Incidence of drug abuse amongst university students in Pakistan

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11 Seiten

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Drug abuse is the use of any chemical substance, legal or illegal, resulting to an individual's
physical, mental or social damage (Blackmore, et al 2007). Characteristic, over the roof, and
self-harming utilization of susceptibility framing medicines or ingredients, encouragement force
or reliance, genuine physiological damage, (for example, damage to kidneys, liver, heart) as
good as mental hurt, (for example, useless conduct designs, mind flits, memory misfortune), or
death is also called drug abuse (Charles, 2002).The adults are using illegal drugs that were
estimated 25% at least once time in their lives. The usage of illegal drugs country to country and
also the usage are based on country (Andersson, Moller & Galea). It is estimated that the one
third of the population use drug in their lives Denmark, France and UK (EMCDDA, 2014). In
Islamic countries the usage of alcohol and drug are sharply increase day by day. Drug abuse in
Iran is an important problem in recent years. According to the national authorities, Iran is among
the countries with the highest prevalence of the usage of illegal drugs. (UNODC, 2014).
Pakistan is the 6th most crowded nation on the planet with around 180 million people, (Ksir,
Ray, Charles & 2002). Pakistan keeps on flourishing as a key on-screen role, politically and
money-wise, in the south and south west Asian region, regardless of facing a great group of local
social, financial, and political issues, in charge of upsetting its proceeded with improvement. The
nation is positioned 146 out of 186 nations by the 2013 United Nations Human Development
Index, with an about portion of the populace living below the deprivation levels and it results
addiction occurs when a artificial reliance to a medication is consolidated with a mind-boggling
desire to utilize the substance (Browne, 2014). An intelligent student could not do well due to
these drugs affects.Provision of these drugs is very easy in Pakistan now a daytime.This will
increase the opportunities of pupils to lose their interest in studies and as youth and scholars are
important pillars of the future of this nation (Gray, 2007). Thus, the Government should have
established such policies to make scholars aware of such varieties of things that use them and
make them addicted to such variety of medications that harm them and as well as the whole state
(Aarnoudse, Dieleman, & Stricker, 2007).

Research Objectives
To assess the relationship between use of drugs and education of parents.
To analyze the physical and psychological changes in behavior and attitudes of students
for using illicit drugs.
Research question
What are the causes that lead students' interests to use of drugs?
What are the psychological changes viewed due to the role of drugs?
Significance of study
Medication and liquor misuse among college understudies is a remarkable reason for worry. Use
of illegal substances might be linked to a fall down in individual and social spirit, particularly
because addictive medications, for instance, heroin when clients regularly wind up noticeably
included in unlawful exercises to obtain immediate payment to purchase the medicine.
Medication and liquor utilize additionally disturbs different understudies who are not themselves
Drug related issues are a significant danger to the security and social prosperity.The
enhancement in the rates of substance use among young individuals has been set out to be
regarded as one of the exceptional social events.Therefore, inquiries about on this issue have
been induced to come to understand the high proportion of substance use. It ought to be observed
that in various investigations generality rates of different legal or illegal substances were taken.
The process drug abuse has turned out to be critical in late decades because of its sprinkle, social
and wellbeing results. This reality is proved by its advancement in a few societies, with the
expanding improvement of a mechanical and utilization society, which benefits the utilization of
these substances to support socialization and prosperity (Henriksson & Leifman,2012).
Medication utilize supposes a progression of physical, mental and social issues, notwithstanding
the spending of open assets because of related details, particularly in adolescents,
notwithstanding when its utilization is test or leisure. Drug addiction leads to alterations in the
construction of the mind as well as the physical structure of students. Students and youth are the
future for this country. It is really an important task to make students aware that how such kind
of activities could harm their career. This kind of research could play a role in making aware of

