Project Report, 2016
34 Pages, Grade: 3.56
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
1.4 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
1.5 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
1.6 RESEARCH QUESTION
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
2.0 LITERATRURE REVIEW
2.1. OCCUPATIONAL HAZARDS
2.2 CLASSIFICATION OF OCCUPATIONAL HAZARDS
2.3. CONTROL MEASURES OF OCCUPATIONAL HAZARDS
2.4 TYPES OF PERSONAL PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND USES
2.5 IMPORTANCE OF THE USAGE OF PERSONAL PROTECTIVE DEVICE
2.6 MAINTENANCE OF PERSONAL FROTECTIVE DEVICES
2.7. CONSEQUENCES/HEALTH IMPLICATION OF NON-USAGE OF PERSONAL PROTECTIVE DEVICES
2.8. SUGGESTED SOLUTION TO NON-USAGE OF 'PERSONAL PROTECTIVE DEVICES
3.0. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1. DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY AREA
3.2 STUDY DESIGN
3.3. SAMPLING TECHNIQUES
3.4. INSTRUMENT OF DATA COLLECTION
3.5. METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION
3.6 ADMINISTRATIVE OF INSTRUMENT
3.7 METHOD DATA ANALYSIS
3.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
5.0 DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
5.1 SUMMARY OF DATA ANALYSIS
Personal protective devices are equipment used in industries/factories mainly by workers to prevent/protect themselves from hazards that may arise during the course of carrying out their duties. Personal protective devices are considered as last line of protection or defense for workers against different types of hazards after all engineering measures to minimize or control hazards from the source itself has been exhausted (OSHA, 2003).
It is worthy to note that industrial evolution has brought great development to the economy of the world at large. However, the consequence that comes with this development are quite unnoticeable. These neglected side effects of industrialization has greatly contributed to the world problems, mostly especially on the health of the workers (Olorunda, 2009).
The workers are exposed to various degrees of hazards present or generated in the work environment leading to accidents deafness, cuts, abrasion, blindness, respiratory diseases, disabilities etc. resulting from negligence on the part of the workers, non-compliance to the rules and regulations guiding industrial processes and mostly the non-usage of personal protective devices (CCOHS, 2016; Olorunda, 2009).
Generally, sawmills as an industry have potential hazards which have imparts or consequences on the workers mostly when personal protective devices are not use. Akoti sawmill has provision for personal protective devices but the workers do not make effective use of them, which predispose the workers to hazards which can result into injury, cuts, deafness, blindness, impaired hearing, heart problems, respiratory diseases, headaches, dizziness, accidents, high blood pressure, Asthma and all other diseases and disabilities and even so it can also lead to death.
Therefore, awareness should be made so as to protect and promote the health of workers thereby enhancing productivity.
Personal protective equipment’s (PPE) are equipment’s which must be worn by every industrial] factories workers before starting] handling any factory work: some of the personal protective devices include gloves, body covering (long trousers, long sleeved shirt, and stocks) apron, boots, googles or face shield, head or neck coverings, mouth and nose guards etc.
Based on these observations, this prompted me to carry out-the research on non-usage of personal protective devices so as to know the reason and. effects of non-usage of those devices/ equipment by industrial/ factory workers (OSHA, 2003).
The problem of diseases and disabilities that occur to workers after few tears of working in a factory are increasing.
In Akoti sawmill, workers are exposed to various health hazards which are generated in the work environment leading to various problem such as blindness, respiratory diseases etc.
My visit to the place as an environmental technologist in training gave me a clearer View to the main reason why disease and disabilities might occur "most times to factory workers has a result of negligence on the part of the worker non compliances to the rules and regulations guiding industrial processes and mostly the non-usage of personal protective devices, which leads to accidents, deafness, cuts, blindness and disabilities etc.
