For a period of time the Human Resource Development program in the workforce has allowed employees to be trained in the field they are pursuing. Has anyone ever wondered if the transition from classroom and or On-line training has been a smooth transition into that of working on the job? Are the skill sets obtained truly utilized and if they are, are they effective. This literature review will explore articles that support the notion of a smooth transition from in class training to on the job working.
In adult learning we explored the key principles in both pedagogy and Andragogy. Those principles include: The learner, Role of the learner’s experience, Readiness to learn, orientation to learning and Motivation to learning. Putting an Identity on an individual and building a relationship with the key principles of pedagogy and Andragogy are necessary in the transition from the class to the job. This Literature review will begin with an Article titled “What Works in enhancing HRD effectiveness”. This article was written by Ida Wognum of the University of Twente.
Wognum began her article with this idea “HRD efforts have to prove the capabilities of the individual working in the organization and improving the organizational systems in which they perform their work. The primary outcome of HRD in this context is not just learning, but performance at various levels” Wognum. Earlier in this introduction there is the statement that there should be a smooth transition from in class training to working on the job. In that ability to make a transition you must apply what you have learned and effectively utilize it in the job. Wognum puts it simpler. Take what you have learned and apply it to your performance.
In Wognum article there is a statement that read as follows: “Various outputs of HRD can be measured on several levels. In general these are the learning (effects on knowledge, skills and attitudes) behavior (effects on working behavior of the individual employees), and results levels (effects on the performance results of the individuals, groups, departments or the company)”. What is being addressed in the quotation above is my interpretation that in HRD there are elements that measure the success of an HRD program and or company. Much of what we have explored in adult learning is that in Andragogy adult learners are self-directed and motivated individuals.
Skill and attitudes are also intricate roles in the HRD model. In the classroom training process both motivation and attitude are noticeable characteristics of the individual and that alone can carry to the job. Again that is a measure of HRD effectiveness. Wognum then begins to explore the HRD climate inside of the HRD effectiveness. She explains that the structure of the company as well as the size and economic sector are all characteristics of HRD effectiveness. These factors are listed as contextual. Ida Wognum has her methods coming from research and data which was collected from Dutch companies. She further breaks down her notion of Cognitive Dissonance involving HRD effectiveness.
The literature review is titled “Cross-Cultural HRD. This is a conference paper that was presented in St. Louis in 1995. The article addressed many different avenues of adult education and training from different countries. This journal/ article help to relate to the presentation presented by Absolute 5 in HRD 690 at Bowie State University. The group presented on Western and non- Western perspectives in HRD. Western and non- western perspectives address ways other cultures conduct themselves in the field of HRD.
Ahad,Osman Gani, Toh Thian- Ser and Tan Wee- Liang are representatives from Singapore. They attend Nanyang Technological University. Their paper addressed the training provided in the Asia Pacific provided by companies in Singapore. The students mentioned above state “In today’s global business environment, international Human Resource Development are of Significant importance for developing corporate managers”. The students researched and observed that many companies should commit to training mangers and supervisors as much as they would regular level employees.
The training programs were provided by external consulting organizations. There is a percentage of “38.18% and 9.09% with others is providing training through house facilitators. What are the other types of training provided and how much is used by companies? There is Cross-Cultural Training which is 16.81%, Orientation at 37.82, Language at 21.00% family adjustments at 6.72% and others which include On the job training, Skills, and technical training which equal 17.65% of the training which is provided by the Asia Pacific.
Why are those numbers important? Those numbers show us how individuals are being trained and the percentage is on what focuses are more important than others. Doing this chart allows both employer and employee to see how the training process will be helpful. And doing this will make them more effective. As you see, around thirty-seven percent of the training provided is orientation. This means that the orientation is done in the classroom. This leads me to my next subject.
Effective methods of training delivery; is the topic of discussion in this part of research. They say that lecture or classroom training was the most preferred method of training for all functional management areas. Other forms of effective delivery training include workshops and symposia for basic/ standard issues. When it comes to general management, legal issues or tax, accounting and finance, the classroom is the best suitable location. On the other hand, for training involving production and technology, training is best done at the workshop/symposium.
The literature review takes us into an environment where we see how training is done overseas in the Asia Pacific. In conducting and researching this literature we observe what an effective delivery for training management is and the percentages that are focused in areas of training that are more than others. This aspect of the literature review is imperative due to the notion that in order to understand a smooth transition from an effective training process to working, you must have effective training strategies as well as effective HRD Climates and awareness.
The “Baby Boomer” age was an age that took over much of the economy throughout the years. Those “Baby Boomers” were trained completely different from the way the younger generation is trained today. An example of this can be found in technology. Many of the older generation of workers would either have to be retrained in the advances of technology or replaced by a younger individual. My initial idea of this paper is to discuss the idea of a transition from in class training to on the job. With that idea in mind and looking at the older generation of workers who need to be retrained I am almost certain that the transition is not an easy transition to make.
“Beyond Retirement: A review of literature on career transitions for older workers” is a piece of literature written by Helena Knorr of Point Park University. Knorr article explores the “Phenomenon of aging practices and its impact on the workforce and HRD practices, through an exploration of careers stages of older workers as they approach retirement”. In so many words the author of this piece of literature is exploring in my interpretation the fact that many of the older workers are pushing back their retirement to later years or they may not retire at all. I would say that this is good for two reasons.
We are living in a difficult time. Today our unemployment rate has sky rocketed due to our recession. Many of the older workers are doing their best to hold on to jobs they have held onto for nearly twenty years. And are living in the fear that they may loose their jobs due to a transition of moving work overseas or the new ways of technology that is surely taking over. All of this is due to a transitional framework. What is Transition theory? Knorr cites transition theory as “an adult development theory that provides a way of examining adults in transition”. Knorr then cites Schlossberg in saying that transitions occur when, “an event or non event results in change in one’s behavior and relationships”, Schlossberg.
Knorr then furthers her discussion on theoretical framework in stating that a transition occurs in three contexts in our lives. Those transitions include, individual life transitions, life, life transitions, and work transitions. In her article she claimed that the transition theory assumes that individuals use their coping resources, such as support systems such as networking to ensure a positive outcome.