Identifying weak points of existing supply chain and their impact on competitiveness. A study of the Ethiopian apparel manufacturing eco-system


Master's Thesis, 2016
151 Pages, Grade: A-10.0

Excerpt

iv
Acknowledgement
Foremost, I would like to thanks my Lord God, who is the reason for my
existence and gave me His grace to complete this work.
I would like to express my great appreciation to my mentor Mr. Pratik
Ghosh for his genuine advice, guidance, constructive criticism and all
sided contribution to the successful accomplishment of the study.
My sincere thanks also go to Raymond Silver Spark Apparel LTD, for
offering me doing graduation project in their organization and leading me
to know the working procedures in different departments in parallel to the
project. I would like to thank my mentors Mr. Prashant Jain (Deputy
General Manager ­Marketing & merchandising) and Mr. Vishal Bist
(Marketing Director) and co-mentor Chandan Patil (Manager-supply
chain) in Silver Spark Apparel LTD for their guiding with patient till the
completion of my project work.
Last, but definitely not least my deepest thanks to all, who has contributed
to the successful completion of my study.
NIGUSSIE GODANA

v
Executive Summary
This project report provides an analysis of Ethiopian apparel manufacturing eco-system,
weak areas of existing supply chain and impacts of those weak areas on competitiveness
of international market. The study was initiated by Silver spark Apparel LTD
(Raymond), to get comprehensive understanding of overall business environment
(source of competitive advantage & disadvantage) of Ethiopian garment industry.
The study used both qualitative and quantitative research approaches and secondary and
primary data. Methods of analysis include trade performance, Porter`s national diamond
model analysis, supply chain analysis, and simple statistical tools i.e. percentages,
mean, and correlation. The analyzed data has been presented in the form of table and
figures.
Results of research analysed show that competitive performance of industry in
international market against competitors is poor in the areas of price, market share, and
on-time-delivery, capability to offer consistent and high quality product and adaptability
to small and large order size. It also shows availability of large pool of workforce at
lower cost with no national minimum wages; monthly wages of Ethiopian garment
workers was ranges $ 26-$80 ($26-$50 semi-skilled and $50-$80 skilled workers), with
labour cost per hour of $0.23 (about 11.5 times lower than china, 4.9 times lower than
India and 3.3 times lower than that of Kenya), weekly working hours of 48 and
overtime allowed per week was 20 hours. Electric cost is cheaper (USD per kWh $0.02
- $0 .04) than competitors. However, poor integration among actors in the supply chain,
underdeveloped infrastructure, poor productivity, electric outages and absences of
related and supporting industry in the supply chain are sources of competitive
disadvantage to the industry.
The study finds the overall government supports are positive. However, strategic
manufacturers and supplier partnership is at weakest state and advanced factors and
home demand are very poor. These and other major areas of weakness require further

vi
investigation and remedial action by the government and supporting institutes together
with firms.
Recommendations discussed include:
Utilize a supply chain approach as a key tool for upgrading strategic integration
of different actors in the in entire supply chain of the industry.
Using Product diversification as source of competitive advantage
Improving productivity through Skills update and upgrade
Analyzing domestic demand of garment products and organizing industry
database
Increasing bases of related and supporting industry in the country.
Improving logistic services through development of basic infrastructure and
enabling access to quality communication system
The report also investigates the fact that the analysis conducted has limitations. Some of
the limitations include:
The data analysis based majorly on secondary data and primary data covers limited
number of firms due to lack of internets in most firms (in the questionnaires test period
it was designed for 55 firms but based on the information about access to internet the
firms were reduced to 15 based on export performance, year of establishment and
presence in the domestic market).

vii
Table of contents
Contents
page no
Acknowledgement ... iv
Executive Summary ... v
Table of contents ... vii
List of tables ... x
List of figures ... xii
List of Abbreviations ... xiv
1. Chapter one: Background ... 1
1.1 Introduction ... 1
1.2 Summary of research approaches ... 2
1.3 Statement of the problem ... 4
2. Chapter two: Review of the literature... 7
2.1 Theoretical Framework ... 7
2.1.1 Porter`s national Diamond model ... 7
2.1.2 Supply chain Management ...17
3. Chapter Three: Research methodology ...21
3.1 Research questions ...21
3.2 Objectives ...21
3.3 Methodology ...22
3.4 Research Design ...23
3.5 Data collection ...23
3.6 Sampling methods and size ...24
3.7 Significance of the study ...24

viii
3.8 Limitation and delimitation...25
3.8.1 Limitation ...25
3.8.2 Delimitations ...25
3.9 Organisation of the study ...26
4. Chapter four: Research analysis and findings ...27
4.1 Overview of Ethiopian Economic ...27
4.1.1 Socio-political indicators ...27
4.1.2 Trend of economic development ...27
4.1.3 Foreign Direct investment trend ...30
4.2 Business and legal environment ...33
4.2.1 Political and regulatory environment ...33
4.2.2 Trade policy and market access ...33
4.2.3 Investment climate and incentives ...36
4.2.4 Easy of doing business and economic freedom: Ethiopia ...38
4.3 Global and Regional Market Trends in Textile and Apparel ...45
4.3.1 Global Apparel: overview ...45
4.3.2 Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) Apparel Trade ...49
4.4 Ethiopian garment industry: overview ...51
4.4.1 Background ...51
4.4.2 Trade performance of Ethiopian garment sector ...52
4.4.3 Major Trade partners ...57
4.4.4 Men`s wear domestic market size and growth ...60
4.4.5 Key Market Growth Drivers ...63
4.4.6 Key Players in men`s wears ...65
4.5 Analysis of Ethiopian Garment manufacturing business
environment ...66
4.5.1 Factor conditions ...66

