List of Contents
4. Types of tuberculosis
6. Management of tuberculosis
7. Treatment duration and comments
8. Isoniazid drug information
9. Rifampicin drug information
10. Pyrazinamide drug information
11. Ethambutol drug information
12. Streptomycin drug information
TUBERCULOSIS AND ITS ADVANCED THERAPY
Tuberculosis [TB] is an infectious disease that can affect any part of the body, mainly an infection of the lungs.
In Neo-Latin word, tuberculosis is termed as ‘TUBERCLE’ which means round nodule and ‘OSIS’ which means condition.
The causative organism for tuberculosis is Mycobacterium tuberculosis in human and Mycobacterium bovis in animals. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is small, aerobic, nonmotile bacillus. The other causative organisms are Mycobacterium africanum and Mycobacterium microti. The non-mycobacterium genuses are Mycobacterium leprae, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium asiaticum. The M.Tuberculosis complex consists of M.africanum, M.bovis, M.canetti, and M.microti.
Figure No-1: Classification of Tuberculosis
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According to WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION (WHO), in 2012 they estimated around 8.6 million cases in which women were found approximately around 2.9. Most cases were found in Africa (27%) and Asia (58%), with a highest incidence in India (2.0-2.4 million), China (0.9-1.1 million); and total accounted the number of cases is 38%.
The incidence rate of TB was eventually declined from 1997-2001 but increased in 2001 due to more number of HIV infected patient’s cases in Africa. Later there was a reduction of 1.3% per year since 2002. The absolute numbers of cases were also decreasing, but this has begun in 2006.
The estimated prevalent cases in 2012 were around 12 million, corresponding to 169 cases per one lakh population. TB prevalence is declining from the early 1990’s (before incidence started to decline). This is largely due to the introduction of DOTS strategy, which may have contributed to the reduction of chronic and cases which are untreated and duration of illness.
In 2012 TB mortality cases are estimated to be 1.3 million deaths including 320000 HIV associated cases. Since 1990 a drop of 45% TB mortality rate has been observed.
Figure No.2: Incidence, prevalence, and mortality of TB
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The spread of tuberculosis can happen while coughing without covering mouth, crowded places with poor ventilation, spitting everywhere. From the area of damaged tissue, TB bacteria enter into the bloodstream which spreads throughout the body, set up many foci of infection; all appears tiny and white tubercles in the tissues.
Most important risk factor globally is HIV; 13% of people with TB are infected by the virus. Chronic lung disease (CLD) is one of the risk factors. Silicosis increases the risk about 30-folds. Cigarette smokers have nearly twice the risk of TB compared to nonsmokers.People with prolonged, frequent, or close contact with people with TB are at particularly high risk of becoming infected, with an estimated 22% infection rate.
The severe symptoms are a Persistent cough, Chest pain, Coughing with bloody sputum, Shortness of breath, Urine discoloration, Cloudy and reddish urine, Fever with chills and Fatigue.
Figure No-3: Pathogenesis of TB
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4. Types of Tuberculosis
A. Pulmonary TB: If tuberculosis infection becomes active, it most commonly involves the lungs (about 90% of cases) [11, 12].
There are two types of pulmonary TB, one is Primary TB where the infection vary from inter-individual conditions and it applies who has not been infected formerly or immunized and another is Secondary TB where it doesn’t varies from inter-individual but it applies who has already been infected formerly.
B. Extrapulmonary TB: Around 15-20% of active cases, the infection spreads outside the lungs, causing other kinds of TB. These collectively termed as "extrapulmonary tuberculosis".
There are 10 different types of extra pulmonary TB; they are Lymph Node TB which is frequently seen in HIV infected patients with symptoms like swelling of lymph nodes commonly at cervical and supracervical.
Pleural TB which has involvement of pleura and penetration of tubercle bacilli into pleural space.
TB of Upper Airways involves larynx, pharynx, and epiglottis with symptoms like dysphasia and chronic productive cough.
Genitourinary TB occurs in the genitourinary tract with symptoms like urinary frequency, dysuria, and hematuria.
Skeletal TB involves the parts like spine, hip and knee with symptoms like pain in hip joints and knees, swelling of knees and trauma.
Gastrointestinal TB involves part of GI tract with symptoms like abdominal pain, diarrhea, and weight loss.
TB Meningitis and Tuberculoma which results from the spread of primary and secondary TB.
TB Pericarditis in which 1-8% of all TB cases spreads mainly from mediastinal or hilar nodes or from lungs.
Military Or Disseminated TB is producing lesions at different extrapulmonary sites due to the entry of infection into the pulmonary veins. "Disseminated Tuberculosis" is the most serious and widespread form of TB, which is also known as miliary tuberculosis. About 10% of extra pulmonary cases include military TB.
Less Common Forms includes uveitis, panopthalmitis and painful hypersensitivity related phlyetenular conjunctivitis.
1. Bacteriological test:-
a) Zeihl - Nielsen stain
b) Auramine stain ( fluorescence microscopy)
2. Sputum culture test:-
a) Lowenstein - Jensen solid medium - 4-18wks
b) Liquid medium - 8-14days
c) Agar medium - 7-14days
3. Radiography :- Chest x-ray [CXR]
4. Nucleic acid amplification:-
Species identification, several hours, Low sensitivity, high cost, most useful for the confirmation of tuberculosis in persons with AFB positive sputa
5. Tuberculin Skin Test:-
Injection into the skin of the lower arm
48-72 hours later checked for reaction
Diagnosis is done based on the size of the wheel Dose = 0.1ml contains 0.04ug tuberculin PPD Less than 6mm - negative
6mm or greater but less than 15mm - hypersensitive to tuberculin protein, may be due to previous TB infection, BCG or exposure to atypical mycobacterium
>= 15mm - strongly hypersensitive to tuberculin protein, suggestive of TB infection or disease
6. Other Biological Examinations:-
Cell count (lymphocytes)
Protein (pandy and Rivalta tests) - ascites, meningitis and pleural effusion Chest X-ray and sputum cultures for acid-fast bacilli are part of the initial evaluation. Nucleic acid amplification and adenosine deaminase testing may allow rapid diagnosis of TB. In Sarcoidosis, Hodgkin's lymphoma, malnutrition, and active tuberculosis the test may be falsely negative.
Prevention and control efforts of tuberculosis majorly depend on the infant’s vaccination, an exact diagnosis and appropriate treatment of active cases. The preventive measures are you should keep mask to avoid exposure and take BCG vaccine prior and for regular medical follow up, BCG vaccine in children decreases the risk of the infection by 20% and the risk of infection turning into disease by 60%.Isolation of patient is necessary so that others will not get affected, ventilation is necessary never be in a dark room mostly natural sunlight is better, use UV germicidal irradiation.
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- Quote paper
- Dr. Sagar Pamu (Author), 2018, Tuberculosis and its Advanced Therapy, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/423950