The Universal Law, Consumer Economy and Global Warming


Elaboration, 2018
23 Pages, Grade: 3.7

Excerpt

Table of Contents

Introduction to the book

1 Dynamic Worlds & The Universal Law

2 The Water Cycle and Natural Energies

3 Natural Resources Based Human Energy

4 Marketing, Credit Card and Consumer Spending

5 Consumer Economy and Global Warming

6 From Natural Resources to Natural Energies

7 Energy Conservation and Happiness

8 Conclusion

9 References

Introduction to the book

The whole universe follows the same law, where movements are always from concentrated (rich) energies to diluted (poor) energies. However, many of our daily activities seem to follow the opposite law, bringing energy from diluted to concentrated areas. As a good example is the heat removed from the inside cool refrigerator to the outside warm kitchen. In order to obey the universal law, an energy need to be added to the pump of the refrigerant. Carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere are the result of generating this energy by burning natural resources, instead of using the free endless natural energies.

In this consumer-based economy, consumer ‘spending is seen as the “engine” and the “driving force” of economic growth. Using a general equation of transport phenomena, a new equation describing consumer spending is introduced in this book as a competition between a driving force and a resistance for spending. Based on this new definition, marketing and advertisement enhance the driving force for spending while the credit card role is to hinder the resistance due to the income. Because of the industrialization and the consumer’s economy, the amount of carbon dioxide emitted every year started to increase sharply from the year 1950. In order to increase consumers spending, the strategy and the target of marketing and advertisement departments of many companies is to make us link happiness to comfort and pleasures. A simple case study, based on available data of the year 2011, shows that marketing and credit cards could have increased the energy consumption by 12.3% and added about 1.1 ppm of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

The recent scientific data from climate change conference in Paris (COP 21, 2015) seem to tell us that lifestyle and behavioral changes are crucial to avoid more severe consequences of global warming. For example, if one billion households worldwide could save an amount of energy equivalent to one 60 Watt-bulb, the resulting reduction of the total amount of carbon dioxide sent to the atmosphere could represent 3.5% of the total amount needed to be reduced in order to stay in the ceiling of 20C by 2050. The challenge today is to redefine happiness away from consumption in order to avoid more severe natural disasters. Some people are already introducing the new “minimalist” life style in order to depend less on consumption. Unlike comfort that is leading us to laziness, discomfort is seen as crucial to our pursuit of genuine happiness. Finally, similar to the spring after the gestures of charity in nature, it is scientifically proven that charity brings happiness to people. Since Mother Nature provides us with everything, global warming could be perceived as the bitter medicine needed to help us walk on our feet again and think properly.

1 Dynamic Worlds & The Universal Law

Everything in the universe is continuously in motion. The object can be as small as an atomic particle or as large as a planet. In Chemistry, an excited electron moves out of its lower energy level and takes up a position in a higher energy level. Our solar system including the sun, nine planets and their moons, comets and asteroids are also constantly moving. For example, we know the time of the day by the position of the sun in the sky and we count the days and the months with the size of the crescent and the moon. In our cities, people could also be described as dynamic systems motivated (driving force) to take roads and highways to go to schools to study, to workplaces or to markets and shopping centers to buy food, furniture or electronic devices. In general, movements happen in dynamic systems due to a driving force within the system and are controlled by a resistance located between two poles of the system. A movement could therefore be defined using the following generalized relationship:

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

According to the universal law, called the second law of thermodynamics, all movements in nature are from high concentrations of energy located in one part of the system to low concentrations of energy located in another part of the system. For example, heat transfer in a piece of metal is possible only from a higher temperature to a lower temperature and the speed of heat transfer is controlled by the resistance of the metal to heat transfer. The rain falls from the sky (higher altitude) to the land (lower altitude). Without the resistance of air to the gravitational force, rain drops will destroy all the trees and plantations. Closer to us, our salary is usually the resistance that regulates our motivation (driving force) to spend money. Despite this natural tendency to flow from concentrated areas to diluted areas, we can also “force” a system to move from less concentrated to more concentrated, such as bringing water from the well to the surface. However, we need to add some “human energy” needed for the pump.

2 The Water Cycle and Natural Energies

Our planet is rich of endless natural energies such as solar radiation, wind power and the gravitational force. The different movements of water in its natural cycle (Figure 1) depend on the utilization of these energies. The evaporation, transportation and precipitation stages are described in this book in order to explain the utilization of these natural energies in this natural phenomenon.

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Figure 1: The Water Cycle1

1. Evaporation with solar radiation: Because the temperatures are highest during summer, the evaporation process takes place mainly during this season. About 434,000 km3 of water evaporates from the oceans each year2. Scientifically, evaporation is an endothermic (needs energy) process that utilizes solar radiation to take place. As shown in Figure 1, the flow of water vapor is from the sea level to the sky. This process takes place because the partial pressure of water vapor decreases as it rises to the sky. Based on equation (1), this gradient of humidity (∆C = Pw,sea - Pw,sky) between the sea level and the sky is called the “driving force” of the process. Using the convective mass transfer coefficient (k), the velocity of the process is regulated by the mass transfer resistance (1/k) of the atmospheric air.