ix
4.5.2 Demand conditions ...85
4.5.3 Related and supporting industry ...86
4.5.4 Firms` strategy, structure and rivalry ...89
4.5.5 Government and chance ...90
4.6 Apparel supply chain structure in Ethiopia ...92
4.7 Primary data analysis ...100
4.7.1 General business environment and principal problems to
garment industry ...100
4.7.2 Supply chain issues and competitiveness ...104
4.8 Findings ...114
5. Chapter Five: Conclusion and Recommendation ...121
5.1 Conclusion ...121
5.2 Recommendation ...121
5.2.1 Strategic recommendation ...121
6. Reference ...125
7. Appendices...130

x
List of tables
Table 4.1 Trends of Economic development in Ethiopia, 2006­2014 ... 29
Table 4.2: Tariff reforms in Ethiopia ... 33
Table 4.3: Tariff structure of Ethiopia ... 34
Table 4.4: Historical Data: Trading across Borders and getting credit in Ethiopia 2006 ­
2014 ... 39
Table 4.5: Easy of doing business rank: Ethiopia and comparator economies (2016) ... 40
Table 4.6: Trends of Economic freedom (Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya and India) ... 43
Table 4.7: Most problematic factors doing business in Ethiopia, Various Ranking ... 44
Table 4.8: Apparel* Exports, Sub-Saharan Africa, 2014 (Thousands of US$) ... 49
Table 4.9: Textile and Apparel Exports, Sub-Saharan Africa, 2014 (Thousands of US$)
... 50
Table 4.10: Apparel Export and Import of Ethiopia and its share in world ... 53
Table 4.11: Apparel share in total merchandise export, Ethiopia (2008-2014, %) ... 54
Table 4. 12: Share of apparel export in total merchandise of selected economies, %
(2010-2014) ... 57
Table 4.13: Top suppliers of textile and apparel products imported by Ethiopia
(2010/11-2014/15) ... 59
Table 4.14: Apparel production and trade statistics, Ethiopia, 2014 (USD) ... 59
Table 4.15: Ethiopia`s import and export value and trends of men`s wear`s (2010-2014)
... 62
Table 4.16: Men`s wears production and trade statistics-Ethiopia, 2014 ... 63
Table 4.17: Trends in value added, employment and establishments in textile and
clothing industry (at current market price) ... 70
Table 4.18: Effect of movement of REER on international competitiveness ... 77
Table 4.19: Average total duration of power outages (fluctuation and cut) in a month
(hours) ... 78
Table 4.20: Cost of doing business: Electricity as a constraint, comparison with selected
economies ... 79

xi
Table 4.21: Communication system of Ethiopia ... 81
Table 4.22: Access and use of Internet and website by Ethiopian Textile and Apparel
companies ... 81
Table 4.23: Ethiopia Telecommunication system (2009-2014) ... 82
Table 4.24: Selected infrastructure indicators of selected economies/countries ... 83
Table 4.25: Trading across boarders; Ethiopia and comparator economies (2016) ... 84
Table 4.26: Imports of apparel inputs, by product group, 2010-2014 (US$, thousands) 98
Table 4.27: Comparative Garment Prices, Select Categories of Knit Apparel, 2014 ... 99
Table 4.28: Logistic cost from Djibouti to Addis Ababa and Addis Ababa to Djibouti
... 101
Table 4.29: Clothing, Comparative product trade performance, 2014 ... 106

xii
List of figures
Figure 1.1 Summary of research approaches ... 3
Figure 2.1 Porter`s Diamond Model ... 8
Figure 2.2 supply chain management antecedents and consequences... 19
Figure 4.1 Age distribution of Ethiopian population ... 27
Figure 4.2: change in GDP composition from 2009 to 2014 ... 30
Figure 4.3: Foreign direct investment, net inflow-Ethiopia (2006-2014) ... 31
Figure 4.4: FDI net inflow comparison, Ethiopia with Kenya ... 32
Figure 4.5: Ease of doing business, Ethiopia (2007-2016) ... 38
Figure 4.6: Trends of Economic freedom (Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya and India)... 42
Figure 4.7: Top ten exporters of apparel, 61 and 62(value in USD) ... 46
Figure 4.8: Trends in the relationship between consumers and manufacturers ... 48
Figure 4.9: Production trends in the apparel sector: ... 48
Figure 4.10: Composition of apparel export trade-structure by major products, Ethiopia,
%age (2014) ... 55
Figure 4.11: Composition of apparel import trade structure by major products, Ethiopia
(2014) ... 56
Figure 4.12: Export destination of Textile and apparel products of Ethiopia, 2014/15 . 57
Figure 4.13: Top importers of Textile and apparel products exported by Ethiopia (2010-
2014) ... 58
Figure 4.14: Total imports of shirts, trousers, suits and jackets/Blazers ... 60
Figure 4.15: Porter`s Diamond Models as applied to Ethiopian Garment industry ... 67
Figure 4.16: Urban youth unemployment rate, Ethiopia (2009-2013) ... 69
Figure 4.17: Labour cost in textile and apparel industry (USD per hr) ... 69
Figure 4.18 Trends of nominal exchange rate (ETB/USD) ... 75
Figure4.19: Movements in Nominal and Real Exchange Rates. ... 76
Figure 4.20: Internet price USD per month (10Mbps, unlimited data, Cable/ADSL) ... 79
Figure 4.21: Percentages of individual using internets, Ethiopia (2009-2014) ... 80
Figure 4.22: Apparel domestic demand growth, Ethiopia (2009-2014) ... 85

