The Background Field Theory

Scientific Study, 2000

24 Pages



The Background Field (BF) is an advanced figurative quantum model of the Zero-Point Field, the probable origin of inertia, gravity and EM-fields. It explains also, why the speed of light is limited, and unclear phenomena like "antigravitation" and the “Tunnel Effect” by means of interactions between elementary particles and the BF. The BF fills up the whole universe and represents therefore a resistance to any moving particle, even to light.

Our universe consists of a BF located inside an absolute void space. We can imagine the BF as a 3-D matrix of virtual gravitons linked by strings. The tension of the strings produce the resistance, we know as "inertia". Contraction of the BF produces gravitation, while a spinning BF produces EM-fields.

If we made a "hole" in the BF, this hole would have no more any inherent resistance, thus allowing to increase the velocity of particles beyond “c”. Such tiny holes in the BF are probably the origin of the "Tunnel Effect“. This effect is the first evidence for the BF. A second evidence for the BF is the higher temperature of the solar corona (up to 2x106°C) with respect to the photosphere (5,500°C) due to the high pressure of radiation that just leaves the material surface of the sun and produces large "holes" in the surrounding BF. The lack of resistance in such holes allows photons to accelerate beyond "c", thus gaining more energy and making increase the temperature in the corona.

Furthermore, if antigravitation resulted to be real, it would be the third evidence for this model, since it would be the result of competition between EM and gravitational fields for virtual particles derived from the BF. Experimental evidence of the BF would be the prediction that “c” increases in the outer space where the BF is less dense and inertia less intense. An anomalous behavior of gravitational attraction between celestial bodies could be the result of a hole in the BF between those bodies.

Finally, spacecrafts could use strong EM-radiation to produce holes in the BF and achieve practically unlimited speeds.

PACS-Number: 11.90.+t

Key Words: antigravitation, EM fields, gravitation, inertia, speed of light, strings, Tunnel Effect, virtual particles, Zero Point Energy/Field (ZPE/ZPF)


There are several aspects in physics that have not yet been already understood, like the "Tunnel Effect" or inertia, may be because physics is lacking "something" or because the concept of "time" has not yet been completely revealed.

In modern physics, string theories are already describing particles as strings, and bosons as waves propagated by these strings. Parallel new developments in the understanding of the ZPE - that is the energy contained in the perfect vacuum - have been made recently, suggesting that in some way, inertia and gravitation are interrelated.

Inertia is probably the most unknown of all physical aspects. After failing to find an experimental proof of Mach's principle, that predicted that the gravitational effect of the whole matter contained in the universe is responsible for inertia, (Haisch et al.) suggested that inertia could be interpreted also as a reaction force of interactions between the ZPF and quarks and electrons, the fundamental components of matter. This idea was improved with a further paper of (Rueda and Haisch), avoiding the previous ad hoc particle-field interaction model (Planck oscillator) as well as the initial formula complexity.

The author adopted the very likely idea that inertia and gravity are interrelated and found a scenario that is furthermore able to interrelate also EM-fields, the "Tunnel Effect" and the still uncertain “antigravitation” - if it does exist. For our proposes, we can consider the BF as a 3-D field of virtual gravitons inside an absolute void space (what we call a "perfect vacuum").

This model leads further to the prediction of holes in the BF, where the velocity of any particle can increase beyond "c", since such holes are lacking the inherent resistance (inertia) of the surrounding BF. Holes in the BF have the same properties as the "Tunnel-Effect" (overlight speed) and are generated by the same means (intense EM radiation). The "Tunnel-Effect" is therefore the first evidence for the existence of the BF, although holes in the BF allow a real overlight speed, and not only a group speed.

A second evidence is the higher temperature of the solar corona (up to 2x106°C) with respect to the "colder" photosphere (5,500°C). This could be explained by the high pressure of radiation that just leaves the material surface of the sun and produces large "holes" in the BF. In such holes, the inherent resistance (inertia) decreases, and further photons and particles that are continuously released by the photosphere can subsequently accelerate beyond the speed of light, thus gaining more energy and making increase the temperature of the solar corona.

To understand this phenomenon, we must consider that - because of the great material density of the sun - a photon is known to need approx. 1 million years to leave the body of the sun. This is because photons are again and again thrown back towards the center of the sun due to the enormous number of interactions that take place inside the sun. But once at the border of the photosphere (the last material layer of the sun), a dense beam of photons and particles is irradiated, and the high density of these photons produces holes in the BF by literally pushing away the field lines of this ground field. The result is that additional solar photons and particles do no longer find any resistance to their movement, and are therefore able to accelerate beyond "c". This real acceleration produces consequently an energy increase that makes in the end increase the temperature of the corona. Finally, as the photons and particles move away from the corona, their density decreases again with the square of the distance, and the holes in the BF consequently disappear. The final result is that outside the corona, photons adopt again their usual velocity ("c") and the ambient temperature consequently decreases to "normal" values.