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2. Transportation and wind power: In autumn, clouds are usually formed because the temperature of air could reach the dew point of water (the point where condensation occurs). Air becomes saturated and cannot hold any more water vapor. This second process of the water cycle is necessary to bring the evaporated water from the wet skies over the oceans to the drier skies over the lands around the planet. According to meteorologists, clouds are transported from one place to another of the planet by either the jet stream, surface-based circulations like land and sea breezes, or other mechanisms. Depending on the direction and the strength of the jet streams, some skies become very cloudy and others cloudless. Jet streams themselves are produced by differences in air pressure in the atmosphere. Back to equation (1), the transportation of clouds depends therefore on a difference of pressures (∆P= PHigh - PLow) between locations with a high atmospheric pressure to locations with low atmospheric pressure. The velocity of the movement is controlled by the friction (Rair) caused by the atmospheric air. Similar to the evaporation process, the transportation of clouds could be written as:

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3. Precipitation and gravity: The same amount of water evaporated from the oceans and seas will fall as precipitation each year, and most of it over the oceans. Most precipitation falls as rain but includes snow, sleet, drizzle and hail. Depending on the location, the rainy season starts at the end of autumn or during the cold winter. As evaporation uses solar radiation to take place and transportation utilized the power of winds to move clouds, precipitation takes place because of gravity. Following the same equation (1), the rain and snow located in the clouds at high altitude in the sky fall into the lands located at lower altitude. The difference of altitude (∆h= hsky- hLand) is therefore the driving force of the process. Moreover, without the resistance of air (Rair) to the precipitation, drops of rain could destroy everything around us and even kill us.

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Other natural phenomena are movements from high temperatures to low temperatures. Like the heat coming from the hot sun to the cold earth. Another example is the movement of the light from the bright sun to the dark earth. From the infinitely small to the infinitely large, all the universe obeys this law, called second law of thermodynamics. This simple equation (5) could explain this statement: In nature, movements are always from higher energies (EHigh) to lower energies (ELow)

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Because all movements in the universe have a constant tendency to go from the “more concentrated (rich) “to the "less concentrated (poor)", I would like to call the second law of thermodynamics: The Universal l aw of Charity.

3 Natural Resources Based Human Energy

Unlike nature, scientists find different ways to get around the universal law without any violation. On daily basis, we take elevators from low altitude (poor) to high altitude (rich). We switch on light to go from darkness (poor) to brightness (rich). We drive cars and planes from rest (poor) to high speed (rich). A refrigerator is utilized in this book in order to illustrate how to get around the universal law and what is the price to pay for it. During summer time, our ancestors used to cool the food in the kitchen by covering it with wet towel. The food was kept fresh because the endothermic evaporation process takes heat from the food. Nowadays, all homes have refrigerators in the kitchen. The question is how to remove heat from the cold (poor) space of the refrigerator to the warmer (rich) kitchen by respecting the second law of thermodynamics. The answer is called: The refrigeration cycle.

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Figure 2 Refrigeration cycle3

There are four important parts of a refrigerator: compressor, condenser, expansion valve and evaporator. In this cycle, a refrigerant, like Freon, acts the medium for transfer of heat. Freon gas passes through all these parts continuously in the form of a cycle and undergoes various phases. After the expansion valve (figure 3), the refrigerant cools down as the pressure decreases and its temperature becomes lower than the temperature inside the refrigerator. The heat is then removed from the refrigerator respecting the second law of thermodynamics. It seems like the refrigerant makes the refrigerator feel warmer than the kitchen and give part of its heat. In conclusion, the cold (poor) space inside the refrigerator gets colder (poorer) and the warm (rich) kitchen becomes warmer (richer). However, since the refrigerant works as a cycle, its pressure needs to be increased again using a compressor. Electricity utilized by the compressor is the “human energy” and the price to pay for getting around the universal law. Equation (6) indicates how adding “human energy” generates movements from low energy to high energy.

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However, in order to respect the universal law:

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To produce this “human energy”, scientists and engineers developed power generation plants. The example of a steam power plant is used to explain how the “human energy” is produced as electricity by burning natural resources.

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Figure 3: Steam Power Plant4

The water (low natural energy) is pumped (by human energy) to a furnace where the combustion of a fuel is needed to transform the pumped water into high pressure steam. The energy of steam is utilized to turn a turbine and produce electricity in a generator. After the turbine, the water is cooled down in a condenser using cooling water and returns for the next cycle. The main source of global warming is the choice of using the combustion of natural resources (natural gas, fuel oil and coal) instead of the different free endless natural energies (sun, wind, gravity) offered by Mother Nature. In concordance with equation (8), Figure 4 shows how the combustion of methane (natural resource) produces power but also sends carbon dioxide and water to the atmosphere.

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Details

Title
The Universal Law, Consumer Economy and Global Warming
Grade
3.7
Author
Year
2018
Pages
23
Catalog Number
V417376
ISBN (eBook)
9783668669611
ISBN (Book)
9783668669628
File size
1458 KB
Language
English
Tags
Universal Law, consumer's economy, global warming
Quote paper
Zin Eddine Dadach (Author), 2018, The Universal Law, Consumer Economy and Global Warming, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/417376

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