xiii
Figure 4.23: Daily capacity of textile industry, Ethiopia (2009/10 & 2014/15) ... 88
Figure 4.24: Supply chain structure of Ethiopian Textile and Apparel Industry ... 93
Figure 4.25: Yarn import Value, Billion ETB ... 95
Figure 4.26: Export annual growth rate of Ethiopia Textile and garment products, %
(2009/10-2014/15) ... 97
Figure 4.27: Principal problem of Ethiopian apparel industry ... 102
Figure 4.28: General evaluation of Ethiopian garment industry manufacturing eco-
system ... 103
Figure 4.29: ICT as enablers of supply chain, Ethiopian garment industry ... 107
Figure 4.30: Information sharing level of Ethiopian garment manufacturing with
suppliers ... 108
Figure 4.31 Strategic suppliers` partnership of Ethiopian garment manufacturers ... 109
Figure 4.32: Inventory stocking period of selected companies, Monthly ... 110
Figure 4.33: Major reason of overstocking of garment manufacturing inputs ... 110
Figure 4.34: Perception of manufacturers` about future price of inputs ... 111
Figure 4. 35: Logistic performance index ... 112
Figure 4.36: Competition level of Ethiopian garment manufacturers in international . 113

xiv
List of Abbreviations
AGOA
African Growth and Opportunity Act
BoP
Balance of Payments
CSA
Central Statistics Agency
CMT
cut-make-trim
DBE
Development Bank of Ethiopia
EIC
Ethiopian Investment Commission
ETIDI
Ethiopian Textile Industry Development Institute
FDI
Foreign Direct Investment
GSP
Generalized System of Preference
GVP
Gross Value Production
ITU
International Telecommunication Union
ITC
International Trade Centre
NGO
Non-Governmental Organisation
SSA
Sub-Saharan Africa
TVET
Technical and Vocational Education and Training
TPI
Trade Performance Index
UNIDO
United Nations Industrial Development Organisation
USAID
United States Agency for International Development
USITC
United States International Trade Commission
WTO
World Trade Organisation

1
1.
Chapter one: Background
1.1
Introduction
Countries compete with each other to improve the standard of living and quality of life
of their citizens, grow economically, attract foreign investments and tourists, maintain
political stability and build their own brand image by using competitive advantage of
their nations. Apart from favourable Macro environment (GDP, purchasing power,
Economic freedom, easy of doing business, and political stability) low Production
factors such as raw-materials, related and supplying industries, electric cost and skilled
and semi-skilled manpower are the source of competitive advantage both to the
countries and firms along the supply chain.
The textile and clothing industry have been one of the most dynamic and geographically
mobile industries globally (Dicken, 2011). The industry is made up of complex global
production networks and due to the possibilities of minimizing the costs of production,
many buying companies use suppliers located in developing countries and
manufacturers of textile and clothing companies also re-locate themselves in developing
countries through foreign direct investment (FDI). Over recent years there has been an
increasing amount of interest in Africa for investment as a continent with immense
resources and potential. Ethiopia in particular has been singled out as a land of growth
and investment opportunity.
Ethiopia grows some of the world`s finest cotton and has a rich textile spinning and
weaving history, yet its importance on a global scale remains insignificant. Having
experienced average annual growth rate of 10.7% GDP growth consistently since 2006
and a stable political framework since 1995, it still remains largely not yet used or taken
advantage of it.
With several government incentives in place, a priority given towards developing the
textile and clothing industry across the supply chain, a viable business environment and

2
duty free market access to both US and EU, Ethiopia is now beginning to attract
international buyers and investors.
Although, favourable business environment is set by the government, there are missing
inputs (weak points) in existing supply chain which should be addressed. For example,
in the case of garment manufacturing, trimming and accessories, packaging,
certification bodies, spare part technology and machine maintenance companies and E-
commerce are missed along the supply chain.
This study focus to review apparel manufacturing eco-system of Ethiopia, identify
missing inputs (weak points) of existing supply chain and assessing their impact on
competitiveness of Ethiopian Apparel manufacturing firms.
1.2
Summary of research approaches
To understanding the business environment and identify missing inputs (weak point) of
existing supply chain and their impacts in the competitiveness of Ethiopian garment
industry, the following approach will be taken:

