The discussion topic “What has research shown about the effects of terrorism and other dramatic events on subjective risk judgments, worries and travel desire?” is a question of tourism social psychology. As terrorism is a threat for every individual issue, so it has a massive impact on tourism society. Again worry is a combination of fear and anxiety (S. Larsen, Brun, W., & Ogaard, T., 2009), therefore because of terrorist attacks and other dramatic events tourist minds become worried about safety. The tourists may start to consider about the risk factors of travelling to a particular destination and thus the willingness of touring might be affected too. By the support and assistance of the current researches, I would like to define the key terms. Then I would like to describe what the current researches have shown about the impact of terrorism and other dramatic events on subjective risk judgments, worries and travel desire.
Defining Terrorism and other dramatic events
Walter and Todd on the fifth page of their book ‘The Political Economy of Terrorism’ have defined terrorism alternatively ‘as a premeditative violence which has got political motivation’ (Enders, 2006). They further added ‘…This violence is again sudden occurrence against the civilians, targeted by other national groups or clandestine agents, generally to influence a society by establishing an instance sometimes in order to implement their rights, demands and sometimes not.’ (Enders, 2006). Terrorism does not happen always by the political motivation. It has lots of other social motivations too. Because of these contingent events the terrorist groups make genocide by the revengeful attempts from their perspective. So therefore, all the terrorist attacks are dramatic and sudden events. There are some other sudden and unexpected events what can make the tourist society worry about traveling to a specific destination, for example natural devastation, massive destruction by political instability, pestilence in some countries or areas etc. All these sudden and dramatic contingencies have really a massive impact on tourists mind. As a result, the tourist groups may take into consideration about some risk factors and become worry about the trip. (S. Larsen, Brun, W., & Ogaard, T., 2009).
Defining subjective risk judgment, worries and travel desire Subjective risk judgment:
According to Holmberg, 2002; Lepp & Gibson, 2003; Callander & Page, 2003, as cited in the research article of (S. Larsen, Brun, W., Ogaard, T., & Selstad, L., 2011), ‘...within the tourism literature research scholars have focused on the risk factors which are related to travelling. Those risk factors are for example health risk, political instability, terrorism, strange food, cultural barriers, crime and a nation’s political and religious dogma. Moreover the risks, which are connected to the adventure tourism, risk narratives in backpackers, subjective risk in backpackers, rationalizations of such risks, drug use, construction of certain areas as risky, food risk (S. Larsen, Brun, W., Øgaard, T., & Selstad, L., 2007) and tourists’ worries (S. Larsen, Brun, W., & Ogaard, T., 2009).’
According to Wikipedia definition, the risk perception is mental judgment which establishes the traits and seriousness of the risk. This is generally used in reference usual obstacles and threats to the environment or health. The idea subjective risk has a various practices in the social psychological science which has multidimensional concepts ("Risk Perception," 2013).
An understandable and proper definition of worry has been found from the research article of Svein, Wibecke & Torvald, 2009 that “The concept of worry is related to fear and anxiety and to other aspects of psychological health, worry seems to be a more important issue in psychology than in the general study of tourists and tourism…” They added by saying, “Worry may be understood as negative affect and relatively uncontrollable chains of thought as a function of uncertainty concerning possible future events.” (S. Larsen, Brun, W., & Ogaard, T., 2009).
Furthermore, from the words of Borkovec, 1994; Borkovec, Robinson, Pruzinsky, & DePree, 1983; Borkovec and Inz 1990, as it has been cited in the same research article, “Such thoughts are viewed as representing the individuals’ attempts to engage in mental problem solving on issues where the outcome is uncertain but contains a possibility for negative results.” Moreover, “Although worry is related to anxiety and depression, worry is still, as opposed to anxiety and depression, predominantly a cognitive activity involving what label verbal-linguistic thinking.” (S. Larsen, Brun, W., & Ogaard, T., 2009).
According to the words of Passer & Smith, 2003, p. 327; Dann, 1997, 1981; Gyimothy & Mykletun, 2004; Iso-Ahola, 1982; McCabe, 2000; what have been cited in the empirical research paper of Svein, Wibecke, Torvald & Leif in 2011, ‘The “travel desire” variable is not to be confused with concepts of motivation in general, which is often conceptualized as a process that gives direction, intensity and persistence to goal-directed behaviors.’ They further explained that the motivation of tourist is often understood as escaping from the regularity of life. In that research paper, travel desire only represented the lust expression of individual, or desire to make a specific type of trip to a particular destination without any restraint. (S. Larsen, Brun, W., Ogaard, T., & Selstad, L., 2011).
Discussion on effects of terrorism and other dramatic events on risk judgments, worries and travel desire; what researches have shown us
The chart on left is indicating the worries and risk judgments of tourists in Norway before-after the massacre events of 2011 at Utoya, Oslo. Here the mean values on a scale from 1-7. The chart and the data have been found and taken directly from the research about ‘Risk Perception and Worries’ of Professor Svein and Katharina (Wolff, in press).
The researchers wanted to clarify by the empirical study; if terrorism could make the tourists feel safer. In order to do that, the professors have taken the incident of 22nd July 2011 at Utoya, Oslo. The research was about short and long term risk perceptions among tourists. According to their finding as directly taken from (Wolff, in press), “Our findings are in stark contrast to earlier research regarding the effect of terrorism on the tourism industry and on risk perceptions of tourists.”
- Quote paper
- Jobaire Alam (Author), 2015, What has research shown about the effects of terrorism and other dramatic events on subjective risk judgments, worries and travel desire?, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/413350