We can imagine our universe as consisting of a primary absolute void (a space with no resistance) and a BF that consists of virtual gravitons (VG) linked together by strings, thus building a 3-D matrix of such VGs that generates the effects we are all familiar with, like inertia, gravity, EM-fields, "Tunnel Effect", etc. Without the BF, our universe would be completely different, since particles would accelerate beyond "c" as there would be no longer any inherent resistance (BF) that produced inertia and gravity.

The BF must consist of VGs in order to be able to produce gravitation. VGs must further consist of strings in order to be able to produce inertia by the tension of the strings. The result is that the BF might consist of a 3-D matrix of VGs, where each VG is linked by strings to other 6 VGs (up, down, front, back, left, right = + and - values of x, y, z axes). The rows and lines of such VGs and strings represent the field lines of the BF.

The BF is able to generate EM and gravitational fields by means of the following interactions with material particles:


The BF would be eternal in absence of particles, but in our universe, it changes constantly due to the overall presence of material particles (fermions). When a neutral fermion moves, it interacts constantly with VGs of the BF. One part of the kinetic energy of the fermion is hereby transferred to any interacting VG on its trajectory. For any interacting VG of the BF, one real graviton (RG) is built (gravitation wave). In consequence, any moving fermion is loosing constantly kinetic energy and producing gravitation waves.

A punctual fermion interacts always with only one VG at a time. If such a fermion has a kinetic energy Ek, any RG that is produced by interactions would have the potential energy of a VG of the BF, plus a minimal kinetic energy that is necessary to loosen the 6 strings that anchor the VG in the BF:

illustration not visible in this excerpt

The above minimal kinetic energy is therefore equivalent to the potential energy of 6 strings:

illustration not visible in this excerpt

In order to overcome the force of the 6 strings that anchor a VG in the BF, according to [1], it is necessary to apply a minimal force. This force corresponds to the inertia of a punctual particle since it represents the smallest possible resistance of the space:

illustration not visible in this excerpt

l : Minimal length, a minimum force must be applied, in order to loosen the 6 strings of a VG

The minimal length „l“ corresponds probably to a value close to Planck’s Elementary Length, since the length of a string is probably the smallest length that can exist at all.

The constant interactions with VGs withdraw kinetic energy from a moving punctual fermion, so that its kinetic energy becomes always less. With each interaction, according to [2], a particle looses the potential energy of 6 strings:

illustration not visible in this excerpt

A neutral fermion is therefore constantly decelerated by the inherent resistance of the BF. Furthermore, there is a minimum velocity at which a neutral fermion can move through the BF. To achieve this minimum velocity from the “absolute rest“, it is necessary to apply a minimum force in order to overcome the resistance of the BF. This force is again the inertial force. A particle can move through the space, only if it is accelerated to the above mentioned minimum velocity.

Supposing a punctual fermion is in a certain instant overcoming inertia from the absolute rest, it will achieve a minimum velocity, interacting each time, in a minimum time, with 1 VG, at a length, approx. equal to Planck's Elementary Length:

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Each time a VG from the BF interacts and produces a RG, the BF changes (it contracts due to the expulsion of 1 RG out of the 3-D matrix). When a fermion crosses the space, the global contraction of the BF is proportional to the total amount of interactions with VGs of the BF. As a result, in our universe, the BF is constantly contracting and a constant momentary reduction of the BF takes place. Since in the space, there is an almost unlimited number of VGs, the BF is reorganized constantly by the surrounding VGs. To do this, the free ends of the strings of those VGs, adjacent to the VGs that were converted into RGs and left the BF, do connect each other, thus producing again an intact, although contracted, BF.


According to convention, the field lines of a positive charge are directed outwards (out of the charge), while the field lines of a negative charge are directed inwards (into the charge). This can be explained as follows: a positive charge is constantly interacting with VGs of the BF, exciting and converting them into virtual photons (VPs) that are radiated in every direction. This radiation produces field lines that are directed outwards the positive charge. (In field lines of EN-fields, VPs are linked together by strings as in the BF.)

On the contrary, a negative charge interacts with VPs from surrounding EM fields and converts them back into VGs that can get linked again to the BF, thus reducing the constant reduction to the BF to a minimum. The direction of the field lines of an electric field is therefore equivalent to the flow direction of the VPs in the field, so that the field lines of a negative charge are always directed towards the charge.


Excerpt out of 24 pages


The Background Field Theory
University of Barcelona
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This study consists of two English articles that describe the Background Field (Zero Point Field), which is expected to exist in the, so called, "Quantum Vacuum". Es handelt sich um insgesamt 2 Artikel auf Englisch, die das Hintergrundfeld (Nullpunktfeld) beschreiben, das im sog. "Quanten-Vakuum" ernsthaft vermutet wird.
Background, Field, Theory, Quantum vacuum, ZPE, Zero point energy
Quote paper
Dr. Carlos Calvet (Author), 2000, The Background Field Theory, Munich, GRIN Verlag,


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