3
Figure 1.1 Summary of research approaches
Understanding of garment
manufacturing Eco-system
Mapping of existing
supply chain system
Identification of the missing input
(weak point) across supply chain
Analysis impact of missing input
(weak point) on competitiveness
Socio-political indicator & trends of
economic development
Business and regulatory environment
Political & regulatory environment
Trade policy & market access
Investment climate & incentives
Easy of doing business & Economic
freedom
Factors conditions
Related &supporting industry
Demand condition
Global apparel market, production,
consumers and manufacturers relationship
trend
Ethiopia Apparel trade performance
Share imports & exports in the world trade
Growth rate
Concentration and diversification of
product, geographical direction of trade
Mapping Men's wears Domestic market
size and growth
Suit, Shirts, Jackets/Blazers, and Trousers
Secondary data
Qualitative and Quantitative research approaches is used
P
rimar
y a
nd se
cond
ary d
ata

4
1.3
Statement of the problem
Nowadays, garment manufacturers are competing in fiercely competitive and complex
environments. In this very competitive, but lucrative, industry understanding
manufacturing eco-system of a country, identifying loopholes along the supply chain
and taking corrective actions is crucial for success of business.
Making correct decisions in a dynamic business environment is a major challenge for
textile and clothing firms all over the world (UNIDO, 2009). The challenge is more
intensive for developing countries like Ethiopia because of their poor infrastructure,
weak management, shortage of foreign exchange, lack of capital, limited research,
development practice, weak supply chain and technological obsolescence (CSA, 2008).
Theoretically, all the necessary ingredients
1
are available to transform Ethiopia into an
internationally competitive textile and clothing nation. In this regard, Ethiopia may have
more trump cards to play than any other sub-Sahara African country when it comes to
developing a competitive cotton, textile and garment supply chain. However, the very
low wages are offset by low labour productivity, capacity utilization does not presently
exceed 40-50%, and demand for fabrics fulfilled by import, financial operations with
foreign currency are difficult, high logistic cost, and factories suffer electricity and
internet interruptions. Indeed, Ethiopia's growth as a garment exporter will be slower
and more difficult than the government and local textile organisations predict (DE
Coster, 2014).
The performance of Ethiopian Textile and clothing sectors shows steady growth from
time to time (although very small in real value) but with far behind the plan and
performance is not proportional to Government`s support and availability of cotton and
labour resources for the sector. The performance of foreign currency earnings from
export of garment products was only 72 Million USD (2014/15), which was very far
1
low operational costs due to young, abundant and lower wage labor force and cheap electricity, 3m
hectares land for cotton cultivation, investment land at low cost, large numbers of textile schools and
vocational training institutes, Development of industrial park, financial and fiscal incentives, the country's
political stability and impressive macro-economic growth, the privileged trade relations with the US
(AGOA) and EU (GSP+ Everything But Arms), and its favourable geographic location, which enables
goods to be shipped in a relatively short time to Europe via Djibouti and the Suez Canal

5
behind against GTP 1 plan (ETIDI). Textile and clothing export figures are very small,
make up only 0.01% of the total textile and clothing industry exports globally (ICT-
2014), in relation to Ethiopia's share of global trade.
Ethiopian textile and Clothing industry exploitation of AGOA market opportunity was
very limited. In 2013, Ethiopia`s market share of AGOA market is nearly 1.33%
(
www.AGOA.info
) and that of EU is also about 1% (Just-style). High cost of inputs,
low productivity, inefficiency of customs clearance, weak supply chain, delays in order
processing, logistic problem, lack of related and supporting industries and poor
performance and collaboration among the supporting institutes/stakeholders are the
major factors not properly utilize the privileged trade relation (US-AGOA and EU-
GSP+ Everything But Arms (
Rahel 2007
).
Availability, quality, and cost of input supply are important constraint in developing
competitive apparel firms. On average in apparel production, inputs (which represent
more than 70 percent of total production costs) are about 25 percent more expensive in
Africa than in China, a 20 percent production cost penalty. In most cases higher input
costs and low productivity wipe out Africa`s labor cost advantage. Input issues are
compounded by poor trade logistics, which add to the costs and delays of importing
inputs that cannot be sourced locally. Currency overvaluation and instability also
compound the input issues. Some countries are forced to lower clothing prices to
compensate for one or more deficiencies in their corresponding supply chains that make
them less desirable sourcing locations compared to others (mainly China). Being a low
cost supplier is generally a necessary but not sufficient condition that is going to
guarantee access to large retailers` global supply chain. For example, to a niche private-
label, multi-season fashion retailer, apparel suppliers` superior performance on order-to-
delivery times and consistent quality is typically more important than the price
differential that may exist between suppliers. Similarly, for large retailers, ability of
suppliers to handle large quantities of order with reliable delivery times through an
integrated global supply chains is critical. Therefore, a companys or countrys ability to
compete in terms of order timeliness and consistency and adaptability to small and large
size orders alike, as well as the ability to ensure seamless flow of goods and transactions

6
across borders, are all considered increasingly important competitiveness indicators in
the clothing industry (Global Development Solutions, LLC-2011).
Due to lack basic knowledge of SCM and its conceptual framework Ethiopian textile
and clothing firms supply chains are far from world practices of supply chain trends.
Currently, policy-makers in Ethiopia encourage more competitive textile and clothing
firms to compete in local and global markets (
Admas University College, 2010
).
The cumulative effect of the above problems (mainly factors of production and related
and supporting industries) affect garment firms` competitiveness in the global and local
market. Therefore, the study examine apparel manufacturing eco-system, ascertain
missing inputs/weak points across supply chain (mainly upstream) and their impacts on
competitiveness of Ethiopian apparel industry.

