Comparison of governmental systems. Parliamentary democracy in Germany vs. constitutional monarchy in the United Kingdom


Term Paper, 2016

12 Pages

Anonymous


Excerpt

Inhaltsverzeichnis

1 Introduction
1.1 A Persuasive Thesis Statement on Which is the better governmental system? The German or the British one?
1.2 Introduction
1.3 Methodology

2 Body
2.1 Governmental system of Germany
2.2 Governmental system of the United Kingdom
2.3 Comparison: Similarities and differences

3 Conclusion

4 Bibliography

1 Introduction

1.1 A Persuasive Thesis Statement on Which is the better governmental system? The German or the British one?

Even though the queen of the United Kingdom represents her citizens better than the German “Bundeskanzler”, the German system is better because German citizens have more political influence than the British citizens. In my opinion a democracy is better than a constitutional monarchy.

1.2 Introduction

During my research for a topic of my Hausarbeit I found many interesting issues in the historical and the political section. But finally, I decided to write something about the German and the British governmental system. Comparing these will be particularly interesting, I think. So I want to analyse which is the better system during my Hausarbeit. Moreover, I am going to find out what the advantages and disadvantages of a parliamentary democracy[1] and a constitutional monarchy[2] are. I also want to know in which governmental system the citizens have more political influence.

1.3 Methodology

To figure out which is the better system I will write two texts. The first one is about the parliamentary democracy in Germany. The second text will be about the constitutional monarchy in the United Kingdom. The mainly source for my German text will be the book “AbiBox Demokratie und sozialer Rechtsstaat” which I bought for the lessons of politics in school. Furthermore, I am going to use the internet.

For the British system I will mainly do my research in the internet, but I also will have a look into some books I lent by library. After that, I will compare these systems and clarify the pros and cons of them. In the end I am going to conclude which is the better governmental system.

2 Body

2.1 Governmental system of Germany

The political system of Germany is segmented into three levels of government[3].

The communes are on the smallest level of the governmental system of Germany. The governments which are responsible for villages[4] and small cities are elected every four to six years. This depends on the “Bundesland” in which the commune is. For example, in Bavaria the citizens elect their local governments every six years. The communes are competent for tasks like planning building projects, fire prevention, disaster management or sewage disposal. Moreover, they are part of the “Bundesländer” of Germany[5].

On the next size up level there are the federal state governments. Germany has 16 “Bundesländer” which are organized as parliamentary republics. Every government has its own constitution and partly they have different names. For instance, in Bavaria it is “Staatsregierung” while Hamburg and Bremen call it “Senat”. The administrations consist of a head of government and, depending on the “Bundesland”, of distinct numbers of ministers. In the federal states which are no cities, the heads of government are called “Ministerpräsidenten”. In Berlin the person is named “Regierender Bürgermeister” and in Hamburg and Bremen “Präsident des Senats”. Every five years the legislative period is over and the citizens elect new federal state governments. On this level the “Landesparlament” is the only body of the system which is directly voted by the citizenry. This “Landtag” elects the incidental “Ministerpräsident” who appoints the minister. They all together build the federal state governments whose tasks are the administration and participation on German law-making processes[6].

The highest level in the governmental system of Germany, which is organized as a parliamentary democracy, is the national level. It is separated into three powers: The legislative, the executive and the judicial power. These have to control each other in every case. For every type of power it is possible to dedicate one or more political institutions. For instance, the “Bundestag” is associated with the legislative. This German parliament is the centre of the political system on national level. While members of the “Bundestag” elect the “Bundeskanzler” by themselves, they vote together with representatives of the “Landesparlamente” for the “Bundespräsident” and together with delegates of the “Bundesrat” for the judge of “Verfassungsgericht”[7]. Elections of the “Bundestag”, which has 630 lawmakers at the moment, are every four years[8]. Not getting more than five percent of all votes is a reason why a party cannot get into this legislative institution to have a limited number of parties there[9]. Important tasks of the “Bundestag” are legislation, controlling over the government and elections of the “Bundeskanzler”. Exercising control over budget and decision making on deployments of the “Bundeswehr” in foreign countries are important as well[10].

Another political institution is the “Bundesrat” which can be associated with the legislative, too. It is called the parliament of “Bundesländerregierungen” and contains 69 members at the moment. How many members of the “Bundesrat” who are not elected by citizens come from one Bundesland, depends on its size[11].

