, fear, anger, happy, sad, and surprise emotions. These are important human expressions and, thus, are quite important. The channels show the convolution of 3D delineation models. These models are prone to the use of layers, which records clamor in process. Moreover, these applications will be developed in the study to assess its impacts on the emojis.

This research study presents how the facial looks and discovery for the facial communication is delivered. Therefore, it can be said that the facial expression is important for the review of the investigation of the facial activity coding framework for the sake of the communication that is being watched. Moreover, the facial expressions are critical as they help incorporate and communicate feelings to discover the activity units. Therefore, this study develops an application that impacts communication channels, which are designed for human conduct, as well as to identity someone.

Therefore, the use of the emoji provides the feelings that have a profound impact that has to be delivered, and with the expression and the facial recognition, which is being conducted, our general identity is restored through the emoji. These are important things that must be considered and investigated in current research fields. The emojis will be developed, and the human expressions will be tested through the use of such emojis.



Current research study focuses on emotional recognition. The emotions frequently ease and determine interactions among the human beings. The context of emotions specifically brings out the complex and bizarre social communication (Duncan, Shine, & English, n.d., p.1). Social communication is identified as the judgment of the other person’s mood that based on the emoji. The recognition of emotions can be identified through various signals by the “body language, voice intonation” as well as via “more complex methods, such [as] electroencephalography (EEG) (Duncan et al., n.d., p. 1).” Nonetheless, the most simpler, and feasible approach is to analyze the facial expression. By observing the facial expression, the person’s mood and behavior are easily judged. Duncan et al. (n.d.) explained that “there are seven types of human emotion [that could easily be recognizable with a variety of meanings] across different cultures” (p. 1). This study involves investigating the emotional recognition by the real-time accumulations. The emotions are identified as happiness, fear, disgust, anger, sadness, surprise and contempt .


There are certain objectives of the thesis necessary to understand the core aspects for the identification of research outcomes which are listed below:

- To investigate emotional recognition using facial expression by emoji in real time
- To develop the parameters of measuring the facial expression by emoji texting
- To understand the facial emotion recognition in real time

The stated objectives of this thesis highlighted the reasons behinds the facial recognition emotions in the real time. The main goal of this project is to implement the recognition of the facial emotion for real time. The implementation of an application process is to identify the facial emotion recognition reasons with highlighted emoji indicator for the identification of six expressions. Such expressions are neutral, fear, anger, happy, sad, and surprise. Furthermore, facial expressions are investigated to realize the real impact of the emoji. The expressions are the actual predictor of human behavior. If expressions are good, then it means the person is in a good mood or has a joyful personality. If the person’s expressions show anger or sorrow that means the person is not feeling well or his or her personality does not have joyful traits. The expressions are related with the person’s behavior and personality. Understanding expressions are important because they give a lot of information regarding behavior and moods of people through expressions; one can know what is going inside the person’s mind and how it can be handled


The techniques of the visual technology for the conversions of the expressions into the art of facial graphical style conversion are making a great contribution and advancement in the digital graphics designing. The initial tools used from the people associated with this field were using the histograms as the mode of representing the pyramids of the facial gradients (Duncan et al., n.d., p. 1). In 2015, Emotions in the Wild (EmotiW 2015) contest, for descriptions, such as the emotions, utilized static types of images that deeply experienced the effect of the convolutional neural networks (CNNs) (Duncan et al., n.d., p. 2). Their accuracy was about 62%, but recent progress by Levi & Hassner has shown substantial growth using a CNN in facial emotion recognition .

The process of the recognitions for different types of the human emotions reveal two relevant challenges, or the problems. First, the availability of limited data used analytically for the training, or the procedures for orientation for the CNN. Second, the variation affected by an illumination, which usually appears in the local emotional patterns using the techniques for binary invariants would part of the set of data. The use of the 3D technology in manipulating the existing models of the emotions graphics are usually linked with the expression of the face. The web face from the challenge through the technology as emoji we could have the level of accuracy by five percent while the improvements from the previous results would yield to only 10-16% (Duncan et al., n.d., p. 2).