7
2.
Chapter two: Review of the literature
2.1
Theoretical Framework
To review the Ethiopian apparel manufacturing eco-system; thereafter to identify weak
point in existing supply chain and assess their impact on competitiveness, this paper
will use an integrated theoretical framework based on Porter`s national diamond model
and supply chain analysis literature. Porter`s national diamond model describes the
determinants (sources of national competitive advantages) that can affect the global
competitiveness of companies located in a country. Supply chain is explained to firstly
map the existing supply chain and secondly to identify weak points (missing inputs),
which have negative impact on competitiveness.
2.1.1
Porter's national Diamond model
Porter aimed at establishing a link between the academic literatures in strategic
management and international economics in his book Competitive Advantage of
Nations in 1990 and creates a base for developing national policies on competitiveness
(Davies & Ellis- 2000).
Porter contended that the greater numbers of trade-related theories have been only
focused on cost and a new theory was essential that should attract a comprehensive
understanding of competition that contains segmented markets, differentiated products,
the technological differences and economies of scale. He suggested that this new
theory should be able to define why firms from certain nations implement better
strategies than others competing in certain sectors (WATCHRAVESRNGKAN,
KARPOVA, HODGES, & COPELAND, 2010). For this purpose Porter made an
examination in ten countries (USA, Germany, Denmark, South Korea, Britain, Italy,
Sweden, Switzerland, Japan and Singapore) including different economic characteristics
of 100 sectors for four years to try to find the elements that determine the
competitiveness of nations and sub-sectors to determine what kind contributions
provided to the development of competitive structures of countries (OZ-2002). To

8
answer the question why some regions are more competitive than others are and to
make clear how firms gain superior positions in certain sectors of the country on global
competitiveness, Porter developed Diamond Model to identify factors of competitive
advantage of countries and sectors and to create the theoretical foundations of this
interplay of country and industry competitiveness topics as a result of his analysis
(BARRAGAN, S., 2005).
The model creates a structure that determines the rules of competition in a sector and
makes it important to have a role to play based on the opinion of achieving a long-term
competitiveness (SUN, FAN, ZHOU, & SH, 2010). Porter associated the determinants
of sectors that state competitive advantage of nations with the value of a diamond. Four
corners of the diamond are factor conditions , demand conditions, firm strategy,
structure and competition and the presence of related and supporting industries. Also
luck and the government factors are included in the system. These factors are
described as factors affecting the competitiveness as a support of the four factors.
Figure 2. 1
Porter's Diamond Model (1990)
Gover
n
m
en
t
Chan
ce
Factor
Endowments
Related and
supporting
industries
Demand
condition
s
Firm Strategy, Structure and
Rivalry

9
2.1.1.1
Factor endowments
Factor conditions are values of the firm`s skill to supply those factors of research
production that allow a unit to compete. They are the factors of production and
infrastructure necessary to compete in a particular industry (Barragan- 2005). A simple
definition for what the factor of production is concerns to the terms like capital, land
and labour. Porter regards this definition as too general, and not suitable to give open
insights to the competitive advantage, hence he argues that the factors should be divided
into categories that are more particular (Tasevska-2006).
Factors, as defined by Porter, may be divided into five broad groups. These factors can
be grouped into;
1.
Human resources (the amount, abilities and cost of staff etc.),
2.
Material resources (the abundance, quality, approachability and cost of the
state`s land, water etc.),
3.
Knowledge resources (the state`s stock of scientific, technical and market
knowledge bearing on goods /products and services.
4.
Information resources (universities, government research institutes, government
statistical agencies, business and scientific literature, market research reports,
databases etc.),
5.
Capital resources (the quantity and costs of capital available to fund the sector)
and infrastructure (the type, quality and user cost infrastructure available and
affecting the competition, including the transportation system, the
communication system, mail and parcel delivery etc.)
Also three distinctions may be done among the factors. The first distinction divides
factors into basic or advanced factors. The second distinction is between generalised
and specialised factors. The third distinction is whether the factors are inherited (such as
location or natural resources) or provided by the nation. Advanced, specialised and
created factors provide more sustainable advantages than basic, generalised or inherited