The German legislation is always based on the “Grundgesetzbuch” and it is the task of legislative institutions like “Bundesrat” and parliament as mentioned already. A draft law about new regulations or changes can be suggested by “Bundesrat”, “Bundestag” or “Bundesregierung”. If there is a new proposal, the “Bundestag” will discuss about it three times. At the end of the third time all members ballot about the new law. For implementing it officially, there has to be a majority (more than 50 percent of the votes) for the new law. If after the “Bundestag”, the “Bundesrat” also agrees, the new bill finally is decided. Before its commencement the “Bundespräsident” has to sign it[12].

Moreover, associated with the executive, there is the political institution called “Bundesregierung”. It includes the “Bundeskanzler” who is Angela Merkel at the moment and ministers. The head of government (Merkel) prescribes the main features of German politics and the ministers who lead all federal ministries of the state organize the administrative tasks on national level[13].

A judicial institution is the “Bundesverfassungsgericht” which has to pay attention on compliance with all legislation. If there is a problem between two governmental bodies it will resolve the conflict and in special cases it can forbid the work of a party in Germany[14].

2.2 Governmental system of the United Kingdom

The United Kingdom has a different governmental system than Germany. It is organized as a constitutional monarchy[15] and its administration is based on the „King in Parliament“-concept[16]. This means that all power comes out of the parliament. Furthermore, there is no codified constitution which implies that there is no single document which determines the political regulation[17].

The biggest legislative power is the British parliament, which includes two chambers and the monarch. The “House of Commons” has 650 delegates because the United Kingdom is separated into 650 election districts in which the citizens vote for one delegate per each district. The prime minister and the opposition leader also are part of this chamber[18]. In the “House of Lords” which is segmented into “Lords Temporal” and “Lords Spiritual” there are 810 members at the moment. The majority consists of life peers who had been nominated by the prime minister. In former times the titles were handed down to family members, but since 1999, when the “House of Lords” got reformed, there is only a minority who can bequeath the titles. The “House of Commons” issues laws while the “House of Lords” examines them. If there is a referendum about a law in the parliament, the members who are part of the government will win it, because they are the majority[19].

Because England has only two really important parties the government is either build of the “Conservative party” or of the “Labour” party. Normally, one party gets the outright majority because of the majority voting system. But if that was not the case, the monarch would decide which head of party shall build the government. Every delegate who is not a part of government belongs with the opposition[20].

The head of government in the United Kingdom is the monarch who at the moment is Queen Elisabeth II. Today the commission of queen nearly is ceremonial. She has three fundamental rights: The right to be heard, the right to hand out advice and the right to warn. The queen also has to nominate the prime minister who is part of the mayor party. These prime ministers tasks are to represent the government and to appoint ministers for the parliament[21]

2.3 Comparison: Similarities and differences

During the following text the differences and similarities between the German and the British governmental system will be shown. The biggest difference between them is the fact, that the German system is organized as a parliamentary democracy while the British system is organized as a constitutional monarchy. Parliamentary democracy means that the cabinet depends on the parliament which is elected by the citizens. According to this the citizens have a lot of influence on the politics in their country. Having a constitutional monarchy means that the political power of the monarch who is the head of state is restricted by a constitution. The political centre is like in the parliamentary democracy a parliament. Either the monarch and the parliament or only the parliament is responsible for legislation.

Moreover, the title of king or queen is handed to the next generation in the United Kingdom[22]. In Germany the head of state which is the “Bundeskanzler” is elected by the “Bundestag”. In both countries the head of state is mainly a figure that represents his or her country.

While the “Bundeskanzler” is elected by the “Bundestag”, the prime minister is appointed by the monarch.

The German governmental system is much more complicated than the British one, because the political power in Germany is segmented into many political entities[23]. In the United Kingdom there are only government and parliament.

In the “Bundestag” all delegates are equal[24]. On the opposite the legislation in the United Kingdom mainly takes place in only one part of parliament, the “House of Commons”. The legislation is the most important competence of a parliament[25]. Because of that the “House of Commons” is more powerful than the “House of Lords”.

Furthermore, in the United Kingdom there are only two big parties, the “Conservative Party” and the “Labour Party”[26]. In Germany there are much more important parties. Some examples are “Bündnis 90/Die Grünen“, “CDU“, “SPD“, “Die Linke“ or a relatively new party “Die Alternative für Deutschland“. Germany is segmented into sixteen federal states. They are called “Bundesländer” and all of them have their own government. For instance, they are responsible for the police or education. In the United Kingdom are no federal states, but 650 election districts. Another difference is that the British system is more than 400 years old[27] while the German one has only about 65 years of experience[28].

Summarising the similarities and differences it can be concluded that the German system and that one of the United Kingdom are very different organized, but there are a few accordances.

[...]


[1] Bognanni, Massimo. "Politisches System Der Bundesrepublik Deutschland." Zeit Online. N.p., 10 Sept. 2010. Web. 25 Oct. 2016.

