The Extent of Entrepreneurship Skills Development through TVET Programs in Botswana


Master's Thesis, 2018
85 Pages, Grade: Pass

Excerpt

Table of Contents

Dedication

Acknowledgements

Abstract

List of Figures

List of Tables

List of Acronyms

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND TO THE PROBLEM
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Background Statement
1.3 Problem Statement
1.4 Purpose of the study
1.5 Objectives of the study
1.6 Research questions of the study
1.7 Significance of the study
1.8 Delimitations of the study
1.9 Chapter outline
1.10 Chapter summary

2.1 Introduction
2.2 Introduction to the entrepreneurship concept
2.3 Entrepreneurship training
2.4 Entrepreneurship development initiatives
2.5 Overview of TVET program
Figure 2. 1 Degree of vocational focus and entrepreneurial transferability
2.6 Challenges of TVET
2.7 Entrepreneurship skills
2.8 Significance of entrepreneurship
2.9 Entrepreneurship education in vocational training programs
2.10 Skills for employability programs
2.11 Entrepreneurship competencies and attributes
2.12 Chapter summary

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Research Paradigm
3.3 Research design
Figure 3. 1Map of Botswana
3.4 Population and Sampling
3.5 Data Collection
3.5.1 Primary Data
3.5.2 Secondary Data
3.6 Data analysis
3.7 Qualitative data Trustworthiness
3.7.1 Credibility
3.7.2 Transferability
3.7.3 Dependability
3.7.4 Conformability
3.8 Ethical considerations
3.9 Limitations of the study
3.10 Chapter Summary

CHAPTER FOUR: RESEARCH RESULTS AND FINDINGS
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Sample summary
Table 4.1 Profile on interviewees
Table 4.2 Response rate
4.3 Demographic characteristics of respondents
4.4 Gender
4.5 Qualifications
Table 4.4 Qualifications
4.6 Experience in entrepreneurship
Table 4.5 Experience in entrepreneurship
4.7 Entrepreneurship development in TVET
4.8 TVET programs that could enhance youth entrepreneurship skills
4.9 Challenges faced by graduates on entrepreneurship skills
4.10 Needed characters in entrepreneurship
4.11 Competencies needed in entrepreneurship
4.12 Approaches for entrepreneurship
4.13 Chapter Summary

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Summary of findings
5.3 Restatements of objectives
5.4 Achievement of objectives
5.5 Conclusion
5.6 Educational implications of the study
5.7 Recommendations
5.7.1 Offering business consulting courses
5.7.2 Graduate motivation on entrepreneurship
5.7.3 Policy shifts to enable youth entrepreneurship
5.7.4 Develop a national strategy for entrepreneurship support in the TVET system
5.7.5 Financial support
5.7.6 Develop more intensive encouragement for students who are passionate about entrepreneurship
5.8 Further research directions
5.9 Chapter summary

References

Appendices
Appendix A: Consent Form
Appendix B: Interview guide for demographic statistics
Appendix C: Interview guide for TVET lecturers
Appendix D: Interview guide for TVET graduates
Appendix E: Interview guide for TVET management and stakeholders
Appendix F: Research Application Letter

List of Figures

Figure 2.1 Degree of vocational focus and entrepreneurial transferability

Figure 3.1 Map of Botswana

List of Tables

Table 4.1 Profile on interviewees

Table 4.2 Response rate

Table 4.3 Gender

Table 4.4 Qualifications

Table 4.5 Experience in entrepreneurship

List of Acronyms

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Dedication

I dedicate this dissertation to my friends who supported me throughout this journey; I also dedicate this project to all my family members who supported me throughout this journey.

Acknowledgements

My acknowledgements go to my creator Yahweh who guided me and gave me strength to persevere with this wonderful piece of work.