10
and are necessary to achieve sophisticated forms of competitive advantage (PORTER-
1998; NILSSON & PETERSON- 2002). Advanced and specialised factors, on the other
hand, are regarded as being a more decisive and sustainable basis for competitive
advantage (OZ- 2002).
Competitive advantage are dependent on how efficiently and effectively the factors are
used and the condition of these factors (the quality, significance and even shortage) is
more important than the subsidy and cost of them because it is admissible that easy
access to big quantity of factors results in a kind of inefficiency of their usage.
Moreover, if other three dimensions are in a favorable position for a sector, the pressure
of competition would be maximum and the firms are committed to exist in the sector,
this scarcity shortage of factors could be productive only if firms take the notify of this
shortage well.
2.1.1.2
Demand Condition
Porter (1990) suggests that the demand conditions which indicate the nature of home
demand formed the second broad determinant of national competitive advantage. This is
one of the most interesting dimensions as it relates to the nature of consumers in the
home market. Demand conditions are the pressures based on buyers` requirements
about quality, price, and services in a particular industry (BARRAGAN- 2005).
Demand conditions affect the forming of certain factor conditions. They have effect on
the pace and direction of innovation and product development
2
. For instance, Japanese
car buyers exert strain on Japanese car makers with regard to high quality standards
impelling them to develop the quality of their goods, operations, and activities, which in
turn makes ready the whole industry to compete internationally (BARRAGAN- 2005).
The combination of demand conditions is showed by three main characteristics that are
important to gaining national competitive advantage (TASEVSKA, 2006).

11
1.
Home Demand Conditions: There are three characteristics of the composition
of home demand: segmented structure of demand, sophisticated and demanding
buyers and anticipatory buyers` needs. Nations achieve competitive advantage in
sectors or in sector parts where the home demand provides native firms a clearer
or earlier picture of buyer demands than foreign competitors can have (Tuna,
2006: SUN el al., 2010). This will make the industry (sector) ready to compete
internationally in next levels (BARRAGAN- 2005).
Porter (1990) argues that the sophistication of demand is much more significant than the
size of demand. When a sector operates in a sophisticated and demanding domestic
market it is compelled to innovate and sell better goods because the market needs high
quality.
2.
Demand Size and Pattern of Growth: Size of home demand, number of
individual buyers, and growth rate of home demand, early home demand and
early saturation. Porter argues that home market size is an advantage if it
stimulates investment and reinvestment or dynamism (TASEVSKA, G.M.,
2006). The existence of a number of individual buyers in a nation produces
better surroundings for innovation than is the situation where one or two
customers command the home market for a goods or a service (TUNA, 2006).
The rate of growth of investments in a sector is to a large extent a mission of
how quickly its home market is developing (NILSSON, & PETERSON, 2002).
Early home demand helps local firms to action sooner than foreign rivals to
become established in a nation. Also early saturation, the early penetration
supports native firms to become constituted (TASEVSKA, G.M., 2006).
3.
Internationalization of Domestic Demand: Mobile and transnational local
buyers and influences of foreign need. If state`s buyers for goods or service are
mobile or a transnational firm, an advantage occurs for the state`s companies as
the home buyers are also foreign buyers (TUNA, 2006).

12
About the demand condition, Porter suggest that although, at any rate, a minimum
quantity of home demand is required to improve the sector to expand and develop, but
the quality of this demand is more significant than the amount of that. By quality of
demand, basically, Porter means how complex are features and specifications that
customers (principally home buyers) expect (MEHRIZI & PAKNEIAT, 2008).
2.1.1.3
Related and supporting industry
The existence of related or supplier industries in a nation is argued as the third
dimension of diamond model. The presence or absence in the nation of related
industries and supplier industries which interact (both horizontally and vertically) with
the target sector is a basic factor (TUNA, 2006; MEHRIZI, & PAKNEIAT, 2008). In a
broad view, Porter accepts that it is approximately unthinkable to find only a single
successful industry (sector) without strong and challenging supportive and related
industries. The relationships among these clusters of industries are crucial to the success
of a determined sector within a nation as they operate learning, innovation and
competitiveness, and are thought about put together the maximum synergies when all
requisite institutions necessary to operate learning, innovation, and competiveness and
economic agents are linked up (RASIAH, 2009). However, it is possibly unrealistic in a
developing country setting to look for all sectors that are related to one internationally
competitive sector to be competitive as well (OZ, 2002).
Related industries are those in which organizations can organize or allocate activities in
the value chain when competing, or those, that produce complement goods (PORTER,
1998; TASEVSKA, 2006). They are those that are some buyers, building factors and/or
technologies in general (MEHRIZI & PAKNEIAT, 2008). The supplier industries
creates potentials for comparative advantage by producing inputs, providing new
methodologies and opportunities to utilize new technology, transferring of knowledge,
innovations, etc. (TASEVSKA, 2006). The presence of related industries often results
in new competitive industries, and offers opportunities to informational and
technological exchange (PORTER, 1998).