many people about such kind of acts, and to control provision of such harmful things in
university area.
Literature Review
Review of literature is an important step in the process of research. No scientific research can
start abruptly. All scientific study stems out because of the consolidation of a host of knowledge
already gathered by various pioneers in the field. Literature review is termed as an evaluative
study about the existing readings on our selected topic (McNeely, & Barber)
This chapter reviews the previous literature regarding usage of drugs and its effects on students'
skills and future. Our goal is to review the variety of domains where these kinds of illicit drugs
harm students and usage of such kind of drugs mentally disturbs them. We all know that how
such kind of medicines damage mental abilities of students and in this way, they could not
perform well in their studies (Kerr, Stattin & Burk, 2010).
Drug in Pakistan
Pakistan's geographic area beside Afghanistan, the world's biggest maker of unlawful opium,
puts the nation in a helpless position as far as medication trafficking and additionally tranquilize
manhandle. Examples of unlawful medication creation, dispersion and mishandle change
because of social, monetary and political advancements. Opiates have turned into a numerous
test to law authorization specialists. In the late 1980s, Pakistan and Afghanistan sent out about a
large portion of the world's heroin. Pakistan, particularly goading endeavored decrease
development heroin, yet the administration's broadened viably territories. Also, different political
and monetary strengths conveyed to stand opiates perseveringly. Association should binds so
filled defilement new chief need flame larger part. Huge benefits created opiates business just
ruined requirement experts, supposed, had subsidized numerous related violations. Development
generally amid to close dedication to wiping out development, elective improvement ventures
supported by the worldwide group, prompted a lessening development roughly to about 2001. In
any case, development, most likely because of costs restriction development. Development
accounted for surprisingly development in aggregate region developed declined because

purposeful annihilation endeavors (Nestler, 2012). If we closely examine the above details, we
can say that these kinds of illicit drugs could harm live of children and individuals. It does not
only play with their own health and future but also they are closely affecting other persons
related to them and who are closely related with them like their siblings and parents. It is also
because that provision of such kind of drugs and medicines in Pakistan is very important due to
the sharing boundary with Afghanistan and no proper laws were made or implemented to stop
availability of such kind of medicines. The ball is in the court of Government, it is their duty to
keep proper check and balance to the provision of such kinds of medicines as they are not only
damaging individuals but also whole society.
Research Methodology
Research Design
Research design is an important procedure to complete a research. If a right design is not chosen
then expected result achievement is problematic. The research design of current study is survey
quantitative research design. Among the different methods of data collection for research
purposes, questionnaire survey method is preferred by many researchers due to its various
advantages, powers and benefits.
Positivists believe that quantitative data can be used to create new theories and or to test existing
Target population
Target population of current study is students from hostels of Punjab University which use drugs
and live in hostels.
Sample size and Sampling Technique
Total sample of 100 respondents was selected for this study. For this research, purposive
sampling is used to draw the sample size under the courtesy of snow ball sampling technique.
Tool of Data Collection
Questionnaire was used for data collection. The constructed questionnaire consists three sections
and has a total of 24 questions. The first section was used to collect demographic data of

respondents which included age, family size, father's occupation, Mother and father's
educational level. The other two sections consisted close-ended questions with two response
Data Analysis
After the collection of data, the next step is data processing. The process of data involves
different ways to code data for SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences), next step is to
enter the data through numeric coding into SPSS field.
Data processing technique
The data gathered was entered in SPSS through numeric coding and after that statistical test of
linear regression is applied. The linear regression test is used to describe the relationship between
dependent and independent variable. Different questions were computed to make one variable
and then linear regression test is applied.
Ethical consideration
Informed Consent: The respondents had proper referencing were format. Informed about aims
and objectives of the study.
Confidentiality: The surveys straightforwardly revealed individual participating research
Anonymity: Anonymity of individuals participating in the research was ensured.
Data Analysis
Factors for use of drugs
Use drugs for joy seeking
Use drugs due to lack of

complication of drugs.
Use drugs for body disease
Use drug for low self-
Use drugs due to family
Use low cost drugs
Use drugs due to free time
Use drugs for friends offer
Use drugs due to parents
The above table reveals the reasons of respondents due to which they use drugs. A significant
number of respondents `said that they use drugs for joy seeking. Majority of respondents were
aware of harmful effects of drugs but still they use drugs. This is also because those drugs have
such kinds of chemicals which make people used to it. When they don't use feeling of anxiety
make them restless.
More than 50 percent of respondents use drugs due to teenager curiosity. Teen age is the most
difficult time for every individual, because in this stage people search for more answers to their
questions. It is the time of curiosity for every individual. Curiosity is actually a phenomenon to
discover for more. Another factor that largely affects use of drugs is the company we had. There
is a quote a man is known by his company. Here is the point where that factor applies because
approximately 55 percent of drugs users use drugs due to friends offer or their company.