The use of the graphical emotional neural tool like the VGG-S would be necessary as the initiating factor of executing the novel facial representation model. Using the sources of database that reveals the advanced version of the CNN is implementing a theory of game as the moving average would be taken. The emotions must be identified or detected in manner that would demonstrate the stream of images or videos while transforming into the input level for graphical streams. The descriptors feature for the LTB would use the database illumination guidelines for detecting the presence of invariants portions of the images (Russell, 1994, p. 109).

The filters, which are common, practice in this discussion of the convolution 3D illustration of the layers that would record the noise of the sounds from the background while emotions are transformed. The visualization process of the emotions that converts the database of the recognition of the expression the person is making with theory facial gestures are clearly optimization element (Sashikar, Murali, & Henderson, 2015, p. 2).

The set of the data, such as the web face uses the features of this graphical portray of emotions in facial translating images as if one of CASIA is dependent on the availability of the resources (Duncan et al., n.d., p. 2). The usual approach in this expression transmission through graphical designing projects or the improvements considerations would link up with the static facial expressions in the wild (SFEW) dataset or the tool of statistical techniques for detecting the expression for the facial wild for revealing the natural effects upon the emotions of the images of people (Duncan et al., n.d., p. 2).

The image, which has the static advancements in the input emotions detection, are illustrating in the applications of the visual posture for the body language. The face moods that highlight the EEG are complex stature for the methods for detecting the wide ranges of the pyramids of computer database applications. The networks such as the CNN is also integrated with this small-scale training framework or the models that could relate the facial impressions or the emotions for optimization of the facial defection of emotions in the layer based technology, such as VGS (Oberman, Winkielman, & Ramachandran, 2007, p. 176).


The facial expression is specifically based on the emoticon identification system. It is identified as an open source extension to the tracker.js (A modern approach for Computer Vision on the web) framework that converts into expression of human facial to match best emoticon (Sashikar et al., 2015, p. 1). The emoticons are the major parts towards the digital communication system. Emoticons, are also called, emoji’s that “are used to express the emotions of a person through text in a way that is not possible with just words” (Sashikar et al., 2015, p. 1). As mentioned by Sashikar et al. (2015), “the importance of emoji has become so huge that they [also have been specifically] annotated with the WordNets” (p. 1). The vision of computer has grown at large scale that use as commercial product for the benefits of high speed image (Sashikar et al., 2015, p. 1).

The key task at hand ensures the face expression and face detection for the recognition of emotion (Russell, 1994, p. 103). The formed task behind the face detection and emotional recognized gained from the eigen faces, fisher faces, and viola jones are the detections framework that prologs the hausdorff distance (Sashikar et al., 2015, p. 1). The study exploration of the facial action coding system that observed the facial muscles, that plays an important role in the compiled and expressing emotions to find out the action units. Such action units are raising from the outer eyebrow and inner eyebrow, which is important for the quantification of human expressions (Sashikar et al., 2015, p. 1).


Two different datasets will be used to give the research intimation of the emotional recognition by the emoji utilization. The first approach is called a Cohn-Kanade dataset (CK+) whereas the second approach is known as, the Japanese female facial expression (JAFFE) database. The dataset of the CK+ is small, but provides the best executed facial expressions within the experiment of controlled environment. The database of JAFEE provides an indication of the additional images. Such additional image gives more in facial expressions towards the laboratory conditions. This unique development of the databases, specifically consist of the five images. It reveals how the process will be accomplished in the current research process .

The primary seven emotions include disgust, anger, sad, surprise, neutral, fear and happy emotions. The execution of VGG_S network reveals the major approach for the identification of the image classification. These tools and techniques will help to identify the emotional recognition for the real-time emoji utilization. The technologies of today are advanced enough that they can recognizes each and every expression in a detail manner. The recognition is important in many ways because it determines not only human behavior, but also those aspects which no one knows about the personality of a certain person. The advancement in technology has allowed us to understand the human expressions in less amount of time and in the most accurate way possible. The emotions have deep connection with the expression and expressions express the behavior or overall personality (Gama, 2009).


The crux of the overall introduction provides the general understanding of the emotional recognition to obtain the facial expression using emoji. The most applications of emoji recognition investigate the images of static by the facial expression images. Here, the investigation of application of the CNN for the identification of the emotion recognition. The computational requirements as well as the complexity of the CNN, for the optimization of the efficient frame-by-frame classification have been executed in the emotional recognition for the facial expression (Sashikar et al., 2015, p. 5).