My sincere appreciation is forwarded to the following people, groups or organisations for their support, advice and patience:

- Dr. Clever Gumbo my supervisor I just want to say I appreciate your guidance and encouragement throughout this project,
- Dr. Veronica Makwinja the Head of Department for the faculty who always encouraged and advised me to keep pushing until to the end,
- My friends and colleagues who gave me enough time to work on my dissertation.
- Everyone who contributed to the success of this study
- FCTVE community for supporting me to complete the dissertation

Abstract

The aim of this dissertation was to investigate the extent of entrepreneurship skills development through TVET programs in Botswana at FCTVE as a technical college. To attain this work, inductive method was used. Representative sample of graduates for the class of 2008-2015 were used as subjects of the research. Open ended interviews were used as a method of data collection. Looking at the investigation of the study, the training of entrepreneurship could immensely contribute in allowing graduates to have business skills and competencies that could be more important in identifying business opportunities and operate their own businesses. Furthermore, the training of entrepreneurship has not yet been considered by the government since it can bring positive results on graduates on self-employment as a career development. By utilizing qualitative approach the research adopted open ended interviews as a method of collecting data. Data saturation was arrived at 22 graduates from 2008-2015 for Francistown Technical college graduates who were purposively sampled. The research found that the TVET graduates do not have passion about entrepreneurship since they are not interested in being employers but rather they want to be employees. Participants stated challenges for entrepreneurship and these included lack of funds as well as institutions and stakeholders failing to work together in order to produce quality entrepreneurs. Strategies that were suggested during the study include: review of the curriculum content and training instructors so that TVET could have enough number of personnel teaching entrepreneurship. The study also found that TVET graduates are not able to start their own businesses due to lack of capital. It was recommended that the Botswana Government should be seen supporting graduates by developing funding strategies that can give graduates the opportunity to apply their skills. The findings further revealed that TVET graduates are not experienced and they do not have the skills to operate their businesses and some hesitate since they do not want to be risk takers.

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND TO THE PROBLEM

1.1 Introduction

This chapter entails the background of the study. The background highlights the historical development of entrepreneurship in Technical and Vocational Education Training (TVET) in Botswana and other nations. It also summarized the procedures to be considered when training students to become entrepreneurs. Finally, the chapter presents the problem statement, objectives, research questions, significance of the study, delimitations (scope) of the study, limitations, time frame to complete the research and the chapter outline.

1.2 Background Statement

Vocational education institutions should be able to prepare learners to work in a changing world and rapidly growing entrepreneurship atmosphere. Though developing entrepreneurship is a difficult task not because of entrepreneurial mindset since that is not formed easily, hence the learning part in acquiring entrepreneurship skills might become difficult when being trained through hands-on (Badawi, 2013). Different people have different abilities for showing their competency and being entrepreneurial oriented does not come easy. In acquiring skills in entrepreneurship, it is important to develop, practice and learn through training (Mensah & Benedict, 2010).

Little information is understood about entrepreneurship education in the Sub-Saharan countries. However, higher educational institutions established that the system of education in some African nations is not up to scratch in terms of offering entrepreneurship training in their curriculum, hence not more than 50% of universities offer courses which are specific to entrepreneurship programs and as a result have considered entrepreneurship to be an integral portion of the African education system (Niyonkuru, 2005). In their findings Jesselyn and Mitchel (2005) pointed out that entrepreneurship education in South Africa is starting though some universities have been engaged with entrepreneurship since 1990. The researchers revealed that there is of course a demand in entrepreneurship courses, and their outcomes summarised that a lot of institutions offering higher education are starting to be aware that entrepreneurship is an essential area to put more effort on hence a very robust course in entrepreneurship is needed for an institution to be recognised in terms of training students on future oriented courses for their sustainability.

The government of Botswana acknowledged that there is need for country’s diversification as well as skills improvement. The Revised National Policy on Education (RNPE), such as the Botswana education policy that was presented in 1994. The 1994 policy view vocational education and training as fundamental to the country’s economy and that there is a need for transition from an old model of executing education to industrialised economy. In 1997 the government of Botswana formed the first public technical colleges, formerly known as vocational training centres (VTCs). The initiative for VTCs was to enrol both junior and secondary school leavers (UNESCO-UNEVOC, 2012 International Centre for Technical and Vocational Education and Training).

The development of the National Policy on Vocational Education and Training (NPVET) was invented in 1997. The NPVET was developed with the help of the then Ministry of Skills Development (MOESD) together with the then Ministry of Labour and Home Affairs (MLHA) and the aim was to put vocational education and training at the same level as academic education and to integrate various types of vocational education and training into the same wide-ranging system offering different courses (UNESCO-UNEVOC, 2012, International Centre for Technical and Vocational Education and Training). The aim of coming up with a modern way of vocational education and training, it was because the olden delivery approach was not meeting the needs of the labour market, hence the 1997 Vocational Education and Training Policy elaborated the importance of making TVET more available and equitable as well as developing more flexible teaching and learning methodologies that suits each student’s ability (UNESCO-UNEVOC, 2012, International Centre for Technical and Vocational Education and Training).

