Women Participation in Panchayati raj (with special reference to Anantnag Dist. of Jammu & Kashmir)


Research Paper (postgraduate), 2017
66 Pages, Grade: 1

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Abstract:

INTRODUCTION

Rational for the Selection of Theme

The Objectives of Study

MATERIALS AND METHODS

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

CONCLUSION

REFRENCES

Abstract:

This study is carried out in district Anantnag, South Province, of Kashmir during 2015. The basic purpose of the study is to analyze the role of women in Panchayati Raj system in the research area. The data were collected from 399 respondents selected through systematic random sampling method from nine polling stations of Anantnag district. The aim of the present study is to examine the platform provided by the Panchayati raj institutions in enhancing women’s participation in the decision making process. On the basis of which the conclusion could be derived whether the experiment is successful or not. If successful, then to what extent and what are the factors responsible for it? And if unsuccessful then why? After studying and analyzing the role of women in Panchayati raj in selected areas of district Anantnag, it is to recommend that female education is essential because an educated woman can play an important role in decision making process than an uneducated woman. For this purpose better educational facilities should be provided for women. Moreover, promotion of research on the conditions and problems of women is essential. The income of women in Anantnag district is low it is due to joblessness and mostly dependence on men outfits. The study shows that there is hardly any active membership of any political party. Negligible active membership in the population implies two things. Either there is complete political apathy among people towards the political system or there is the lack of political consciousness. There were other modes of political participation. From general observation it was found that women were not encouraged due to cultural barriers to be active members of political outfits. During field survey it was found that no woman has been elected as Surpanch in Anantnag District.

Key words: Platform, Enhancing, Consciousness, Women,

INTRODUCTION

The women’s development is directly related with national development. The effective management and development of women’s resources is of vital importance for the development of human resources. Though age’s women have contributed significantly every sphere of life, yet for various reason women still remain backward and short of their rightful place in the society. At present large sections of women folk are not aware of their rights while others do not assert themselves owing to social inhabitations and disabilities.

The last decade has been marked by the growth and development of the women’s in India. Various feminine issues have been raised and new means have been raised and new means have been adopted to bring about awareness in women. A number of social legislative measures have also been taken for raising the status of women in India but still women are being continued to be harassed and subjugated.

In India rural women constitute a large number of populations. Their lives are characterized by hard work drudgery and without any basic amenities. There are certain culturally determined prejudices which hinder the participation of women. Though they perform bulk of the agricultural and forming operations still, it is considered that they do not undertake economically productive work. Basically all efforts to uplift the standard of women in the society are done by securing economic independence and by integrating them into a political process.

The process of change in Kashmiri women’s status proceeded smoothly in the valley till 1988. The turmoil period of Kashmir started from 1989 to the present period, the status of the women has been degraded. Kashmir is a cultural bounded state, where the women participation in decision making process is still low. Women are still largely responsible for domestic work and child rearing. They are not as free as men to take part in decision making process. Majority of women prefer to stay at home and look after their children. It has been seen that culture and religion restricts women not to take part in decision making process.

Rational for the Selection of Theme

Panchayati Raj Institutions have been conceived as the means for the development of rural areas socially, politically, economically. The makers of Panchayat Raj system stressed that rural women should not only become beneficiaries of development but also a more importantly contributors. At the grass-root level the rural women are yet to be effectively mobilized, they should be educated and made aware of the rural reality, their rights and duties. They should also make be aware of the means and skills of political participation so that they recognize their importance. This will broaden their participation in decision making and enable them to perform their roles in such a way that their impact is more widespread on the society.

Women participation through Panchayat Raj Institutions is a major challenge in today’s world. The issue of discussion is not limited only to the participation of the women but further extend to the nature and extent of participation. This is an established fact that other like welfare programmes even woman’s participation needs people’s sympathy, co-operation and to attain this institution available at the grass-root level is Panchayat Raj. For the fulfillment of this purpose a provision in the constitution has been made in the form of reservation of seats for woman at all three levels as members and chairpersons.

The aim of the present study is to examine the plate form provided by the Panchayati Raj Institutions in enhancing women’s participation in the decision making process. On the basis of which the conclusion could be derived weather the experiment is successful or not. If successful, then to what extent and what are the factors responsible for it? And if unsuccessful then why? The role played by the Panchayati Raj Institutions in securing women’s participation is not a new study but it requires further consideration and discussion the two main reasons behind it are:

1. Studies on evaluation of Panchayati Raj Institutions in regard to women’s participation have not been made to the quality and weight of participation
2. There is a general impression all around that Panchayati Raj like other representative systems of governance have not been able to enthuse women representatives in a politics for reasons well known and wield power in their own right. This is evident in expressions like husband Sarpanch, meaning husband of woman Sarpanch wields power.

The Objectives of Study

- To study the overall benefits women have received through the Panchayati Raj platform.
- To study the ‘enabling’ and ‘disabling’ factors that contributes to the political empowerment of women members in the Panchayats.

Hypotheses

- Women participation in the grass root politics is confectioned by the pressure exerted by political parties.

I) Sampling Design

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Anantnag District consists of six Tehsils namely Anantnag, Bijbehara, Pahalgam, Shangus, Dooru and Kokernag. The researcher has selected three Tehsils i.e. Bijbehara, Shangus and Kokernag. From each Tehsil three polling stations have been selected. The researcher selected 50 respondents from each polling station through systematic sampling. This data will be better for researcher in acquiring data. Most of women want to take part in Panchayati Raj functionaries.