13
Competitive advantage in supplier industries gives potential competitive advantage to
firms in many other sectors in several ways.
1.
First, the firms have effective, rapid and early access to the most cost efficient
input (NILSSON & PETERSON, 2002). These sectors offer cost-effective
inputs, but they also take part in the upgrading process, thus encouraging other
firms in the chain to innovate.
2.
Second, even more important are the opportunities of continued co-ordination
between supplier and buyer industries, regarding innovation and upgrading
processes (NILSSON & PETERSON, 2002). The close proximity of related
industries provides a faster reply to market trends and changes, and makes quick
innovation easy. This confirms available access to the raw materials and abilities
required to make advantage through either low costs or differentiation.
3.
Third, competitive advantage occurs from close working relations among
supplier and buyer industries (PORTER, 1998; NILSSON & PETERSON,
2002). When native supporting industries are competitive, firms take advantage
of more cost efficient and innovative inputs. This effect (result) becomes more
reinforced when the suppliers themselves are powerful and important global
rivals.
Related and supporting industries directly or indirectly related to many different sectors
and a sector which covers all the players and are a clustering of the industry. Clusters
are inter-related firms and other enterprises that manage the competitiveness of a
determined sector (e.g., private enterprises of varying sizes, associations, suppliers,
customers, universities, financial institutions, training and other business service
providers, and other groups). Nation successful industries (sectors) are usually linked
through vertical (buyer/supplier) or horizontal (common general buyers, technology,
channels, etc.) bases. Vertical clusters create high quality, while the horizontal clusters
create highly competitive firms. Porter argues that the advantage of both supportive and
related industries counts on the rest of the Diamond, and its systematic character
(BARRAGAN, 2005).

14
2.1.1.4
Firms' strategy, structure and rivalry
Three basic parameters of sector are covered in the fourth dimension of this model as
firms` strategy, structure and rivalry. Porter suggested that the strategy of firms,
the structure of industry and the rivalry have effects on the competitiveness of the sector
(MEHRIZI & PAKNEIAT, 2008). Firms` strategy, structure and rivalry get hold of the
hardiness of home competition. Whether a sector is extremely competitive domestically
will affect the rise in productivity required to compete internationally.
Firms` strategy, structure and rivalry are measures of situations that explain how a
sector is originated, systemized and managed and the nature of domestic competition
that could support a nation achieve a sustained competitive advantage. Porter attempted
to list some non-economic factors (such as traditions and values that affect the
motivation of companies for getting into the sector and the impact of spatial proximity
in this dimension (MEHRIZI, & PAKNEIAT, 2008). The aims, strategies, politics and
methods of organizing companies in sectors vary widely among nations and there is not
a unique business system that is universally suitable. National advantage emerges from
a good harmony between these selections and the sources of competitive advantage in a
specific sector. Porter suggests that domestic competition and the look for competitive
advantage within a region can help supply organizations with bases for succeeding such
advantage on a more global scale.
In the global competition the rivalry is very important if successful companies compete
energetically at home and constrain each other to develop and innovate. The pattern of
rivalry has effect to the process of innovation and the final plans for international
achievement (TUNA, 2006; PORTER, 1990).
The way in which firms are managed and prefer to compete and innovate is influenced
by national conditions. Cultural aspects play an important role. As most significant
national diversities in business practices and approaches can be put into words: the
training, backstage and the orientation of leaders, management manner and structures,

15
hierarchic style, decision deciding, the relationship between work and management,
working morale, relationship with the consumers or interactions between companies.
These national diversities make advantage and disadvantages in competing in different
categories of sectors (TASEVSKA, G.M., 2006). Typical corporate aims and goals in
relation to models of commitment among employers are of special unique importance.
They are hardly affected by systems of ownership and control. Family-based business
that are controlled and managed by owner-managers will act differently than publicly
quoted.
2.1.1.5
Government and chance
Porter argues that, Government effect and chance events are two extra determinants that
can importantly affect the national system and are necessary to make the model
complete. Even though the chance and the role of the government in the Diamond
model are introduced as additional variables their role especially the government role is
very important and has significant straight affect to all of the main four determinants
(TASEVSKA, 2006).
The Role of Government, all the policies and regulations made by policymakers at all
levels of government (but particularly federal) can benefit or adversely influence the
competency of a country and an industry (BARRAGAN, 2005). Therefore, the
government improves or damages the national competitive advantage and effect the
competitiveness (MEHRIZI, PAKNEIAT, 2008). Its role is recognised most clearly by
analysing how policies affect each of the variables. In fact, the government forms and
affects the situations in the demand and factor conditions, as well as to the related and
supported industries and the firms` strategies, structure and rivalry (TASEVSKA,
2006). There are many policies that can impact each of the determinants in different
ways. For example, subsidies, taxes, financial incentives, education policies, public
procurement, antitrust laws, quality standards, capital market regulations etc. Antitrust
policy (prevents the companies from unfairly controlling prices) affect domestic
competition; regulation can change demand conditions; investments in education can

16
alter the factor condition; Government acquisitions can encourage related and
supporting industries (TUNA, 2006). Government encouragement of joint ventures with
foreign firms will help the transfer of technology (BARRAGAN, 2005). On the other
hand, some policies implemented without consideration of their outcome and impact
can have opposite and undermining impacts on the national advantage. A paternalistic
government that protects indigenous firms from foreign firms is not encouraging
improvements in productivity or quality. Therefore, when the free market does take
place, these firms are not prepared for that challenge. It is evident that the impact of the
underlying determinants of national competitive advantage can be either positive or
negative, and the national competitive advantage will fail if the government policy
remains the only source of competitiveness (TUNA, 2006).
Chance events are usually improvements outside the control of the companies. Chance
events are regarded by definition as beyond the control of firms (companies) but may
make forces that remold the sector structure, allowing shifts in competitive position
(OZ, 2002). Namely, such events avoid the advantages of previously constituted rivals
and make potential that a new nation`s companies can replace them to succeed
competitive advantage in response to new and different conditions (TASEVSKA,
2006).Chance is composed of factors (mainly external to the sector) that are not well
foreseen and (almost influenced by sector) such as new inventions, political decisions
by foreign governments, wars, rapid changes in financial markets or exchange rates,
surges of world or regional demand, discontinuities in input costs, other radical
technical changes.