. Hypothesis 1
H0: There is no relationship between physical changes and use of drugs
H1: There is a relationship between physical changes and use of drugs
How often do you use
a. Dependent Variable: physic changes
Level of significance: 0.05
Significance value or P-Value: .000
The above table strengthens our alternative hypothesis and reject null hypothesis. This shows
that there is a relationship between physical changes and use of drugs. Use of drugs makes a
person addicted to it and when they will not be able to get it Drugs can have a more drawn out
enduring effect on psychological well-being as well, and must contemplate own qualities and
vulnerabilities. Consider whether you use drugs to make terrible feelings go away. Even on the
off chance that begins utilizing drugs with an unmistakable personality they may at present
influence emotional well-being. Medications can basically uncover awful emotions never knew
you had.
Hypothesis 2
H0: There is no relationship between use of drugs and parents `education
H1: There is a relationship between use of drugs and parents `education

parents education .074
a. Dependent Variable: use drugs
Level of significance: 0.05
Significance value or P-Value: .000
The above results indicate that parents `education and use of drugs of children has a significant
relationship. Parents will do anything to keep their children safe, but communicating with youth
becomes more challenging as they get older. That's why parents should talk to children about
alcohol and other drugs early. It's a conversation that parents need to have because drugs can
ruin your child's life.
Summary, conclusion and Recommendations
With the above results, it can be summarizing that drug addiction is a harmful activity that will
lead a lot of damage not only for an individual but for the whole society. Drug use not only harm
us emotionally but it also has long and very severe effects on an individual's health. Parents can
control this activity of children from the very start or at any stage but before getting very severe.
When an individual gets addicted to it, it will very hard to make them better or at that stage
continuous prohibiting could lead to severe problems... Taylor (2003) in literature shows that
parents play an essential role and as well as their peers influence adolescent towards usage of
drugs by influencing attitude about alcohol and by acting as role models, this point is
strengthening by results of our research as it shows a significant relationship between use of
drugs and parents' involvement. Parents should play their role to keep an eye on the company of
their children as well as they should fill the communication gap between them and their children

as it is a biggest reason that lead many children towards the use of drugs like heroin and opium
Research also shows significant relationship between two variables of drug abuse and physical
changes which strengthen the research of smith ET. al (2001) which shows that due to drugs
young adults faces a lot of health problems which also lead to death and also drugs shows many
physical changes like sudden mood swings, sudden change in sleeping patterns, random decrease
in academic grades and the most important one company of individuals which constantly use
such kind of harmful substances,
The meaning of drugs enslavement alludes to the over the top and rehashed utilization of
perilous measures of medications and the presence of withdrawal side effects when not utilizing
drugs. The impacts of medication dependence seen, because of this impulse, are boundless and
significant. Impacts of medication enslavement are felt by the someone who is addicted both
physically and mentally. The impacts are additionally found in those around the someone who is
addicted, like relatives. The impacts of medication compulsion likewise incorporate the cost to
the equity and medicinal services frameworks. Brutal conduct is most firmly attached to liquor
utilize and liquor mishandle oversees the handicap of 58.3 million individuals around the world.
Enslavement differ tranquilize are normally habit happen. Medication fixation compulsion
because sedate cerebrum adjusts and relies initiates highs.
There are many reasons of drug abuse social factors are an important point due to which
individuals attract towards drugs. Results from 50 respondents reveals that they use drugs for joy
seeking and to get relief from any kind of tension for some time. More than 80 per cent of
respondents use drugs due to their friends and to get better acceptability among their friends.

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Incidence of drug abuse amongst university students in Pakistan
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Muhammad Saeed (Autor:in), 2015, Incidence of drug abuse amongst university students in Pakistan, München, GRIN Verlag,


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