Oil Pollution Control Technologies in Turkey. EMSA-CleanSeaNet Service


Academic Paper, 2017
11 Pages

Excerpt

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Abstract

1. INTRODUCTION
1.1.Technical specifications of the CleanSeaNet service
1.2 Data collection for oil spill detections

2. OIL SPILL DETECTION TECHNOLOGIES IN TURKEY

3. CONCLUSIONS

References

Abstract

The importance of identifying and tracing oil pollution on the sea surface is an important fact in order to protect our environment. CleanSeaNet which is one of the European Maritime Safety Agency’s services is a significant tool and service for the States to increase the environmental safety and prevent marine pollution. By using the CleanSeaNet service which is supported by satellite technology, the detection and tracing of marine pollution is quite easier and more efficient comparing to previous years. In this study, the CleanSeaNet and its practices in Turkey regarding to identifying and tracing oil pollution have been examined. Furthermore, the practices in Turkey are revealed with a few real-case examples which have been detected by means of pollution control technology; the CleanSeaNet. This paper concludes with the recommendations on future directions on how to identify and trace oil pollution by using new technologies.

Keywords: Oil spill; marine pollution; pollution control technologies; EMSA; CleanSeaNet.

1. INTRODUCTION

The CleanSeaNet is one of the (European Maritime Safety Agency) EMSA’s significant tool which is a European satellite-based oil spill and vessel detection service. It offers assistance to participating States for identifying and tracing oil pollution on the sea surface, monitoring accidental pollution during emergencies and contributing to the identification of polluters. The service is based on the radar images obtained from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) satellites [1].

1.1.Technical specifications of the CleanSeaNet service

There are several satellites which have been used for this purpose such as ENVISAT, RADARSAT 1 and 2, SENTINEL-1, TerraSAR-X. Besides, there are service providers which are eGEOS, CLS, Edisoft, KSAT, and MDA [2]. These service providers have the ability of reception and analysis of high resolution satellite radar images. It is a reference for maritime surveillance and it does provides satellite services in near real time. Additionally, the CleanSeaNet has the capacity to acquire image segments from 200 km long up to 1400 km with a nominal "Near Real Time" performance of 30 minutes for a 400 km long acquisition. Next, the product processing and alert generation have been carried out by EMSA CleanSeaNet Data Centre. Finally, the detection results are reported to the affected coastal state approximately 30 minutes after the satellite image acquisition although the exact time varies according to the size of the image. A total of 27 countries (23 EU Coastal States, Iceland, Norway, Montenegro, and Turkey) have been using the CleanSeaNet service [3]. The service is free of charge providing that the Condition of Use has to be signed by the member states. By signing the agreement, member states are obliged to provide information (feedback) regarding the verification of possible oil spills reported by the CleanSeaNet, to ensure follow-up and provide information on spills that were not reported.

1.2 Data collection for oil spill detections

In accordance with the EMSA (European Maritime Safety Agency), the operations within the first three years have demonstrated that the CleanSeaNet is quite efficient for the detection of oil spills. Between 16th April 2007 and 31st December 2009, a total of 5816 images have been successfully delivered to 26 coastal states which already use the CleanSeaNet service. Among these images a total of 7193 possible spills have been detected by the CleanSeaNet. 1997 have been verified on site by the member states and 542 have been confirmed as being mineral oil. The overall rate of confirmation is better than 50% if the spill is checked by aircraft no later than 3 hours after the satellite acquisition [4]. As it is shown in this Figure 1 below, the number of oil spill detections in 2014 is lower than the detections in 2008.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure 1. Number of oil spill detections between 2008 and 2014 [5].

2. OIL SPILL DETECTION TECHNOLOGIES IN TURKEY

The cooperation with the EMSA has been first initiated by the MONINFO project funded by the Black Sea Commission, which is operated within the Bucharest Convention (Protection of the Black Sea against Pollution). MONINFO is a 2 years (2009 – 2010) project, and is approved by the European Parliament (EP) and funded by the European Commission (EC). By the MONINFO Project, the efforts have been made to develop cooperative means between the riparian countries to reduce the risks of ship-based oil pollution in the Black Sea. One of the most important facts of these instruments is the cooperation work with EMSA to monitor marine pollution by means of the satellites [6]. Besides, permanent secretariat of the MONINFO Project is located in Istanbul, Turkey [7].

The Figure 2 shows a real case example in which M/V OLGA-1 vessel has been reported by Georgia, and the vessel has been inspected in Turkey resulting with a detention.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure 2. Real case example within the MONINFO Project [8].

In Turkey, the CleanSeaNet service has been launched in 2011. Oil spill detections are under the responsibility and authority of the Ministry of Transport, Maritime Affairs and Communications. Additionally, the delegation of authority has been given to the Coast Guard, Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality, Kocaeli Metropolitan Municipality, Antalya Metropolitan Municipality and Mersin Metropolitan Municipality. The area of jurisdiction for detection and pollution prevention by Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality is illustrated in Figure 3.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure 3. The coordinates and area of jurisdiction for detection oil spill and pollution prevention by Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality [9].

It is possible to report any suspicious threat within the country’s territorial waters to the Coast Guard via 158, to the Provincial Directorate of Environment and Urbanisation within the region (Ministry of Environment and Urbanisation) via 181, and to the Harbour Master within the region by individuals. In accordance with the CleanSeaNet service, all reports have been collected by AAKKM (Search and Rescue and Coordination Centre) within the scope of the Ministry of Transport, Maritime Affairs and Communications. The AAKKM tracks the suspect vessel and informs the head of department for the Marine Environment and Tourism. All of the information about suspect vessels can be detected by means of AIS (Automatic Identification System) system and the information such as the name of the ship, IMO number, course, speed, destination port, ETA (Estimated Time of Arrival) to next port are identified.

Furthermore, in accordance with the instructions given by the Ministry of Transport, Maritime Affairs and Communications, oil spill which is caused by the suspect vessel can be observed on the spot by the Coast Guard boats, helicopters, unmanned air vehicles, and drones. The samplings can be taken if necessary. If the vessel’s next port of call is one of the Turkish ports, the Port State Control Officers will embark and carry out inspections as soon as the vessel is berthed. Such vessels are subject to detention and administrative fines in accordance with the local law.

[...]

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Details

Title
Oil Pollution Control Technologies in Turkey. EMSA-CleanSeaNet Service
College
Istanbul Technical University  (Graduate School of Science Engineering and Technology)
Authors
Year
2017
Pages
11
Catalog Number
V412079
ISBN (eBook)
9783668647985
ISBN (Book)
9783668647992
File size
2187 KB
Language
English
Tags
pollution, marine pollution, maritime, EMSA, cleanseanet, Turkey, shippollution, marinepollution, oilspill, oilspilltechnologies
Quote paper
Tugfan Sahin (Author)S. Can (Author), 2017, Oil Pollution Control Technologies in Turkey. EMSA-CleanSeaNet Service, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/412079

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