Based on the foregoing, it is of utmost importance to carry out a wide research on the non-usage of personal protective devices especially among factory workers so as to ascertain reasons for it; the consequences involved and also suggest likely solution to this problem
i. This research is aimed at creating awareness on the effects of not using personal protective devices among factory workers and means by which some of the problems or risk involved can be avoided.
ii. The study will make people (workers) to be aware of the reasons and effects of non-usage of personal protect devices and also the various means by which they can prevent and control its effects or consequences.
iii. The study will create awareness on the importance of the personal protective devices which will make the industry comply to the rules and regulations guiding industrial processes like the provision of personal protective devices which will in turn promote healthy living among industrial workers and also promote productivity.
iv. The study will also serve as a basis for further studies.
The purpose of the study is to determine the effects of non-usage of protective devices among industrial workers.
In addition, this research will also focus on the importance of Using personal protective devices is as to promote and maintain the health status of workers in different occupations.
The objectives of the study are to;
1. know if personal protective devices are provided for workers by the management and to find out the reasons for non-usage of personal protective devices is some factories.
2. know if workers know the importance of personal protective devices on their health as well as industrial activities or productivity.
3. investigate if workers know the effects of non-usage of personal protective devices.
4. provide sound, scientific recommendations/advice to the workers and management on the importance of using personal protective devices on the health of workers and on the industrial productivity.
i. Does the management provides you with personal protective devices/equipment?
ii. Does the workers makes use of available personal protective devices/equipment?
iii. Does the workers known the health implications of non-usage of personal protective devices?
iv. Does non usage of personal protective devices has effect on human health?
HEALTH: According to the World Health Organization (WHO), health can be defined as the state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing of an individual and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.
OCCUPATION HAZARDS: These are condition within the working environment or those associated with the works that have potential ‘of causing injury and damage to a person (Aibor and Olorunda, 2006)
FACTORY: According to section 87 of the Nigerian factory decrees 1987, factory means any premises in which one person is or more people are employed to carry out the following:
-The making of an article or of part of any article or
-The altering, repairing, ornamenting, finishing, clearing or washing or the breaking up, demolition of any article or the adapting for sale or any premises Where work is carried on by way of trade 'or for purposes of gain.
ACCIDENT: According to International Labour Organization (ILO), accident can be defined as unexpected, unanticipated occurrence which could cause injury, loss of life and property.
OCCUPATION DISEASES: It can be defined as any abnormality in body that arise out or in the course of one’s employment or any chronic ailment that occur as a result of work or occupational activity (Park, 2011).
OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH SERVICES: Occupational health service is concerned with health services in its relation to work and the working environment e.g. preventive, control and rehabilitative health services (Arinola et.al., 2007).
OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH: This is a practice of utilizing public health practices and theories for the promotion and maintenance of health workers (Akinsola, 2006).
PRE-EMPLOYEMENT MEDICAL EXAMINATION: This is a medical examination carried out on all new workers or workers before employment so as to know their health status or to ensure sustainability of the individual state (Arinola et.al., 2007).
PREODIC MEDICAL EXAMINATION: These are devices or equipment’s used in an industry to protect workers from hazards. They are intended to be worn or held by a person at work which protects or serve as ultimate protection against all categories of risks or hazards to their health and safety. It includes clothing affording protection against the weather, face shield, goggles mouthy / nose mask, helmet e.t.c (Aibor et.al., 2012).
It is obvious in the world health organization (WHO) health statistics that the major causes of ill health among industrial workers is as a result of their exposure to various occupational hazards attributed to their individual Working environment.
The purpose of personal protective devices is to reduce employee exposure to hazards when engineering and administrative these risks to acceptable levels, protective is needed when there are hazards present.
The hazards that are addressed by personal protective equipment/ devices include physical, electrical, heat, chemicals, biohazard and borne particulate matter. Protective devices have the series limitation that does not eliminate hazard at source and may result in employees being exposed to the hazard if the devices are not used effective (NIOSH, 2015).
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