Sampling:

In a research it is not as possible to survey or test the entire population at a point of time. Census enquiry involves in a great deal of money and energy to outcome .The researcher applies the principle sampling that is to pick out items or individuals from the universe. A good representative sampling provides the researcher with a miniature mirror with which to the entire population. It has to select in such a manner that it truly represents the population from which it is called. The researcher had applied systematic sampling method.

Location of the sample

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MATERIALS AND METHODS

This study was carried out in district Anantnag, Jammu and Kashmir, India during June-August 2015. Primary data were collected from 399 respondents selected through systematic sampling method from nine polling stations. Since an access of a strange male to the respondents for data collection was not possible due to cultural, religious and language reasons, therefore a local female investigator was employed to collect data. The data were collected during June-August 2015.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

Data Analysis (Data obtained from field study)

Age composition:

An attempt was made to categorize the respondents according to the age groups as presented in the table 1.1.

Table 1.1

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Figure 1.1 Source: Based on survey conducted by the researcher.

The Table 1.1 and Figure 1.1 show that 37.8% (151) respondents were between the age ranges 19-30 years were categorized in young category, 36.6% (146) respondents were between the age ranges 31-45 years were categorized in middle aged category, 16.8% (67) respondents between the age ranges 46-60 years were categorized in Old aged category. 8.8% (35) respondents above the age 60 years were categorized in very old aged category.

Table 1.2: Age group vs active membership of political party.

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Fig. 1.2: 3D graphical presentation of age group vs active membership of political party

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Source: Based on survey conducted by the researcher.

Table 1.2 and figure 1.2 show that in middle aged category 0.7% (1) respondents were found to be an active membership of some political party. While in all other categories 100% respondents were not found to have active membership of any political party.

An overview of the table and fig. show that there is hardly any active membership of any political party across the whole sample. Negligible active membership in the population implies two things. Either there is complete political apathy in the people towards the political system or there is the lack of political consciousness. There were other modes of political participation. From general observation it was found that women were not encouraged due to cultural barriers to be active members of political outfits.

Table 1.3: Age group vs candidate for political post.

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Fig. 1.3: 3D graphical presentation of age group vs candidate for political post.

Source: Based on survey conducted by the researcher.

The table 1.3 and figure 1.3 show that in middle aged category 0.7% (1) respondents were found candidate for political posts. While in all other categories, 100% respondents were not found to have remained candidate for any political post.

An overview of the table and fig show that there is hardly any candidate for political administrative post across the whole sample. There is a lack of political awareness amongst women. The whole district is dominated by Muslims so religious purview prohibits women to get involved in affairs with men unrelated outside the home. Family members prohibit women from working with unknown men outside the house. It is a trend to let women remain inside the house.

Table 1.4: Age group vs taken up a political post.

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Fig. 1.4: 3D graphical presentation of age group vs taken up a political post.

Source: Based on survey conducted by the researcher.

The table 1.4 and figure 1.4 show that in middle aged category 0.7% (1) respondents were found to have taken up a political post. While in all other categories 100% respondents were not found to have taken up any political post.

The above table indicates that most of the categories whether young or old aged women have not taken up a political /administrative post. From the data tabulated above it reveals that there is lack of political consciousness among women. They are not aware about the benefits of taking part in the decision making process. No doubt in other fields they stand shoulder to shoulder with men but in political system they are far behind as compared to men. So there is a need of such programs, seminars and conferences to mitigate their passiveness towards political post.

Table 1.5: Age group vs desire for a political post.

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Fig. 1.5: 3D graphical presentation of age group vs desire for a political post.

Source: Based on survey conducted by the researcher.

The table 1.5 and figure 1.5 show that in middle aged category 0.7% (1) respondents were found to have desire for political post. While in all other categories 100% respondents were not found to have desire for political post.

Above table and figure show that almost all categories have no desire to take up political/administrative posts except one woman won the election in 2011 as Panch in Panchayati Raj elections. Most of the women don’t want to get involved in the political system due to their family environment and cultural bias. There is a need to run campaigns to enlighten women of the beneficial aspects of participating in the political system.

Table 1.7: Age group vs organizations devoted to development and welfare of women are they aware of them.

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Fig. 1.7: 3D graphical presentation of age group vs organizations devoted to development and welfare of women are they aware of them.

Source: Based on survey conducted by the researcher.

According to table 1.7 and figure 1.7, 4.6% (7) respondents in the young category were found that they are aware about various organizations devoted to development and welfare of women and 95.4% (144) respondents are not aware. In middle aged category 4.1% (6) respondents were found that they are aware of various organizations devoted to development and welfare of women and 95.9% (140) respondents are not aware of them. In aged category 13.4% (9) respondents were found that they are aware of various welfare organizations devoted to development and welfare of women 38.9% (58) respondents are not aware. In old aged category 48.6% (17) respondents were found that they are aware of various organizations devoted to development and welfare of women while 51.4% (18) respondents are not aware.

An overview of the table and figure show that amongst both in young and aged women there is lack of awareness of various organizations which are devoted for the development and welfare of women. It was found that as age of respondent’s increases there is greater tendency of women awareness towards various organizations devoted to development and welfare of women. Old persons are more aware about social welfare department through which they get old age pension and widows get widow fund. They are not aware about non-governmental organizations, NGO’S and other organizations. So there is a need to take steps forward to make women consciousness about these organizations.

Table 1.8: Age group vs collect fund for party.