17
2.1.2
Supply chain Management
Companies have traditionally viewed themselves as entities that exist independently and
have to compete against each other in order to survive. However, such mindset cannot
be sustained as no organization can operate alone in complete independence. Firms are
finding that they can no longer compete effectively in isolation of their suppliers or
other entities in the supply chain and are realizing the benefits of collaborative
relationships within and beyond their own organization (Cox et al., 1995).
Christopher defined supply chain (as cited in Mentzer et al., 2001, p. 3) as the network
of organizations that are involved, through upstream and downstream linkages, in the
different processes and activities that produce value in the form of products and services
delivered to the ultimate consumer. SCM can be defined as a set of approaches that
efficiently integrate and coordinate the materials, information and financial flows across
the supply chain so that merchandise is supplied, produced and distributed in the right
quantities, to the right locations, and at the right time, in the most cost-efficient way,
while satisfying customer requirements (Hilletofth, 2009; Hugo, Badenhorst-Weiss &
Van Biljon, 2011; Shukla, Garg & Agarwal, 2011).
Hence, it may be concluded that supply chain is characterized by
The flow of goods, services, money, and information both within and among
business entities including suppliers, manufacturers, and customers;
It also includes all types of organizations engaged in transportation,
warehousing, information processing, and materials handling. Sourcing,
procurement, production scheduling, manufacturing, order processing, inventory
management, warehousing, and;
Finally, customer service is the functions performed throughout the supply
chain.
The ultimate goal of SCM is to meet customers` demand more efficiently by providing
the right product, in the right quantity, at the right location, on the right time, and in the

18
right condition. The objective of SCM is to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage
(Handfield, Monczka, Giuinipero & Patterson, 2009). Pathak (2015) also suggests that,
supply chain management practice is becoming extremely important to achieve and
maintain competitiveness. Supply-chain competitiveness is a holistic matter that
requires each partner within the supply chain to align their structural elements. Some
important elements of supply chain competitiveness as established by various
researchers are cost, logistics, flexible supply chain, quality, delivery, product
availability, innovative products, value added product and customer supplier
relationship (Nowell, 2005; Cooper et al., 1997).
The supply chain in the textiles industry is complex. Often the supply chain is relatively
long, with a number of parties involved (Jones, 2002). Consequently, careful
management of the supply chain is required in order to reduce lead times and achieve
quick response.
It is common practice for retailers to deal with manufacturers, with centralized buying
and considerable negotiation on prices, quality and delivery schedules (Bruce and
Moger, 1999). However, Popp (2000) suggests that in addition, in many chains there is
an intermediary, often an import or export agency, acting as a significant figure within
the chain. The addition of the intermediary has come about as a result of increasing
globalization within the industry. Globalization of the textile and clothing supply chain
is currently intensifying, with many companies either sourcing components from
overseas, or moving manufacturing to countries with lower labour costs (Jones, 2002).
In addition, the fashion industry is characterized by a number of factors, namely a short
lifecycle, high volatility, low predictability, and high impulse purchase (Fernie and
Sparks, 1998). The upstream (supplier) and downstream (customer) linkages and
Information sharing to be positively related to both supply chain performance and
export performance. The best predictors of export performance were found to be (in

19
order of decreasing importance): supply chain performance; supplier linkages; and
linkages (supplier and customer taken together).3
In manufacturing industries, the levels of inventories at all stages (i.e. raw material,
work-in-process and finished goods inventories) indicate the firm`s competitive
positioning, strategies, internal processes and relationships with suppliers and
downstream customers.4
Figure 2. 2 Supply chain management antecedents and consequences
Source: John el at., 2001
3
Sherwat Elwan Ibrahim, Olayinka Ogunyemi, (2012) "The effect of linkages and information sharing on
supply chain and export performance: An empirical study of Egyptian textile manufacturers", Journal of
Manufacturing Technology Management, Vol. 23 Iss: 4, pp.441 - 463
4
Nag, Barin; Han, Chaodong; Yao, Dong-qing. Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management.
2014, Vol. 25 Issue 3, p351-370. 20p. DOI: 10.1108/JMTM-06-2012-0062. , Database: Business Source
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Title
Identifying weak points of existing supply chain and their impact on competitiveness. A study of the Ethiopian apparel manufacturing eco-system
Grade
A-10.0
Author
Year
2016
Pages
151
Catalog Number
V385920
ISBN (eBook)
9783668618329
ISBN (Book)
9783668618336
File size
3300 KB
Language
English
Tags
ethiopian, Business environment, Apparel, Supply chain, Porter's Diamond model, Competitiveness
Quote paper
Nigussie Godana (Author), 2016, Identifying weak points of existing supply chain and their impact on competitiveness. A study of the Ethiopian apparel manufacturing eco-system, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/385920

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