With the aim of improving the employment level in Botswana, the latter expanded the vocational education direction by introducing the Botswana Technical Education Program (BTEP) in 2000 as another objective in the National Policy on Vocational Education and Training (1997), which was in the 7th National Development Plan and Vision 2016. The aim of the program was to offer accessibility to vocational education and training programs as well as integrating structure with close connection to adult education that acknowledges the Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL). Even though the program is offered by many public vocational institutions in Botswana, it has not yet evaluated and assessed since its commencement to see whether it meets the set objectives (African Development Bank, 2009).

In Botswana, there are some strategies which are used by the country to empower its citizens as well as encouraging entrepreneurial activity at the national level, and some of the strategies include the provision of funds for business starters, having enough access to business and technical skills, empowering which include training, increased access to markets, better working conditions and supporting employment as well established projects (Sergis, 1999; National Developemnt Plan, 2003-2008). Other studies that have concentrated on entrepreneurship promotion in explicit nations do not have consistency in terms of suggested activities that facilitate acquisition of entrepreneurial competency and knowledge. Nonetheless, entrepreneurship training, education together with some elements of technical support, access to funding the projects as well as access to markets appear as very important factors of entrepreneurship growth in most of the researches. However, there are challenges that are linked to offering Technical and Vocational Education Training (TVET) in Botswana and have been extensively presented. The structure of TVET is different from a theoretical educational structure and is viewed as an incomplete system without any clear pathways, badly interpreted in labour markets, some researchers regarded it not contributing anything to economic development needs as it was expected to (Oketch, 2007). However, TVET sector should instead focus on different social and economic development significances; hence the sector should concentrate on issues such as poverty eradication, food distribution and security together with social coherence to economic expansion and global attractiveness.

The general agreement is that the contemporary TVET structure needs to consider the modern together with the much-anticipated socio-economic circumstances including working environment demands, the needs of formal together with informal sector linked to employment and professional insights of TVET with the inclusion of good teachers with a clear vision. Additionally, TVET sector should attempt to detailed employment needs of both in rural and urban environments and have an ownership of value system (Botswana Country Report, n.d).

A Tracer Study that was carried out by Botswana Training Authority in 2006 summarised that the vocational training structure is failing to develop readily employable individuals since there is not enough practical training conducted at the colleges, hence most of the curriculum focus on theory only. The studies that have been already conducted by some scholars have found out that the status of Vocational Training in Botswana has been viewed as being not satisfactory since most of the institutions enrol poor quality of learners and curriculum not being reviewed very often (Botswana Country Report, n.d).

1.3 Problem Statement

This study sought to assess the effectiveness of TVET programs in imparting entrepreneurship skills on Botswana’s students. All the TVET institutions offering vocational programs are not able to merge vocational education together with entrepreneurship education (Sandirasegarane, Sutermaster, Gill, Volz & Mehta, 2016). The TVET in Botswana institutions are just inculcating students with hands-on skills at the same time ignoring entrepreneurial versus curriculum (OECD Reviews on Skills and Competencies for Entrepreneurship, 2014). When learners are equipped with sustainable entrepreneurship skills they become more capable of being creative and there is value in their trade (Sandirasegarane et al., 2016). Some of the TVET institutions in Botswana offer curriculum that does not match with the learner’s entrepreneurship skills (skills mismatch) (Ngati, 2015). It is therefore, important that institutions such as VET in Botswana should connect or link with the parastatal sector on issues such as curricula. However, even if there is shortage of resources on the initiative and limitations that have softened the implementation of these entrepreneurship training policy (Isaacs, Visser, Friedrich &Brijlal, 2007). VET as a sector that is offering higher education should work hard in seeing to it that graduates have sustainable long-term skills in blending their curriculum with entrepreneurship skills. TVET graduates have been observed not being able to start and run entrepreneurial ventures (Frank, 2007). As cited from Farstad (2002), Adams (2009) mentioned that there are surveyed entrepreneurship education programs in secondary and higher education institutions in some African countries like Botswana, Uganda and Kenya. It was established that lecturers and curriculum developers are somehow qualified, but the study revealed that there is a limited number of graduates who are having their own businesses. It is this researcher’s desire to establish the gap between TVET curriculum and entrepreneurship skills development (Badawi, 2013).