[2] "Wie Die Britische Monarchie Funktioniert."Entdecke England. N.p., 4 Sept. 2012. Web. 25 Sept. 2016.

[3] "Verwaltungsgliederung Deutschland."Wikipedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Sept. 2016.

[4] "Was Sind Kommunen ?" Brandenburgische Landeszentrale Für Politische Bildung. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Sept. 2016.

[5] "Gemeinde(Deutschland)."Wikipedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Sept. 2016.

[6] "Land (Deutschland)."Wikipedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Oct. 2016.

[7] Ellermann, Viktoria, and Manuel Werder. "Der Deutsche Bundestag."Abi-Box Politik-Wirtschaft: Demokratie Und Sozialer Rechtsstaat. Ed. Annette Homann. Hannover: Brinkmann Meyerhöfer GmbH & KG, 2016. 80. Print.

[8] "Liste Der Mitglieder des Deutschen Bundestages(18. Wahlperiode)."Wikipedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Oct. 2016.

[9] Bundeszentrale Für Politische Bildung. "Fünf-Prozent-Hürde."Bundeszentrale Für Politische Bildung. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Oct. 2016.

[10] "Funktion Und Aufgabe."Deutscher Bundestag. N.p., 31 May 2013. Web. 10 Oct. 2016.

[11] Ellermann, Viktoria, and Manuel Werder. "Der Bundesrat."Abi-Box Politik-Wirtschaft: Demokratie Und Sozialer Rechtsstaat. Ed. Annette Homann. Hannover: Brinkmann Meyerhöfer GmbH & KG, 2016. 84. Print.

[12] Ellermann, Viktoria, and Manuel Werder. "Das Gesetzgebungsverfahren auf einen Blick." Abi-Box Politik-Wirtschaft: Demokratie Und Sozialer Rechtsstaat. Ed. Annette Homann. Hannover: Brinkmann Meyerhöfer GmbH & KG, 2016. 81. Print.

[13] Ellermann, Viktoria, and Manuel Werder. "Die Bundesregierung."Abi-Box Politik-Wirtschaft: Demokratie Und Sozialer Rechtsstaat. Ed. Annette Homann. Hannover: Brinkmann Meyerhöfer GmbH & KG, 2016. 85. Print.

[14] Ellermann, Viktoria, and Manuel Werder. "Das Bundesverfassungsgericht."Abi-Box Politik-Wirtschaft: Demokratie Und Sozialer Rechtsstaat. Ed. Annette Homann. Hannover: Brinkmann Meyerhöfer GmbH & KG, 2016. 87. Print.

[15] "Wie Die Britische Monarchie Funktioniert."Entdecke England. N.p., 4 Sept. 2012. Web. 25 Sept. 2016.

[16] "Politisches System des Vereinigten Königreichs."Wikipedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Oct. 2016.

[17] Doeker, Günther. Das Politische System Großbritaniens. Ed. Malcolm Wirth. N.p.: n.p., n.d. 63-66. Print.

[18] Roland Sturm. "Regierung Und Verwaltung."Informationen Zur Politischen Bildung. Bonn: BpB, 1999. 262. Print.

[19] "House of Lords."Wikipedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Oct. 2016.

[20] Roland Sturm. "Regierung Und Verwaltung."Informationen Zur Politischen Bildung. Bonn: BpB, 1999. 262. Print.

[21] "Politisches System des Vereinigten Königreichs."Wikipedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Oct. 2016.

[22] "Britische Monarchie."Wikipedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Oct. 2016.

[23] "Verwaltungsgliederung Deutschland."Wikipedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Sept. 2016.

[24] "Deutscher Bundestag."Wikipedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Oct. 2016.

[25] "Politisches System des Vereinigten Königreichs."Wikipedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Oct. 2016.

[26] Roland Sturm. "Regierung Und Verwaltung."Informationen Zur Politischen Bildung. Bonn: BpB, 1999. 262. Print.

[27] "Politisches System des Vereinigten Königreichs."Wikipedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Oct. 2016.

[28] "Politisches System der Bundesrepublik Deutschland."Wikipedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Oct. 2016.

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Details

Title
Comparison of governmental systems. Parliamentary democracy in Germany vs. constitutional monarchy in the United Kingdom
Year
2016
Pages
12
Catalog Number
V386608
ISBN (eBook)
9783668605220
ISBN (Book)
9783668605237
File size
517 KB
Language
English
Tags
comparison, parliamentary, germany, united, kingdom
Quote paper
Anonymous, 2016, Comparison of governmental systems. Parliamentary democracy in Germany vs. constitutional monarchy in the United Kingdom, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/386608

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