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Fig. 1.8: 3D graphical presentation of age group vs collect fund for party.

Source: Based on survey conducted by the researcher.

An overview of the table 1.8 and figure 1.8 show that in all categories whether young, middle aged or old aged no respondent was found to collect fund for party.

Thus it is clear from above interpretation of data, the following points arise:-

1. Party Negligence: - The result shows that all categories whether young or old women are neglected and are rendered passive in this respect.
2. Cultural barriers: - The culture also restricts women to collect fund for party/candidate. In this case men are more preferred than women.
3. Religion: - The whole district is dominated by Muslims so the women can’t meet the person’s (unknown/unrelated) outside the house.

Table 1.9: Age group vs gave funds to party/candidate.

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Fig. 1.9: 3D graphical presentation of age group vs gave funds to party/ candidate.

Source: Based on survey conducted by the researcher.

An overview of the table 1.9 and figure 1.9 show that in all categories whether young middle aged or old aged, no respondent was found to give funds to party/candidate.

Thus it is clear from above interpretation of data, and the following points arise:-

1. Unorganized party system: The parties are not well structured, so women are confused whom to give funds so, there is a need for parties to organize their system and generate trust in women.
2. Financial weakness: The women are financially weak as compared to men due to joblessness so they cannot give funds for party.
3. Dependent on men: Financial weakness and dependence of women upon the earnings of men also reflect the same scenario.

Table 1.10: Age group vs taken part in political contact programs.

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Fig. 1.10: 3D graphical presentation of Age group vs taken part in political contact programs.

Source: Based on survey conducted by the researcher.

An overview of the table 1.10 and figure 1.10 show that in middle aged category 0.7% (1) respondents were found to have taken part in political contact programs. While in all other categories 100% respondents were not interested in political contact programs.

Thus it is clear from above interpretation of data, the following points arise:-

1. Lack of women programs: The parties organize programs in which only men take part. So, women are neglected to take part in political programs. There is a need of separate political programs for women.
2. Cultural barriers: Cultural also restricts women not to take part in political programs with men.
3. Religion: Religion also restricts women not to take part in political programs with men (unknown person).

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Table 1.11: Age group vs political rallies and meetings.

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Fig. 1.11: 3D graphical presentation of age group vs political rallies and meetings.

Source: Based on survey conducted by the researcher.

An overview of the table 1.11 and figure 1.11 show that in middle aged category 0.7% (1) respondents were found to have interested in political rallies and meetings. While in all other categories 100% respondents were not found to have interest in political rallies and meetings.

Thus it is clear from above interpretation of data, and the following points arise:-

1. Lack of political rallies and meetings: The political rallies/meetings organized by political parties are meant for men. From the above table it is clear that whether young or old are not taking part in political rallies/meetings.
2. Cultural barriers: Cultural also restricts women not to take part in political rallies openly.
3. Lack of importance of political rallies/meetings: The women are not aware about the benefits of political meetings.

Table 1.12: Age group vs organize rallies meetings.

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Fig. 1.12: 3D graphical presentation of a ge group vs organize rallies meetings.

Source: Based on survey conducted by the researcher.

According to table 1.12 and figure 1.12 show that in middle aged category 0.7% (1) respondents were found interested in organizing political rallies and meetings. While in all other categories, 100% respondents were not found to have organized political rallies and meetings.

Thus it is clear from above interpretation of data that:-

The whole environment is disturbed. Panchayati Raj elections in Jammu and Kashmir were held in 2011. Since then many as 14 Panchayat members have been killed in military related incidents in Kashmir valley from January 2012 to July 2015 (rising Kashmir 03/08/2015). To organize political rallies meetings there is a need of proper environment. The issue of security of women as well as other related issues need to be taken care of so that women participation in this regard can be ensued.

Table 1.13: Age group vs canvass for party.

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Fig. 1.13: 3D graphical presentation of age group vs canvass for party.

Source: Based on survey conducted by the researcher.

Table 1.13 and figure 1.13 indicate that in young women (category) 26.5% (40) respondents were found canvassing with party and 73.5% (111) respondents were found not canvassing with party. In middle aged 44.5% (65) respondents were found canvassing with party and 55.5% (81) respondents were found not canvassing with party. In aged category 35.8% (24) respondents were found canvassing with party, 64.2% (43) respondents were not found canvassing for party and in aged category 37.1% (13) respondents were found canvassing with party and 62.9% (22) respondents were found not canvassing with party.

Thus it is clear from above interpretation of data, middle aged women leaders they are canvass party members followed by old aged, very old aged and then young women so, young (women leaders) are canvassing less to party leaders it is due to cultural barriers that young women are less liberal than old aged and another reason is religion, it prohibits women not to meet the persons (unknown /unrelated) outside the house. There is a need to aware women about canvass with party members.

Table 1.14: Age group vs taken part in chakka jam dharna, hunger- strike, hartal.

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Fig. 1.14: 3D graphical presentation of age group vs taken part in chakka jam dharna, hunger- strike, hartal.

Source: Based on survey conducted by the researcher.

Table 1.14 and figure 1.14 indicate that in young women (category) 15.2% (23) respondents were found taken part in chakka jam (road block) dharna, hunger-strike, hartal and 128 respondents were found having no interest in dharna, hunger strike, hartal. In middle aged 21.2% (31) respondents were found who had taken part in chakka jam (road block) dharna, hunger etc and 78.8% (115) respondents were found not taken part in chakka jam (road block) dharna, hunger etc. In aged category 11.9% (8) respondents were found who have taken part in chakka jam dharna, hunger-strike hartal and 88.1% (59) respondents were found not taken part in chakka jam, dharna, hunger-strike, hartal. In very old aged category 4(11.4%) respondents were found taken part in chakka jam, dharna, hunger-strike and 88.6% (31) respondents were found not taken part in chakka jam, dharna, hunger strike, hartal.

Thus it is obvious from above data that middle aged and young women leaders were taken part more in chakka jam, dharna, hunger-strike hartal as compared to aged and old aged women leaders. So one thing here clearly indicates that age also has an impact on chakka jam, dharna, hunger-strike hartal etc. As per the data middle aged women were active participants in dharna, strike/ hartal and chakka jams.

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Table 1.15: Age group vs how much interest do you take in public/political affairs.

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Fig. 1.15: 3D graphical presentation of age group vs how much interest do you take in public/political affairs.

Source: Based on survey conducted by the researcher.

Table 1.15 and figure 1.15 indicates that in young women (category) 0.7% (1) respondents were found that have a lot of interest in public/political affairs and 66.9% (101) respondents were found a little interest and 32.5% (49) respondents were found having no having interest in public/political affairs. In middle aged (category) 4.1% (6) respondents were found a lot of interests, 77.4% (113) respondents were found having no interest in political affairs and 18.5% (27) respondents were found having no interest in public/political affairs. In old aged category 0.5% (1) respondents were found a lot of interest in public/political affairs and 71.6% (48) respondents were found having a little interest in political affairs and 26.9% (18) respondents were not interested. In very old aged category 2.9% (1) respondent was found ‘a lot of interest’ in political affairs 74.3% (26) respondents were found ‘a little interest’ in political affairs and 22.9% (8) respondents have no interest in political affairs.

From the tabulated data described above fascinating points regarding political interest among women as per the age group are revealed. Most women are uninterested because of many reasons explained in the previous tables. A little interest is reflected in the range of 66% to 77% in all the groups. The main reason of hatred against political affairs might be the turmoil period since 1990 as well as the cultural and religious restrictions.

Table 1.16: Age group vs contact political leaders and government officers from problems faced by women leadership and others.

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Fig. 1.16: 3D graphical presentation of age group vs contact political leaders and government officers from problems faced by women leadership and others.

Source: Based on survey conducted by the researcher.

The table 1.16 and figure 1.16 indicate that in young women (category) 33.1% (50) respondents were found that they have contacted political leaders and government officers for their problems faced by them and others and while 66.9% (101) respondents were found not contacting political leaders. In middle aged category 32.2% (47) respondents were found that they have contacted political leaders and government officers for their problems faced by them and others, and 67.8% (99) respondents were found not contacted to political leaders and government officers for their problems faced by them and others. In old aged category 32.8% (22) respondents were found that they have contacted political leaders and government officers for their problems faced by them and others and 67.2% (45) respondents were found that they have not contacted political leaders and government officers for their problems faced by them and others. In very old category 37.1% (13) respondents were found that they have contacted political leaders and government officers, 62.9% (22) respondents were found not contacted political leaders and government officers for their problems faced by them and others.

An overview of the table and fig. show that amongst very old aged women (category), their percentage was higher to contact political leaders and government officers for problems faced by them than middle, aged young and old aged women. It was found that as age of respondent’s increases there is lesser tendency of women contacting political leaders and government officers than young women. It is because of the fact that old aged people are usually family heads and their intrinsic responsibilities stimulate them to participate in the political affairs by conveying their messages to the respective leaders.

Table 1.17: Age group vs under normal circumstances how often do you exercise your voting right.

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Fig. 1.17: 3D graphical presentation of age group vs under normal circumstances how often do you exercise your voting right.

Source: Based on survey conducted by the researcher.

The table 1.17 and figure 1.17 indicate that in young women (category) 17.9% (27) respondents were found that they always exercise their voting right, 54.3% (82) respondents were found accepted that they sometimes exercise their voting right and 27.8% (42) respondents were found that they have never exercise their voting right. In middle aged (category) 19.9% (29) respondents were found that they always exercise their voting right, 65.8% (96) respondents were found that they sometimes exercise their voting right and 14.4% (21) respondents were found that they have never exercise their voting right. In old aged category 29.9% (20) respondents were found that they always exercise their voting right, 49.3% (33) respondents were found that they sometimes exercise their voting right and 20.9% (14) respondents were found that they have never exercise their voting right. In very old aged category 14.3% (5) respondents were found accepted that they always exercise their voting right 62.9% 22 respondents were found that they sometimes exercise their voting right and 22.9% (8) respondents have never exercised their voting right.

It was found amongst old aged women that their percentage was higher that they always exercise their voting right than middle aged, young and old aged women (category). It was found amongst middle aged women that their percentage was higher that they sometimes exercise their voting right than very old aged, young and old aged women (category). It was found that as age of respondent’s increases there is greater tendency to exercise of their voting right. Exercising voting power among women taken from case study explores the fact that almost all the sections (based on age) of women are casting their votes with a vigor to arrive at their desirable governing systems. Still from the age effect middle aged women are more active in this regard. It might be due to their rising family issues and desires to vote for the most suitable candidate. Most often it is observed that relation parameter and election campaigns drive them to express their right to select the candidature.

Table 1.18: Age group vs some women take part in political activities.

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Fig. 1.18: 3D graphical presentation of age group vs some women take part in political activities.

Source: Based on survey conducted by the researcher.

Table 1.18 and figure 1.18 indicate that in young women (category) 66.2% (100) respondents were found taking part only during elections 5.3% (8) respondents have taken part even before elections and during elections, 28.5% (43) respondents were found never taken part in elections. In middle aged (category) 82.9% (121) respondents have taken part only during elections 4.1% (6) respondents have taken part even before elections and during elections and 13.0% (19) respondents have never taken part in elections. In old aged (category) 74.6% (50) respondents have taken part only during elections 4.5% (3) respondents have taken part even before elections and during elections 20.9% (14) respondents have never taken part in elections. In very old aged (category) 77.1% (27) respondents have taken part only during elections 2.9% (1) respondent have taken part even before elections and during elections and 20.0% (7) respondents have never taken part in elections.

An overview of the table and fig. show that amongst middle aged women (category), their percentage was higher to take part in political activities only during elections than young, old ages and very old aged women (category). It was found amongst young women (category) that their percentage was higher to take part in political activities even before elections and during elections than middle aged, old ages and very old aged women (category). It was found that as age of respondent’s increases there is greater tendency to take part in political activities. Majority of women take part in political activities only during elections they think that casting vote is the ultimate exercise political power. They are not aware of the reality that the elections are just an initiation of real powers. The higher level of participation is “taking part in decision making process” which they generally trend to ignore. Actually it is because of election campaigns run by contesting parties, which drives women to participate in voting and feel that their demands will be fulfilled, but after the election is over, it all books befooling activities. Hence, the candidates that get generally elected through these process should pay due attention towards the basic need of women to the inspire trust and faith- so that women will cast their votes again and again

Table 1.19: Age group vs on what topic do you normally talk about them.

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Fig. 1.19: 3D graphical presentation of age group vs on what topic do you normally talk about them.

Source: Based on survey conducted by the researcher.

According to table 1.19 and figure 1.19, in young women (category) 31.1% (47) respondents were found that they talk about social/religious matters with them 9.9% (15) respondents were found that they talk about family/personal matters with them, 58.3% (8) respondents were found that they talk about political and legal matters with them and .7% (1) respondents talk all of above. In middle aged category 16.4% (24) respondents were found that they talk about social/religious matters with them, 6.2% (9) respondents were found that they talk about family personal matters with them, 76.0% (111) respondents were found that they talk about political and legal matters with them, 1.4% (2) respondents talk all of the above. In old aged category 23.9% (16) respondents were found that they talk about social/religious matters with them 9.0% (6) respondents were found that they talk with them about family/personal matters 67.2% (45) respondents say that they talk political and legal matters with them. In very old aged category 20.0% (7) respondents were found that they talk about social and religious matters with them 11.4% (4) respondents say that they talk about family/personal matters with them 68.6% (24) respondents were found that they talk with political and legal matters with them.

An overview of the table and figure show that it was found amongst middle aged women that their percentage was higher to talk about political and legal matters with political leaders than young, old aged and very old aged women (category).Thus it is clear from above interpretation of data that majority of women talk with political leaders upon political and legal matters. Most women are bound by one or the other constraint mostly culture but if they do not increase their political participation then they are bound to be exploited. Government run bodies are generally working at lower pace as compared to the private sectors. Women are generally talking about their needs, but due to the social communal and religious imprints, they are accountant with less discussion with political leaders. But talkative with one another upon political issues is very uncommon. Either political leader relatives may convert such type of discussion or any current extraordinary may be the title of the discussion.

Table 1.20: Age group vs regarding political matters how often do you talk about them.

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Fig. 1.20: 3D graphical presentation of age group vs regarding political matters how often do you talk about them.

Source: Based on survey conducted by the researcher.

Table 1.20 and figure 1.20 indicate that in young women (category) 5.3% (8) respondents talk with political leaders once in week and 94.7% (143) respondents talk with them once in a long period of time. In middle aged category .7% (1) respondents were found that they talk with them in every day .7% (1) respondents talk with them in 2, 3 days, 5.5% (8) respondents were found who talk with them once in week and 93.2% (136) respondents were found who talk with them once in long time. In aged (category) 6.0% (4) respondents were found who talk with them once in week and 94% (63) respondents were found who talk with them once in long time. In old age (category) 5.7% (2) respondents were found who talk with them once in week and 94.3% (33) respondents were found who talk with them once in long time.

As the details enlighten above, it is not very often for common women to discuss political matters. Mostly, it is once in very long time that they indulge in such conversation. The reason lying behind such desires is that political leaders avoid these sorts of connections, the sound of turmoil imprints. Women seem to think that indulging in such discussion is a waste of time but they do not realize that this lack of awareness leads to a decadent political culture. So, campaigns should be run to bring utility of such activities into their notice at the cost of intelligent and moral ways of propagation.

Table 1.21: Age group vs as for as political decisions are concerned whose views matter most.

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Fig. 1.21: 3D graphical presentation of age group vs as for as political decisions are concerned whose views matter most.

Source: Based on survey conducted by the researcher.

The Table 1.21 and figure 1.21 indicate that in young category 41.7% (63) respondents were found that they take political decisions by their own will, 30.5% (46) respondents were found that they take political decisions by their husbands, and other elders in the family and 27.8% (42) respondents were found that they take political decisions by their community leaders. In middle aged (category) 20.5% (30) respondents (women leaders) were found that they take political decisions by their own will, 47.9% (70) respondents were found that they takes political decisions by their husbands other leaders in the family and 31.5% (46) respondents were found that they take political decisions by their community leaders. In old aged (category) 28.4% (19) respondents were found that they take political decisions by their own will, 47.9% (70) respondents were found that they take political decisions by their husbands, other elders in the family 31.5% (46) respondents were found that they take part in political decisions by their community leaders. In very old aged (category) 31.4% (11) respondents were found that they take political decisions by their own will, 34.3% (12) respondents were found that they take political decisions by their husbands, other elders in the community.

An overview of the table and fig. show that most of young women leaders take decisions of their own will and middle aged women political decisions are dependent on their husbands but old aged women political decisions are dependent upon their community leaders because they occupy a respectable position in the community.

Table 1.22: Age Group vs how difficult or easy it is for women to take part in social/political activities.

illustration not visible in this excerpt

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Fig. 1.22: 3D graphical presentation of age group vs how difficult or easy it is for women to take part in social/political activities.

Source: Based on survey conducted by the researcher.

Table 1.22 and figure 1.22 indicate that in young women (category) 2.0% (3) respondents were found that they feel very difficult to take part in social/political activities 11.3% (17) respondents feel somewhat difficult to take part in social/political activities, 53.6% (81) respondents feel not difficult to take part in political activities while 33.1% (5o) respondents can’t say anything to this matter. In middle aged (category) 2.1% (3) respondents feel very difficult to take part in social/political activities 12.3% (18) respondents feel somewhat difficult to take part in political activities, 56.8% (83) respondents feel that not difficult to take part in social/political activities and 28.8% (42) respondents feel that they can’t say anything to this matter. In old aged category 10.4% (7) respondents feel that somewhat difficult to take part in political activities 58.2% (39) respondents feel not difficult at all to take part in social/political activities, 31.3% (21) respondents feel that they can’t say anything to this matter. In very old aged (category) 8.6% (3) respondents feel somewhat difficult to take part in social/political activities, 54.3% (19) respondents feel not difficult at all and 37.1% (13) respondents can’t say anything to this matter.

An overview of the table and fig. show that amongst old aged women their percentage was higher that it is not difficult for women to take part in social/political activities than middle aged, very old aged and young women category. Socio-political matters are important interlinked issues meant for the benefit of society. Hence, most of the women were confined to half-way accepting and half-way rejecting taking part in socio-political activities. So, workshops and seminars should be organized by responsible leaders to enlighten the utility of social and political linkage.

Table 1.23: Age groups vs awareness of various welfare schemes being run for women by the government.

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Fig. 1.23: 3D graphical presentation of age group vs awareness of various welfare schemes being run for women by the government.

Source: Based on survey conducted by the researcher.

According to table 1.23 and figure 1.23, in young women (category) 49.0% (74) respondents were found that they are aware about the various welfare schemes being run for women by the government, 51.0% (77) respondents were found that they are not aware about the various welfare schemes being run for women by the government. In middle aged (category) 53.4% (78) respondents were found that they are aware of various welfare schemes being run for women by the government and 46.6% (68) respondents were found that they are not aware about the various welfare schemes being run for women by the government. In old aged category 61.2% (41) respondents were found that they are aware about the various welfare schemes being run for women by the government, 38.8% (26) respondents were found that they are not aware about the various schemes run by the government. In very old aged category 62.9% (22) respondents were found that they are aware about the various welfare schemes being run for women by the government and 37.1% (13) respondents are not aware about various welfare schemes run by government.

Thus, it is clear from above interpretation that amongst very old aged women that their percentage was higher about awareness of various welfare schemes for women by the government than middle aged, young and old aged women (category). It is because that old women are aware about old age pension scheme, widow funds and other schemes run by government than young women. Besides, their care taking and leisure tasks entrust them to be known of the raised questions. Organizations run generally schemes with special schemes for aged people. Hence, these propagations are infused by aged/old aged groups at early times.

Table 1.24: Age group vs various schemes run by the government have helped women.

illustration not visible in this excerpt

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Fig. 1.24: 3D graphical presentation of age group vs various schemes run by the government have helped women.

Source: Based on survey conducted by the researcher.

Table 1.24 and figure 1.24 indicate that in young women (category) 2.0% (3) respondents were found that the various welfare schemes run by the government have helped very much to the women, 17.2% (26) respondents were found a little 46.4% (70) respondent say no and 34.4% (52) respondents can’t say anything on this matter. In middle aged (category) 1.4% (2) respondents were found that the various welfare schemes run by government have helped very much to the women, 19.2% (28) respondents say a little 58.2% (85) respondents say no and 21.2% (31) respondents can’t say anything on this matter. In old aged (category) 1.5% (1) respondents were found that the various schemes run by government have helped them, 11.9% (8) respondents say that these schemes have helped them a little, 64.2% (43) respondents say not at all and 22.4% (15) respondents can’t say anything on this matter. In very old aged category 22.9% (8) respondents say that these schemes have helped a little, 54.3% (19) respondents say not at all and 22.9% (8) can’t say anything on this matter.

An overview of the table and figure show that amongst all categories (women leaders) it was found that the various schemes run by government have not helped women. Firstly there is lack of such schemes, secondly if there is any scheme for development and welfare of women they are not aware about such schemes. Majority of women say that various schemes run by government are eaten by those people with big mouths. There is a need of government machinery to reach out through these schemes to the common women.

Table 1.25: Age group vs is there any discrimination against women.

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Fig. 1.25: 3D graphical presentation of age group vs is there any discrimination against women.

Source: Based on survey conducted by the researcher.

According to table 1.25 and figure 1.25, in young women (category) .7% (1) respondents were found that who believes a lot of discrimination against women 10.6% (16) respondents say a little discrimination, 55.6% (84) respondents say no discrimination against women, 33.1% (50) respondents can’t say anything on this matter. In middle aged category 6.2% (9) respondents say a little discrimination, 69.9% (102) say no discrimination against women, and 24.0% (35) respondents can’t say anything on this matter. In old aged category 6.0% (4) respondents say a little discrimination 62.7% (42) respondents say no discrimination against women and 31.3% (21) respondents can’t say anything on this matter. In very old aged category 62.9% (22) respondents say no discrimination and 37.1% (13) respondents can’t say anything on this matter.

Thus it is clear from above interpretation of data, that majority of women says there is no discrimination against women. Here we want to clarify one point that these women leaders say that no discrimination means that there are no barriers which restrict them from casting their vote but casting vote is the lowest level in political participation and “taking part in decision making process” is the higher level, so there is need for women to take part in decision making process. In addition to tabulated data it may be insisted that in the current times women feel in great security threat and hence some features from their own side and some from ruling sections common women other than leaders face discrimination and so too much work is needed to make women enable to impart blissful imprints for them.

Table 1.26: Age group vs seeing a female representative generated a sense of happiness among women.

illustration not visible in this excerpt

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Fig. 1.26: 3D graphical presentation of age group vs seeing a female representative generated a sense of happiness among women.

Source: Based on survey conducted by the researcher.

The Table 1.25 and figure 1.25 indicate that out of 151 young respondents 95 respondents (62.9%) were found that they feels happiness by seeing a female representative and 56 respondents were found that they don’t want female representative. In middle age category out of 146 respondents 112 respondents (76.2%) were found that they feel happiness upon seeing a female representative and 34 respondents were found that they don’t feel happiness on female representative. In aged category out of 67 respondents 45 respondents (67.2%) feel's happiness on female representative and 22 respondents don’t feel happy upon female representative. In old aged category out of 35 respondents 21 respondents (60%)feels happiness on seeing female representative while 14 respondents (40%) feels that they don’t feel happiness on female representative.

Thus it is clear from above interpretation of data it was found amongst middle aged women that their percentage was higher that they feel happiness on seeing female representative than old aged, young and very old aged women category. In all categories women feel that they want women representatives but some women don’t want women representation due to cultural barriers, it is not easy for women to act as representatives. The main reasons lying behind such a situation is due to the materialistic thinking of women. Bringing considerable political thought among, common women should be made preferential. Representation of women is also not an easy task on the other hand feminine representation is questioned negatively at higher level. Hence the rights and duties regarding these activities should be acknowledged into their perspective.

CONCLUSION

From the overall study it is established that the question entailed with the role of women under ‘age group vs active membership of political party’ there is hardly any active membership of any political party across the whole sample. Negligible active membership in the population implies two things. Either there is complete political apathy in the people towards the political system or there is the lack of political consciousness. There were other modes of political participation. From general observation it was found that women were not encouraged due to cultural barriers to be active members of political outfits. Whereas, the parameter ‘Age group vs candidate for political post’ shows that there is hardly any candidate for political administrative post across the whole sample. There is a lack of political awareness amongst women. Family members prohibit women from working with unknown men outside the house. It is a trend to let women remain inside the house. In another question ‘Age group vs taken up a political post’ indicates that there is a lack of political consciousness among women. They are not aware about the benefits of taking part in the decision making process. No doubt in other fields they stand shoulder to shoulder with men but in political system they are far behind as compared to men. So there is need of such programs, seminars and conferences to mitigate their passiveness towards political participation. While in another question ‘Age group vs a desire for a political post’ shows that almost all categories have no desire to take up political/administrative posts except one woman won the election in 2011 as Panch in Panchayati raj elections. Most of the women don’t want to get involved in the political system due to their family environment and cultural bias. There is a need to run campaigns to enlighten women of the beneficial aspects of participating in the political system.

In a similar fashion the comparison based on query ‘Age group vs organizations devoted to development and welfare of women are they aware of them’ shows that among both in young and aged women there is a lack of awareness of various organizations which are devoted for the development and welfare of women. But old persons are more aware about social welfare department through which they get old age pension and widows get widow fund. So there is a need to take steps forward to make women consciousness about these organizations. The question ‘Age group vs collect fund for party’ shows that women are not taking part in collecting funds for party because of the following points. (a) Party Negligence: The result shows that all categories whether young or old women are neglected and are rendered passive in this respect. (b) Cultural barriers: The culture also restricts women to collect fund for party / candidate. In this case men are more preferred than women. (c) Religion: The whole district is dominated by Muslims so the women cannot meet the person (unknown/unrelated} outside the house. While another question ‘Age group vs gave funds to party/ candidate’ shows that women are not giving funds for party due to following points. (a) Unorganized party system: The parties are not well structured, so women are confused whom to give funds so, there is a need for parties to organize their system and generate trust in women. (b) Financial weakness: The women are financially weak as compared to men due to joblessness so they cannot give funds for party. (c) Dependent on men: Financial weakness and dependence of women upon the earnings of men also reflect the same scenario.