1.4 Purpose of the study

This study sought to assess the effectiveness of TVET graduates on entrepreneurship skills. It also seeks to appraise the connection that is existing between TVET curriculum and entrepreneurship education. The research also evaluates the inter-relationship that is existing between entrepreneurship curriculum and TVET programs and how stakeholders may be roped in to assist in coming up with innovations for the youth job creation in Botswana since there is a high rate of unemployment in the country.

1.5 Objectives of the study

The research was guided by the following objectives:

Extent

- To establish the level of entrepreneurship skills in TVET programs.
- To explore potential programs in TVET where youth can sustain themselves through entrepreneurship skills imparted to them
- To examine challenges faced by TVET graduates on entrepreneurship skills
- To recommend strategies that can be implemented by TVET graduates on their entrepreneurship skills
1.6 Research questions of the study
The research attempted to address the following questions:
- What is the level of entrepreneurship skills offered by TVET programs?
- Which TVET programs could enhance youth entrepreneurship skills development?
- What are the challenges faced by TVET graduates on entrepreneurship skills?
- Which entrepreneurship skills training strategies can be adopted by TVET training providers?

1.7 Significance of the study

Findings from this study will offer the most fundamental insights on entrepreneurship skills and education together with graduates on job creation to Ministry of youth, empowerment, sport and culture development as well as curriculum developers in Botswana within the VET sector and the world at large. The findings will also assist curriculum developers and reviewers in TVET courses to offer suitable entrepreneurial education that will be valuable to both the government of Botswana and the graduates themselves.

The study findings and recommendations will enormously contribute to the revising and reforming of the TVET curriculum and techniques that are used for training students through continuously and consultative stakeholder feedback and informs. Constant response from the stakeholders would bear valuable results in terms of making developments on employees’ skills and knowledge and on how to create long-term sustainable jobs for graduates from the findings and recommendations. As the researcher have observed the gaps that exist between the merging of TVET curriculum and entrepreneurship education, it will also be helpful to the education policy developers in Botswana, as it will notify policy makers and the suitable stakeholders on how curriculum can be developed in connecting entrepreneurship education and TVET training. This research shall contribute to obtainable research on VET in the field of entrepreneurship education. The government of Botswana will have an advantage from this study as it shall make curriculum developers to be aware on TVET programs in connection to entrepreneurship education and how best they can be reviewed and merged together.

1.8 Delimitations of the study

The research sought to study the extent of entrepreneurship skills development through TVET programs. The study area is the city of Francistown found in the North East of Botswana. Francistown is the second city of Botswana after the capital city Gaborone. Francistown is located 21.17 latitude and 27.51 longitudes and it is situated at the elevation 989 meters above the sea level. The city has a population of approximately 89, 979 hence making it the biggest city in the North East. The research study will be carried out at FCTVE since it is the only technical college in the north east offering various diploma programs within the college. FCTVE is the state of Art College situated within the Francistown vicinity. The researcher chose to carry out a research at FCTVE using their graduates who have completed their diploma programs. The researcher identified only one college because of time constraint. The research is confined to carry out a study within FCTVE graduates who have completed their diploma programs between 2008 and 2015 at FCTVE. The population of the study will consist eighteen diploma graduates from various departments and these will consist the following; six Information Communication and Technology (ICT) graduates, six business graduates and six multi-media graduates who completed their studies between 2008 and 2015. The study covered 18 participants to be used in the study. The researcher has considered these years since all these programs enrolled students considering outcome based element, therefore they do not enroll a lot of students hence some withdraw from the programs after enrolling.

1.9 Chapter outline

This study is presented in Five (5) chapters namely:

Chapter 1: Introduction and Background Statement

This is an introductory chapter that provides the following; introduction, background statement, the research problem statement, research objectives, research questions/hypothesis, and significance of the study.

Chapter 2: Literature Review

This chapter constitutes literature review which provides a comprehensive overview of the theoretical concepts reinforcing this study. An effort will be made to mobilize significant theoretical models that have been identified in the literature and their relevance to the research objectives and questions.

Chapter 3: Research Methodology

This chapter avails the research methodology adopted in the study including and it includes the following; research philosophy and design, the population and sample, data collection and analysis, ethics and quality as well as limitations to the study.

Chapter 4: Results and findings

Results of the research based on the data analysis are presented in this chapter. Results have been made to address the research questions outlined in chapter one.

Chapter 5: Conclusions and recommendations

Basing on the research results and findings, this chapter constitutes the conclusions and recommendations arrived at. The primary motive of this study was to recommend possible solutions to the identified problem, hence this chapter provides such.

1.10 Chapter summary

Chapter one (1) carried out a comprehensive overview of the research problem in order to have a deeper knowledge on the research problem and the gap that influenced this research. Entrepreneurship education can encourage youth employability together with enterprising the behavior of local economies. It can be understood that all learners are not interested in being entrepreneurs, but an exposure to the entrepreneurial skills can provide transformative insights of market niches as well as holistic business systems. The concept of entrepreneurship education was clearly outlined in relationship to vocational education in order to have a deeper understanding on how learners undertaking their studies at the technical colleges could be assisted on entrepreneurship issues. Furthermore, this chapter presented the foundation work for literature review in which it will evaluate academic work on the field of entrepreneurship skills development in Botswana technical colleges.

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Introduction

This chapter focused on the present literature on entrepreneurship among TVET graduates, firstly it defined entrepreneurship, then looked at literature review internationally, regionally and locally. It also reviewed the overview of TVET program, challenges that TVET is facing as higher institutions. The chapter also looked at entrepreneurship skills as well as the summary is provided at the end of the chapter.

2.2 Introduction to the entrepreneurship concept

Entrepreneurship is regarded as a vital role in 21st century societies hence macro and micro elements must be considered in the modern business days (OECD Reviews on Skills and Competencies for Entrepreneurship, 2014).

Entrepreneurship contributes to the formation of new knowledge, creativity, job formation as well as the economic expansion. Entrepreneurship contributes to the developed nations especially in newly formed democratic nations such as the Eastern Europe, the challenges of increasing youth unemployment have driven entrepreneurship and other enterprises in high political agendas (OECD Reviews on Skills and Competencies for Entrepreneurship, 2014).

This study adopts definition of entrepreneurship as strengthening entrepreneurial skills and understanding of people who have the ambition of starting their own businesses through structured teaching and well-built curriculum (Osemeke, 2012; UNDP Evaluation office, 1999). On the other hand, Karimi, Chizari, Biemans and Mulder (2010) define entrepreneurship as an active process of vision, transformation and formulation of new ideas. It is a method of being energetic and applying determination with the aim of being creative and putting new ideas into practice. Entrepreneurship is the preparedness to grab calculated dangers in terms of time, fairness, it is the way to create an active venture team, the skill to be creative to overcome the resources that are needed, as well as a vital ability to produce an understandable business plan, lastly it is the vision to acknowledge the niche markets where other people do not see any opportunities. Furthermore, Karimi et al., (2010) continue to argue by stating that entrepreneurship is the character of an individual who portrays different personality with the quest for achievement, looking for power, risk taker and looking for new labour market with the intention to achieve profit or something in life time, to also research and become self-reliance.

2.3 Entrepreneurship training

Ngati (2015) argued that Technical and Vocational Education Training is a post-compulsory education and training that goes up to diploma level, and these TVET program offer occupational or hands-on programs.

There are various efforts which can be embedded in vocational education. But most institutions concentrate on theory with less emphasis on direct-application of technical skills. It is normal that practical skills are provided by vocational education training institutions (VET). However, it is common that average VET curricula do not provide hands-on foundations in business-oriented programs which are increasingly considered as essential for sustainable livelihoods (Biavaschi, Eichorst, Giulietti , Kendzia, Muravyev, Pirters, Rodriguez-Planas, Schmidl & Zimmermann, 2012). It should be noted that entrepreneurship training (ET) is viewed as sources of avenue to economic development even in those markets that are difficult to cater for skilled graduates (Awogbenle & Iwuamadi, 2010).

In the last decade of twentieth century together with the first decade of twenty first, it was witnessed in these centuries that different and comprehensive initiatives were developed in education in almost all the nations globally. In both developed and developing countries creating the proven education is fundamental (Badawi, 2006).

It should be noted that entrepreneurship the world over has expanded and was extensively received by many universities as a great initiative and various universities in America viewed entrepreneurship as an academic field (Kuratko, 2003). In early 1947, the Harvard Business School commenced its first entrepreneurship program which was titled “Management of New Enterprise” (Katz, 2003: p.284). Some few decades later in 1990 throughout USA, close to 500 institutions had been teaching at least one course within the field of entrepreneurship (Vesper & Gartner, 1997; Fiet, 2001; Volkmann, 2004). At the beginning of the new millennium, entrepreneurship education in America has expanded to more than 2,200 programs at around 1,600 institutions. By the 21st century around 50 higher educational institutions in the USA were already teaching not only few programs as part of entrepreneurship training but also the whole programs (Koch, 2003).

Guzman and Linan (2005) posit that in Europe, the growth of entrepreneurship training was regarded as moving at a low pace than in the United States, since Europeans believed that business is all about taking risks. This behaviour raised eyebrows towards higher educational institutions. The universities in Europe believed that rather than concentrating on entrepreneurship students would rather be trained to be hired in forever demanding market. Higher educational institutions must shape learners’ future in such a way that they are prepared to work in an ever changing entrepreneurial and global atmosphere (Wilson, 2008).

According to Guzman and Linan (2005) some European countries such as the United Kingdom together with France executed some of the entrepreneurial enterprises in the 1970s. Furthermore, in other European countries, the entrepreneurial education was implemented in 1990s. However, it is challenging to measure entrepreneurship teaching in the Iranian Higher Education.

In a study conducted by Wilson (2004) revealed that entrepreneurship education in some European educational institutions are regarded as electives at the undergraduate level in which 73% are mainly electives and at postgraduate level 69% are taken as electives. As a result they are as well offered in stand-alone programs rather than being embedded across the whole curriculum (Niyonkuru, 2005). In addition, the survey that was carried out by the European Commission in 2008 has projected that majority of students in European universities, do not have any access to entrepreneurial training. This is to say they do not have the opportunity to other activities that can stimulate their entrepreneurial spirit. In Singapore entrepreneurship programs are supplemented by new innovations such as business plan competitions, business for incubators, for experts and learners embarking on start-ups programs (Shanmugaratnam, 2004). While the universities in Latin America offer entrepreneurship programs in the universities in Colombia, Argentina, Mexico, Honduras, Panama, Costa Rica, Brazil and Peru. However, researchers have revealed that small reliable sources of information are available to access about the entrepreneurship courses offered in South America (Postigo & Tamborini, 2002).

In Africa, vocational education started from a mixture of historical proceedings that brought a need for skilled labour. In the early 1800s, the industry training with heavy machines replaced the work of craftsman that is putting some few changes on the old-style of apprenticeships (Hoffman & Hoffman, 1976). Apprenticeship became less important as more formalised vocational training was developed with no exception of public vocational institutions (Henry, 1943). Vocational Education Training (VET) training courses that were at a later stage became common in the Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) were founded on the same models from the earliest colonial powers they expanded rapidly in the SSA countries (Atchoarena & Delluc, 2002).

Disparate VET programs in the SSA have different outcomes on learners. Furthermore, the overall type of vocational education programs that are taught in developing nations such as Botswana, Ghana as well Kenya usually are taught in five class periods per week that are covering both hands-on modules such as hospitality and tourism, mechanical, electrical engineering, agriculture, clothing design and textiles, hair dressing and beauty therapy as well as building and construction. It is believed that these VET modules are more expensive than normal theory lessons because of the practical nature. Research has shown that students do not have an advantage in the labour market since these modules are costly (Lauglo, Akyeampong, Mwiria, & Weeks, 2003). Even though they are more expensive, hands-on modules at the same time can improve the economy of the country since graduates have entrepreneurship skills.

The development of entrepreneurship is vital especially in developing nations such as Africa and is regarded as having a low level of entrepreneurial skills and understanding among students (Pretorious, Nieman, Van Vuuren, 2005). Expand in terms of entrepreneurial skills and knowledge can escalate the new initiatives and development of business commencements (Pages & Poole, 2003).

Little information is understood about entrepreneurship education in the Sub-Saharan countries. However, higher educational institutions established that the system of education in some African nations is not up to scratch in terms of them offering entrepreneurship training in their curriculum, hence not more than 50% of universities offer courses which are specific to entrepreneurship programs and as a result have considered entrepreneurship to be an integral portion of the African education system (Niyonkuru, 2005). In their findings Jesselyn and Mitchel, (2005) pointed out that entrepreneurship education in South Africa is starting though some universities have been engaged with entrepreneurship since 1990. The researchers revealed that there is of course a demand in entrepreneurship courses, and their outcomes summarised that a lot of institutions offering higher education are starting to be aware that entrepreneurship is an essential area to put more effort on hence a very robust course in entrepreneurship are needed for an institution to be recognised in terms of training students on future oriented courses for their sustainability.

2.4 Entrepreneurship development initiatives

The government of Botswana acknowledged that there is need for country’s diversification as well as skills improvement. The Revised National Policy on Education (RNPE), such as the Botswana education policy that was presented in 1994. The 1994 policy view vocational education and training as fundamental to the country’s economy and that there is a need for transition from an old model of executing education to industrialised economy (Vegas & Patrow, 2008). In 1997 the government of Botswana formed the first public technical colleges, formerly known as vocational training centres (VTCs). The initiative for VTCs was to enrol both junior and secondary school leavers (UNESCO-UNEVOC, 2012).

The development of the National Policy on Vocational Education and Training (NPVET) was invented in 1997. The NPVET was developed with the help of the then Ministry of Education and Skills Development (MOESD) together with the then Ministry of Labour and Home Affairs (MLHA) and the aim was to put vocational education and training at the same level as academic education and to integrate various types of vocational education and training into the same wide-ranging system offering different courses (UNESCO-UNEVOC, 2012). The aim of coming up with a modern way of vocational education and training, it was because the olden delivery approach was not meeting the needs of the labour market, hence the 1997 Vocational Education and Training Policy elaborated the importance of making TVET more available and equitable as well as developing more flexible teaching and learning methodologies that suits each student’s ability (Vegas & Patrow, 2008).

With the aim of improving the employment level in Botswana, the latter expended the vocational education direction by introducing the Botswana Technical Education Program (BTEP) in 2000 as another objective in the National Policy on Vocational Education and Training (1997), which was in the 7th National Development Plan and Vision 2016. The aim of the program was to offer accessibility to vocational education and training programs as well as integrating structure with close connection to adult education that acknowledges the recognition of prior learning (African Development Bank, 2009). Even though the program is offered by many public vocational institutions in Botswana, it has not yet evaluated and assessed since its commencement to see whether it meets the set objectives (African Development Bank, pg.9).

2.5 Overview of TVET program

The present complex and unstable economic geographical settings demand for pioneered individuals who have the potential for synthesising ideas as well as solving problems as they come (OECD Reviews on Skills and Competencies for Entrepreneurship, 2014).

In all the Sub-Saharan African countries, TVET programmes are school based. In some other countries, learners can enter the vocational training education at the end of their primary schooling which is equivalent to 6-8 years of education in nations such as Burkina Faso and Kenya, or students can be enrolled in vocational education at the end of lower or junior secondary school which corresponds to 9-12 years and can be referred to as basic education in countries such as Ghana, Nigeria, Mali and Swaziland (Union, 2007). In addition, King (1993) states that in the first world nations where lower levels like the primary schooling may be the excellent route for many pupils. In these developed countries, the states promoted different exposure to hands-on modules, manual activities and even to elementary entrepreneurship awareness at the primary level. Other nations both developed and developing like, Italy, Brazil, China, Sweden and Japan have given more attention to TVET by providing adequate funding. In Europe, more leaners are exposed to vocational education culture at an early age (Nyerere, 2009).

In Europe, at least half of the student’s population in higher secondary schools is exposed to some form of technical and vocational education (Nyerere, 2009). In addition, TVET in South Africa in the mid-1990s was transformed from Outcome Based Education (OBE) looking at competency based training. The modernized Competency Based Training (CBT) had its early stages which were influenced by developments in nations such as England, America and Australia (Allais, 2007, 2011, 2012; Parker & Walters, 2008). Furthermore, at higher education and training colleges in South Africa are more interested in entrepreneurship education where they connected entrepreneurship education with vocational trade (Sandirasegarane , Sutermaster, Gill, Vilz & Mehta, 2016).

In Botswana, the first Centre’s to be designed for TVET was in 1965 where brigades were created. The brigade’s movement was an initiative for communities in some villages in the country, and this was created in responding to the unemployment of the school leavers who could not proceed to secondary education hence their poor academic performance. The aim of the initiative was to offer artisans training through hands-on. The items that were produced by students were sold in the community again. By doing this, Brigades focused on development projects and supported small scale-entrepreneurs (Grollmann & Rauner, 2007).

The Botswana community Brigades offered Trade certificate training programs, and this led to National Craft Certificate (NCC) in seventeen trades. Skills certificate training programs was also offered and this was tailor made for school leavers (both junior secondary school and senior secondary schools) who have passion on vocational career or those who want to go with entrepreneurship. In addition, there were also informal training programs or short-courses with the aim of providing lifelong programs for sustainability and there is no certification under this life-long program (Grollmann & Rauner, 2007).

After setting up a National Commission for Education to assess the quality assurance of the Botswana’s education system, other bodies were formed such as the Botswana Training Authority (BOTA) to regulate and implement Botswana’s National Vocational Qualification Framework (Mmolotsa, 2013). The mandate for Botswana Training Authority was to inaugurate more robust system for vocational qualifications together with the suitable industry and labour unions (Ngati, 2015).

The Ministry of Labour and Home Affairs and Skills Development is responsible for the deliberation of apprenticeship programme and the industry training which falls under level 1 training (Republic of Botswana, 2001). The department of Vocational Education and Training is the major provider of level 2 TVET, whereas other institutions offer level 3. BOTA was established with the mandate of promoting, monitoring and coordination of employer-based training in vocational focus (Ngati, 2015).

Figure 1 summarised VET and Entrepreneurship Training (ET) categories by their types of vocational focus together with entrepreneurship transferability. VET apprenticeship has an extraordinary vocational focus. The double or dual VET has a variable vocational emphasis hence its importance on funding limitations with linking vocational training with public education. The ET education kinds, thus the dual ET have a low vocational concentration as well as school-based ET which tends to have an intermediate vocational emphasis. The lower left quadrant denotes teaching with no vocational or entrepreneurship training as it is common with general education. The types of education in the upper left and lower right quadrants have an emphasis only on VET and ET respectively. The upper right quadrant signifies a dual VET-ET education, which as a matter of fact is a fundamental approach to this study (Sandirasegarane et al., 2016).

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Figure 2. 1 Degree of vocational focus and entrepreneurial transferability

(adapted from Sandirasegarane et al., 2016:9).

As it has been indicated, general education typically does not include entrepreneurial aspects, but as Botswana, Ghana and Kenya they offer vocational education in the general education curriculum (Lau-glo et al., 2003). These programs are more focused on general education training hence restricting learners their applied learning chances such as practicing a skill in a workplace setting (Sandirasegarane et al., 2016).

2.6 Challenges of TVET

Most of the institutions which are still offering TVET programs are continuing to deliver an obsolete curriculum. In Botswana, the TVET curriculum covers from foundation level to diploma level, while in other countries such as Kenya their curriculum is covered from certificate to degree level which makes it difficult to make a follow up in the curriculum and review the processes (Nyerere, 2009). As a result, the curriculum to be reviewed by program now becomes slow. In addition, the TVET in other nations is still facing challenges which are posed by inflexible and antiquated curriculum hence a mismatch between skills that are required by the industry and business owners, inadequate quality assurance mechanism, not having enough physical and learning materials as well as poor participation of the stakeholders which is fundamental to link the training-work gap (Nyerere, 2009). Furthurmore, the most recent document by Okoye and Aromonu (2016) also stated that there is inadequate funding of vocational institutions that also lead to half-baked graduates since the funds are not enough to renovate and maintain the learning resources also to buy modern equipment.

Very little information is known on effective teaching techniques for entrepreneurship education as well as research and knowledge on how best to deliver entrepreneurship training remains weak even though there is a demand for entrepreneurial-oriented graduates (Lekoko, Rankhumise & Ras, 2012). In the early 1990s, several concerns were raised on the importance of TVET in some sub-Saharan regions. Dasamani (2011) posits that some of the challenges that lead to poor TVET planning are as follows; poor quality regarding the delivery of TVET programs, there is high cost of training in the TVET programs, TVET training in some geographical locations is not suited to the actual socio-economic status of some countries, neglected issues on the labour market and high rate of unemployment which can be witnessed amongst the graduates.

2.7 Entrepreneurship skills

The major aim of TVET in the National Policy educational training should be to impart practical and applied skills together with the basic scientific information to learners for them to sustain themselves (Akhuemonkhan, Raim & Dada, 2014). The expected results of TVET should be to produce human resources in the areas like applied science and business especially in the craft, particularly advanced craft and technical levels. Another skill should be to offer the technical and vocational abilities that are important in the areas such as agriculture, commercial and economic development, also to inculcate training and transfer skills that are necessary to students who can be self-reliant economically (Akhuemonkhan, Raim & Dada, 2014). In addition, