Enabling Innovation in Agriculture and Improving Access to Key Service by IOT (Internet of Things) Gateway

Term Paper, 2017

17 Pages



1. Introduction

2. RaspberryPi interface

3. Related work

4. Structure of Wireless monitoring framework for smart farming

5. Mosquitto MQTT Broker

6. IoT security

7. IoT communication Models

8. Zigbee Coordinator

9. Wireless range of sensor devices

10. Smart farming generic life cycle

11. Decision modules adaptive software architecture

12. Smart farming challenges


14. Smart farming needs

15. Schematic of the circuit

16. Conclusion


Abstract: IoT is a revolutionary technology that shows the future of computing and communications and using large scale IoT platforms it is easy to process various number of sensor data. IoT refers to network of objects with wireless technology. IoT platforms are used to process ,analyse the data and produce smart solutions in a short time. This article is to put transmission between wireless sensors and internet for smart agriculture. GPS, RFID,3G, GPRS, geomactics , cloud computing are included with the internet of things are to be focused in order to develop Smart Agriculture.

Real time detection. By scripting on RaspberryPi, the monitoring system can get the features like humidity, moisture, light , temperature where the sensors like humidity sensor (RHT03) ,soil moisture sensors ,temperature sensors and PIR sensors can be used to detect the changes in moisture, temperature and light conditions in and around the farm and results are obtained and plotted in graphical form based sheets.

Big data analyses are performed to maintain best crop, good production and safe farming.

Keywords: Internet of things, Big data analytics, Cloud computing, sensors ,Smart farming, geomatics.

1. Introduction

The improvement of profoundly accurate embedded sensors for measuring the conditions in farms and fields enables the accurate and precision agriculture. Due to this a farmer can enhance the productivity and expand yields and profitability and can diminish the ecological impression, by methods, for example, more efficient water system, targeted, more exact utilization of composts and pesticides for crops, and in addition nourishment and anti-toxins for animals. This precision agriculture enables the smart agriculture.

The Internet of Things permits the sensors to be perceived and guarded remotely more than a current system foundation, this makes more clear-cut assimilation between the physical world and Personal Computer based platforms. Therefore , it brings about enhanced efficiency, accuracy and economic advantages.

This will give the premise to numerous new applications, for example, energy observing, transport wellbeing frameworks or building security. This vision will without a doubt change with time, particularly as cooperative energies between Identification Technologies, Wireless Sensor Networks, and Nanotechnology will empower various propelled applications. Imaginative utilization of advancements, for example, RFID, NFC, ZigBee and Bluetooth, are adding to make an incentive for partners of IOT.

The IOT gateway is a join purpose of open system and remote sensor arrange in farm checking and control framework. Furthermore, the capacity of the portal is acknowledged information assembling, transfer and preparing remote client control data. The gateway depends on modularization technique and the utilizing of the strategy enhanced the similarity and better addresses the issues of complex farming condition.

The IoT's absolute value lays in the information among interconnected things sharing. With Internet of Things, the cost of availability is diminishing. Thus, we can get to anything around the globe. By the methods for this innovation, we can make machines to specifically collaborate with each other with no human association.

IoT has been utilized for correspondence and how temperature influences it. An augmentation to it can be the manner by which stickiness and temperature can be detected with minimal effort gadgets like DHT11 or LM35. Many researchers have used remote sensor organize for measuring temperature which superfluously builds the cost for the model . Or maybe RaspberryPi could have been utilized which likewise have extraordinary precision. Subsequently, remembering the versatilities of the IoT, we have executed the Temperature and Humidity Sensing Model utilizing IoT while keeping the essential usage utilizing programming interfacing of RaspberryPi.

2. RaspberryPi interface

The Raspberry Pi is a less priced, card sized Personal computer which is attached to a computer screen or TV, and utilizes a standard keyboard and mouse. Even though it is small gadget, that empowers individuals of any age to explore processing, and to shows how to program Scratch and Python languages. It can do all that one expect a desktop computer to do, like browsing the web and playing HD videos, to making notes, word-handling, and playing amusements.[7]

working with RaspberryPi

Propose and functioning of smart farming and monitor framework using this gadget which is interfaced with different sensors (temperature, Humidity, CO2, Vibration).

Ongoing data will be gathered by every one of the sensors and will be brought by the Web server. This data can be gotten to by the client through web application.

3. Related work

Since Internet of Thing systems and platform are still not in existence for farming, related work includes the structures in significant spaces, particularly brilliant urban communities. It is consider generally smart cities made using Internet of things structures (and not systems in different areas, for example, human services, keen homes, sports, participatory detecting and so on.) in light of the fact that the prerequisites of smart cultivating are like those of urban situations: versatility, support of heterogeneous information streams, various on-screen characters/clients ongoing examination and thinking, choice help and certifiable administrations from implanted sensors.

IoT systems in the cultivating part, the work in proposes a design of an administration data framework for smart agriculture. In spite of the fact that this the paper portrays a data framework for smart agriculture and will not give subtle elements on coordinating Internet of things. All together to outline a really interoperable IoT-based shrewd cultivating biological system, the semantics of data and ontology portraying the connection between information is required.

This paper exhibit smart farming remote observing frameworks that utilize different sensors in a combination of a gateway to gather information utilizing other remote gadgets. combination of a database and web server, the framework can give constant data and the dynamic pattern of the plants at diverse observing destinations. The information can be gathered and examined whenever by means of the web to know the present status furthermore, changes of the framework.

In spite of the fact that the previously mentioned frameworks do give various highlights furthermore, administrations for semantic-based tangible information preparing and examination, they are committed for urban situations, planned for city-particular occasion and notice examples, gadget and benefit revelation, adaptation to non-critical failure and reusability. At last, it merits saying the FIWARE stage , which gives an intense arrangement of Application program interface that simplicity advancement of smart applications .

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By reusing some of their particularly portrayed programming fragments, proposing smart Agriculture as an aggregate, able to exchange information, versatile as well as flexible, far reaching scale data examination structure for sagacious developing in light of IoT gages and semantic web headways.[9]

Big-Data Mining, Analysis and Knowledge Building Engine plays an important role in Data analytic plane. The best part in this is helps in edit yield forecast, best harvest arrangement examination from the information gathered over the period, best product for comparing soil properties, watering required in light of soil dampness level. This database additionally gives data of area insightful harvest creation points of interest for each yield, add up to edit generation for each product in the state, in view of this and current necessities for the customers will be useful to control the expenses for each agro item.

This database can give recommendations to the ranchers to harvests to be brought on the farmland with impossible to miss soil properties in light of past load of agro items and current necessities in the market.

Application module at the distributed storage is utilized for sending the warnings to the users, recommendations in data analysis, notices in view of current climate conditions and past knowledgebase to users.

4. Structure of Wireless monitoring framework for smart farming

The Smart Agriculture layered architecture is showed in fig 1 . It is made out of different layers, both the levels (device, correspondence layers), transitional planes (information, information investigation) and upper layers (applicationlayer, end client layer). At all layer, different programming segments perform particular job, identified with information securing, displaying, investigation or perception. as indicated by the specific needs of shrewd cultivating, to cover most if not all of the keen cultivating necessities and situations as portrayed in a presentation.

Every product segment goes about as a solitary element, with its own particular open API, which permits to give an adaptable circulated engineering, where applications can incorporate parts from various layers in light of their particular needs. In along these lines, segments move toward becoming attachment and play and can be specifically utilized by specific farming applications' prerequisites.

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Fig 2: Smart farming Architecture Model A.

To semantically on information streams, Agri-IoT employments lightweight data models created over surely understood models, for example, the SSNand OWL-S ontology's. in this models, It depicts the stream originating from the sensors sent to the homestead utilizing the Stream Annotation Ontology also, occasions recognized identifying with the ranch utilizing the Complex Event Ontology. Identified with farming, AGROVOC and the (AOS) Agricultural Ontology Service are well known ontology's.

while coming to main components of Architecture , Data wrapper gives description of attributes of sensors utilizing its metadata which contain the basic data of data stream.

In Device manager it manages theinternet of things objects, Discovery module used to discover the new devices. Data aggregation and Data federation deal with large volumes using data compression techniques and other is for answering the farmer quires.

And remaining are well known in the Architecture.

There is a other model that can be explained clearly in a easy way.

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Fig 3 : Smart farming Architecture model B.

As shown in Fig 3 smart farming monitoring and control systemis made up of acquisition and control system. ZigBee and coordinator are part of Gateway which acts like mediator between control system and devices.

Control framework incorporates obtaining and control two sections. The capacity of obtaining is exchange information from ZigBee organizer to MCU, and afterward the MCU typify information into the proper organization and exchange to the upper PC. The capacity of control is exchange information from upper PC to MCU, and after that the MCU exemplify information into the fitting configuration and exchange to the securing and control framework through ZigBee facilitator.

5. Mosquitto MQTT Broker

For the conveyance of intermittent sensor data surges of agricultural machines,present day communication structures receive the Message Queue Telemetry Transport (MQTT)[1] convention.

In spite of the fact that MQTT is based over TCP, a dependable conveyance, indeed, even of essential data, can't for the most part be ensured in provincial situations. Because of handovers and spatial no man's lands, this is, specifically, the situation when customers are versatile.

This paper shows a contextual investigation based execution assessment of MQTT in regards to a solid data transmission in genuine situations with versatile customers. In this way, the two connections can be explode, distributer to intermediary and dealer to the supporter, independently.

Thus, it can be demonstrated that the two connections essentially advantage from an appropriate parameterization of MQTT. In addition, for some data streams in the thought about the situation, the default FIFO lining a system of MQTT isn't generally the most appropriate approach to adapt to arrange disturbances. Henceforth, we actualized LIFO lining and also a novel mixture approach in MQTT as a proof-of-idea also, assessed its effect.

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Fig 4 : MQTT publisher/subscriber

There are many number of MQTT Brokers are in market. In this project ThingSpeak MQTT Broker can be used since it is free of cost , easy user Interface and there are many advantages from this ThingSpeak channel.

ThingSpeak has added MQTT as a strategy to acknowledge channel refreshes. MQTT is unique in relation to HTTP/REST. It is particularly intended to be lightweight and proposed for installed gadgets with low RAM and CPU execution. Likewise, by and large MQTT utilizes less transfer speed.

MQTT works under a publisher/subscribe show in which clients interface with the MQTT delegate and either disseminate data or subscribe to topics to get data from various clients. MQTT messages can be sent using unsecured TCP, which is the most clear and has the lower RAM, CPU and transmission limit essentials. MQTT messages can in like manner be sent using websockets. This may be required for conditions when the normal port for MQTT, 1883, is hindered on the framework. While using MQTT over websockets, it is possible to scramble the correspondence with SSL. If your hardware is prepared for using SSL over a websocket, that is the proposed system. In case you should need to get some answers concerning MQTT, please explore this fabulous.

On the Raspberry Pi, a MQTT library needs to transfer information or analytic data of sensors toThingSpeak. Paho is an open source MQTT library that will be utilized for this illustrations. It has been adjusted to a number of programming languages, including Python.

This is the command line that should be entered in RaspberryPi terminal to get the MQTT library

pi@raspberry:~ $ sudo pip install paho-mqtt

To install mqtt client ,this command line need to be typed in RaspberryPi terminal.

pi@raspberry:~ $ sudo apt-get install mosquitto mosquitto-clients

To test the installation type the following command line

pi@raspberry:~ $ mosquitto -v

6. IoT security

Besides the advantages of Internet of things there are many security issues arose. The Internet of Things (IoT) is moving from a united structure to a complex arrangement of decentralized smart gadgets. This move ensures out and out new organizations and business openings. An unyieldingly related world will see the creating frameworks organization and cloud-enablement of an extensive variety of physical contraptions from machines through cars to home mechanical assemblies. It is despite changing amassing as we move towards the fourth "current change". Enlivened by exercises, for instance, the German Government's Industries (current web) wander, this period of mechanical change will see the ascent of sharp generation lines controlled and secured by keen semiconductor courses of action fit for sharing data and streamlining shapes over the entire regard chain.

The IoT depends on an extensive variety of semiconductor headways, including power organization contraptions, sensors and microchips. Execution and security requirements vary broadly beginning with one application then onto the following.

One thing is reliable, regardless. In addition, that is the way that the achievement of smart homes, related cars and Industries creation lines depends on customer confide in solid, easy to-use, shield security capacities. The more vital the volume of sensitive data we trade over the IoT, the more imperative the threat of data and discount misrepresentation, contraption control, data bending, IP burglary and much server/sort out control.


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Enabling Innovation in Agriculture and Improving Access to Key Service by IOT (Internet of Things) Gateway
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ISBN (Book)
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Internet of things, Big data analytics, Cloud computing, sensors, Smart farming, geomatics
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Sai Charan (Author), 2017, Enabling Innovation in Agriculture and Improving Access to Key Service by IOT (Internet of Things) Gateway, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/385502


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