The important question ‘Age group versus role in political contact programs’ depicts that women usually avoid to take part in political contact programs because of following points. (a) Lack of women programs: The parties organize programs in which only men take part so, women are neglected in political programs. There is a need of separate political programs for women. (b) Cultural and Religious barriers: Culture and religion restrict women not to take part in political programs with men (unknown persons). An enquiry into ‘Age group versus political rallies and meetings’ shows that women were not taking part in political rallies and meetings because of the following points: (a) Lack of political rallies and meetings: The political rallies/meetings organized by political parties are meant for men. From the above table it is clear those women whether young or old are not taking part in political rallies/meetings. (b) Cultural barriers: Culture also restricts women not to take part in political rallies openly. (c). Lack of importance of political rallies/meetings: The women are not aware about the benefits of political meetings. Table regarding ‘Age group vs organize rallies meetings’ shows that women were not taking part in organizing political rallies and meeting. It is because the whole environment in the valley is disturbed. To organize political rallies meetings there is a need of proper environment. The issue of security of women as well as other related issues needs to be taken care of so that women participation in this regard can be ensued.

From the analysis ‘Age group vs canvass for party’ it is quite apparent that middle aged women leaders canvass for party followed by aged, very old aged and then young women. Young (women leaders) are canvassing less due to cultural barriers. This however does not mean that young women are less liberal than old aged. Whereas the important question ‘Age group vs taken part in chakka jam dharna, hunger- strike, hartal shows that middle aged and young women leaders were taken part more in chakka jam, dharna, hunger-strike hartal as compared to aged and old aged women leaders. So one thing here clearly indicates that age also has an impact on chakka jam, dharna, hunger-strike hartal etc. As per the data middle aged women were active participants in chakka jam, dharna, hunger-strike hartal. The question ‘Age group vs how much interest do you take in public/political affairs’ shows most women are uninterested because of many reasons explained in the previous tables. A little interest is reflected in the range of 66% to 77% in all the groups. The main reason of hatred against political affairs might be the turmoil period since 1990 as well as the cultural and religious restrictions. While another question ‘Age group vs contact political leaders and government officers for problems faced by women leadership and others’ shows that more old aged, aged and middle aged women are contacting political leaders and government officers than young . It is because of the fact that old aged people are usually family heads and their intrinsic responsibilities stimulate them to participate in the political affairs by conveying their messages to the respective leaders.

It was found that on the question of ‘Age group vs under normal circumstances how often do you exercise your voting right’ indicates that all the sections (based on age) of women are casting their votes with vigor to get government of their choice. Whereas the question ‘Age group vs some women take part in political activities’ indicates that women take part in political activities only during elections they think that casting vote is the ultimate exercise political power. They are not aware of the reality that the elections are just an initiation of real powers. The higher level of participation is “taking part in decision making process” which they generally trend to ignore. The candidates that get generally elected through these process should pay due attention towards the basic need of women to the inspire trust and faith- so that women will cast their votes again and again. While another question ‘Age group vs on what topic do you normally talk about them’ shows that all categories talk with political leaders upon political and legal matters. Most of women are bound by one or the other constraint mostly culture but if they do not increase their political participation then they are bound to be exploited. The question ‘Age group vs political matters how often do you talk about them’ indicates that it is not very often for common women to discuss political matters. Mostly, it is once in a very long time that they indulge in such conversation. Women seem to think that indulging in such discussion is a waste of time but they do not realize that this lack of awareness leads to a decadent political culture.

It was found that on the question of ‘Age group vs as far as political decisions are concerned whose views matter most’ shows that most of young women leaders take decisions of their own will and middle aged women political decisions are dependent on their husbands but old aged women political decisions are dependent upon their community leaders because they occupy a respectable position in the community. Whereas the question ‘Age group vs how difficult or easy it is for women to take part in Social/Political activities’ shows that most of the women take part in such activities. So, workshops and seminars should be organized by responsible leaders to enlighten the utility of social and political linkage. Another question ‘Age groups vs aware of various welfare schemes being run for women by the government’ shows that aged and old aged women leaders were more aware than young and middle aged women. As far as the question ‘Age group vs various schemes run by the government have helped women’ shows that amongst all categories (women leaders) it was found that the various schemes run by government have not helped women. Firstly there is lack of such schemes, secondly if there is any scheme for development and welfare of women they are not aware about such schemes. Majority of women say that various schemes run by government are eaten by those people with big mouths. There is a need of government machinery to reach out through these schemes to the common women.

The question ‘Age group vs is there any discrimination against women’ shows that majority of women says there is no discrimination against women. Here we want to clarify one point that these women leaders say that no discrimination means that there are no barriers which restrict them from casting their vote but casting vote is the lowest level in political participation and “taking part in decision making process” is the higher level, so there is need for women to take part in decision making process. Whereas the question ‘Age group vs seeing a female representative generated a sense of happiness among women’ shows that in all categories women feel that they want women representatives but some women don’t want women representation due to cultural barriers, it is not easy for women to act as representatives. The main reasons lying behind such a situation is due to the materialistic thinking of women. Hence the rights and duties regarding these activities should be acknowledged into their perspective.

REFRENCES

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66 of 66 pages

Details

Title
Women Participation in Panchayati raj (with special reference to Anantnag Dist. of Jammu & Kashmir)
Course
Political Science
Grade
1
Author
Year
2017
Pages
66
Catalog Number
V380910
ISBN (Book)
9783668592070
File size
1118 KB
Language
English
Tags
development, woman, female, power, politics
Quote paper
Dr. Arsheed Aziz Khanday (Author), 2017, Women Participation in Panchayati raj (with special reference to Anantnag Dist. of Jammu & Kashmir), Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/380910

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