It has been observed from the study of emoji real time use that detects the human emotions in different scenes, lighting conditions as well as angles in real-time. The application of novel results, that reveals the consolidations of the emoji with superimposed with the subject of faces (Oberman et al., 2007, p. 10).


The role of emotion is evident in our daily lives. Human beings use different kinds of emotions to show compassion and establish relationships with others (Seiter, 2016). These emotions express the emotional conditions in our daily lives. The comprehensive list of emotions range from anger to happiness, wondering, suspicion, skepticism, sorrow and grief. However, they are frequently witnessed in our daily lives. Therefore, it is quite easy to understand the inner feelings of a person with the use of the facial expressions that are quite visible. Thus, the facial expressions and emotional recognitions are interrelated with each other (Beswick, 2014). Using facial expressions with ideograms and smileys, is the emoji. The Japanese word, “emoji” consist of two parts: “the e means “picture” and moji means “letter”” (Zhou, Hentschel, & Kumar, 2017, p. 2). Emoticons were used before emoji as “symbolic representations for facial expressions based on punctuation marks that could be covered using a standard keyboard (e.g. :))” (Zhou et al., 2017, p. 2). Both emojis and emoticons are frequently used in the text messaging, emails, and other electronic forms of communication.

Emojis are a part of the life which was first introduced by Japanese mobile phone companies, such as Vodafone and NTT DocoMo. An early nineties was the period when Japanese companies enabled the use of the emoji in their communication via electronic devices. They were the pioneers in the use of the emoji. Through these companies, the trend enhanced and the other companies also came forward, and used these emojis to make the communication better (Guinness, 2015; Lee, 2012). Emojis became popular worldwide and are widely being used in the world at an international level (Danesi, 2016). The emoji was adopted by Apple Inc.; the corporation recognized the use of the smileys and other electronic pictorial symbols to show what the sender is feeling. Besides the text meaning, the pictorial smileys and other expressional symbols were important because they provide the opportunity to show the inner feelings of the sender. After the adaptation of iPhones, the other phones such as Samsung also used these methods. Now, it is used worldwide.

The uses of the smileys are important in day-to-day lives to show facial expression. The use of smileys and other pictorial images in every platform is common. These platforms include Android and Windows. The meaning of the word emoji in original form is pictograph (Gamble & Gamble, 2013). Emoji is now available in colorful forms. For the time being, it has progressed and now multiple forms and types are available through the internet and communication devices. In the beginning, the emoji was only available in the form of black and white shapes and it was also in a basic format. However, at the current time, they have been developed effectively and they are available in variety of shapes. Using emojis has increased the effectiveness of the use of the symbols. The use of symbols is also seen in other communication formats. Besides with electronic devices, the symbols are widely used on the internet. Today is the era of internet as well as communication and information technologies (Goss, Anthony, Stretch, & Nagel, 2016). Thus, the use of this communication innovation is evident. No one can deny its importance and the organizations engaged in the communication are well aware of the importance of all the techniques that are suitable for enchasing the effectiveness of the communication. Therefore, the use of the emoji is quite common and has developed over time. The first international conference on the emoticon was conducted in 2016. This is an important progress that has been noted or seen on the topic (Goss et al., 2016). It is expected that, for the time being, a lot of other initiatives must be taken to make sure that the emojis are incorporated with emoticons to enhance their effectiveness. Thus, that was the brief history about the emoji and its use in communication via electronic devices. In addition, emojis are used in publications and social media as well (Highfield & Leaver, 2016).

The importance of the emojis is twofold. Emojis show feelings because they express emotions which makes them important. We often times witness in our day to day lives the message conveyance. Emojis suggest that an emotional communication is as significant as using words. By using smileys, readers can understand the sender’s sentiments. The use of the smileys and other symbols are imperative in our everyday lives to demonstrate effective communication. That is why more often the smiley signs are used in a time of happiness, an important advancement in communication. For example, in the face-to-face communication, if people do not use gestures or expressions in their conversations, his or her conversation becomes less meaningful. So, it can be said that these are the important considerations in the realm of the development of the symbols and their ultimate use in the communication patterns. Besides this, the emoji are considered as non-verbal tools. The emoji are the most powerful tools to facilitate the communication and allows people to express their linguistic capabilities (Lingard et al., 2005). An investigation by was also done on the use of the emoji in real time communication to make sure whether the emojis are effectively communicating. For this purpose, the scientists experimented and analyzed that when people use the sign of anger in their day to day communication, the receiver perceives that the person to whom they are in talking is angry and they apologize in that context. They also use the sign of the apology. Thus, this implies that the use of the emoji in relation to strengthen the language is important. The people understand their linguistic cues, and they use emoji in that context. Hence, the emojis are the powerful tools to demonstrate the freedom of expression and the nonverbal cues in our daily textual language.

The symbols and the pictures that are used in the emoji have different colors, and these colors provide the best support for the representation of the emotions and the facial expressions. The usage of the appropriate colors and the style is an important indication of the effectiveness of the emoji (Seiter, 2016). The body and skin colors are used in those symbols and the pictures are related to the human body. The use of the skin color is significant and promising because it must match with the reflection of facial expressions. Both the Windows and the Android platforms are used by millions of the people in the world. To ensure an effective communication, these platforms allows users to use symbols. The Windows 8.1 and onward are using smileys and the symbols. Any platform in the world supports different fonts. Even MS Word provides different kinds of the facial expressions. As mentioned earlier, the Japanese organizations have additionally delivered the images and the smileys that are especially identified with the way of life of the Japan, and they are not subject to the impression of the feelings of the entire world. Therefore, they are operable in any platform.

Furthermore, the use of the emoji has great cultural influence in terms of the facial expressions that are expressed by the emojis (Iemoji, 2015; Emojipedia, 2016). The Oxford dictionary also considered the year 2015 as the most influential in terms of the development of the emoji and its impact on the culture. The emoji of the year was the smiley with tears of joy. This emoji best illustrated and expressed the emotions of the humans when they express their love and joy for life. The uses of the emoji is worldwide and the representation of the emotions by the people is evident in every culture and the environment. The emoji is also the reflection of the specific culture of the country. Emojis provide the appearance of the facial expressions and emotions that are specific to each culture. For instance, the Japanese companies have also produced the symbols that are particularly related to the culture of the Japanese and they are not subject to the reflection of the emotions of the whole world. Therefore, the role of the diversity of the culture is essential and the emojis have a profound impact on the life of the people.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Source: http://www.techtimes.com/articles/107492/20151117/youll-shed-tears-of-joy-with-oxfords-chosen-2015-word-of-the-year-its-an-emoji.htm

The diversity of the emoji symbols is needed to have focus. It is necessary that the emotions exist in diverse manner. They are not only limited to joy, sorrow, grief, happiness or any other a common form of symbols. Therefore, in today’s era different kinds of emojis are being used in the communication and they are effective enough to provide an effective stance to convey the message. Besides the importance of the emoji, it is also important to use the emoji at the right time. The use of the emoji and its effectiveness is also subject to the emotions and the right pictorial depiction. Therefore, the timing of the use of the emoji is important as well as the place. Apart from that, it is highly observed that the emoji is an important source of the reflection of the emotions of the people. On the contrary, the popularity of the emoji use is evident in movies. Especially, the movie on the emoji is under development by the Sony Corporation. The film is scheduled to be released on August 4, 2017 that portrays a unique world of emojis inside the smartphone. Unlike the movie, emojis are used to express the feeling of the human, (or emotions) that human beings cannot physically convey through the text. According to Maxwell (2010), “words account for only 10% of a message; a shocking 90% of communication is nonverbal, and is delivered through the body and tone of speaking” (p. 5). In other words, emojis provide nonverbal cues and they are lessened dependence on the written words. Emojis have taken control over nonverbal communication and are changing our language and shifting vocabulary in terms of how we communicate to others (Seiter, 2016). For instance, emojis change our facial expressions as we try to match the emotion of emojis (Seiter, 2016).


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Emotional Recognition Using Facial Expression by Emoji in Real Time
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emotional, recognition, using, facial, expression, emoji, real, time
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Mohammed Rajhi (Author), 2017, Emotional Recognition Using Facial Expression by Emoji in Real Time, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/379502


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