CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background To The Study
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Research Questions
1.4 Research Hypothesis
1.5 Objectives of the Study
1.6 Significance of the Study
1.7 Definition of Terms
1.8 Scope of the Study
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Teachers Plight
2.3 Classification of Motivation
2.3.1 Intrinsic motivation
2.3.2 Extrinsic Motivation
2.4 Conceptual Framework Showing the Possible Effect of Motivation on Teacher’s Performance
2.5 MODEL OF FACTORS THAT CAN OPERATE AS TEACHER INCENTIVES
2.6 Monetary and Non-Monetary Benefits
2.7 Motivation of Teachers and Performance
2.8 Teachers’ Motivation and its Challenges
2.9 Motivational Strategies
2.10 Historical Background of Jos North LGA
2.11 Key Research Studies
2.12 Breakdown of Student Performance in External Examination in Nigeria
CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY
3.1. Research Design and Sampling Procedure
3.2. Population and Sample
3.3. Method of Data Collection
3.4. Validity and Reliability
3.5. Method of Data Analysis
3.6. Limitation of Study
CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1.1 Questionnaire for Teachers
4.1.2 QUESTIONNAIRE FOR STUDENTS
4.1.3 Statistical Analysis - Correlation
CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Appendix I: Questionnaire for Teachers
Appendix II: Questionnaire for Students
The study investigated teachers’ motivation and its effect on teachers’ performance in Nigeria. A descriptive survey research design was adopted for this study to investigate teachers’ remuneration and its effect on quality of education in Nigeria. The study population comprised of three government secondary schools selected in Jos North Local Government Area of Plateau State using simple random sampling technique. Thirty teachers and fifty students were randomly selected from each of the schools. Data were collected using well developed questionnaire which was validated and reliably confirmed. Responses were presented using descriptive statistics and analyzed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient statistical method to confirm the hypotheses generated for the study at 5% probability level. The findings of this study reveal that there is significant relationship between teachers’ remuneration and quality teaching in Nigeria. The correlation analysis of the socio-economic characteristics as revealed in the table above showed that age, gender, educational level and years with institution are significantly positively correlated with monthly earning at 0.01 probability level. Correlation between monthly earning and educational level as well as years with institution revealed a relative strongly positive significant correlation, while correlation of monthly earning with age (r= 0.487) and gender of respondents (r= 0.312) showed weak significantly positively correlation. The statistical analysis of the motivation for joining teaching profession (Table 10), showed that the choice of teaching joining profession is negatively and fairly correlated with getting another profession (r= -0.498), getting admission in desired field (r= -0.545) and getting any other job (r= -0.458) which are all significant at 0.01 probability level. The students’ perception that their teacher is a good person and comes to class in happy mood is positively (r= 0.227) fairly correlated at 0.05 probability level. Also there is a significant negative (r= -0.241) fair correlation between teachers’ appreciation of his students on their academic achievement and coming to class in happy mood. Based on the findings of this research study, teachers' remuneration significantly affect both extrinsic and intrinsic motivating factors, increased teacher absenteeism, teachers-students interpersonal relationships as well as commitment to work, consequently contributing to dwindling educational quality and academic performance of primary school students. As such, highly-motivated, well-trained and professionally supported teachers are crucial for an effective education system in Nigeria.
1.1 Background To The Study
Education is the bedrock of any nation’s development. The educational system is vital, because it produces the personnel that is required to function in various facets of national life and development process. The National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS) document (2004:35) noted, “the goals of wealth creation, employment generation, poverty reduction, and value reorientation can be effectively pursued, attained, and sustained only through an efficient, relevant and functional education system” (Ibidapo-Obe, 2007). But then, the academic standard in all Nigerian educational institutions has fallen considerably below societal expectations. The current status of the Nigerian educational system at the moment is undesirable. It is low in quality and standard, limited in its reach and disturbing in its future. Arong and Ogbadu (2010), opined that two facts concerning education in the country are very evident. These facts are: Only very few are aware of the value/importance of education in the nation’s development and only very few are aware of the real magnitude of the declining nature of the quality of education in the country. The Federal Republic of Nigeria (2004) asserts that no nation can achieve economic, social and technological progress and self-sufficiency without a good system of education to sustain its achievement. Nonetheless, what makes a worthy system of education depends on the quality of teachers available in the system. The quality of human resources in form of teachers, often dictates the extent of the effectiveness of educational programmes (Ibukun 2004).
Teachers are indispensable in the entire educational system of any nation and are pivots on which education wheels revolve. Ashimole (2011) underscored that teaching and learning is hinged largely on teachers, and that it is on teachers‟ number, quality and devotion that reels the effectiveness of all educational arrangements, development and growth. In the same way Akinsolu (2010) posited that teachers are fundamental prerequisites for students’ attainment of educational goals and objectives. The National Policy on Education of Federal Republic of Nigeria (FRN, 2006) recognized the relevance of teachers by stating that no nation’s education system can be greater than the standard of their teachers. The teacher is ultimately accountable for translating educational policies and principles into actions based on practice during interaction with the students.
There is this societal outcry that the standards of education in Nigeria are falling. This apparent decline in quality of education and moral values is argued to be caused by indifferent attitude of the pupils’ towards acquiring quality education, while majority faults the teachers for the miseries in our school systems. They proclaim that the teachers are not dedicated, discipline, and devoted to the cause of education unlike in the past. But conversely, people generally have failed to also beam the search-light on the government for unattractive condition of service and poor remuneration of teachers. Education is a collation and product of diverse resources. Teachers stand out in variety of resources as a pivotal key to achieving the high standards that are progressively emphasized in school systems across the country.
The prominence of a teacher in the society at large cannot but be over-emphasized. The prospects of every individual and the nation as a whole lie in the hands of the teacher. If a doctor makes a mistake, perhaps one person might die, if a lawyer makes a mistake, perhaps, one person might go to jail, if an engineer makes a mistake, may be a bridge might collapse, but if a teacher makes a mistake, generations yet unborn will come to suffer the effect of that mistake (Ukeji, 1986; cited in Ihua-Maduenyi, 2002).
There is this general perception and stigma attached to teaching as a profession. Teachers are considered as been poor, not connected with society, they have no influence, and no status. Teachers do not get promoted or paid better and, therefore, they have no stimulant to make things better. Gone are those days when teaching could stand tall side by side with other professions. Everybody in the society then aspired to be associated with the teachers. Teachers were held in high esteem and their personality commanded respect. But today, the reverse is the case. Some individuals take to teaching only as a stop gap, pending the time when they may be able to get more juicy jobs. It now seems that there is nothing attracting the students to teaching profession based on what they assess in their teachers’ lifestyle. While teachers and people on other professions such as medicine, banking and engineering live under the same economic situation, government never see reasons to make teachers’ take-home and allowances up to those of these high-rated professions. Teachers' strikes at all levels of education and incessant closure of schools have become the norm. As it is today, teacher education is unable to attract the best brains into the system. Students admitted to read education courses are not only of low quality, some are mostly reluctant students. The major reason adduced for this is perhaps the poor remuneration for teachers and poor society perception of teacher in the society. Hence, most graduates of teacher education are infuriated about the idea of taking up teaching as a profession. Consequently, more than 60% of teachers in the education sector are ill-equipped, ill-trained, ill-motivated and unqualified for the system (Arong and Ogbadu, 2010). The government thinks more of the oil sector and the salaries of politicians than education sector.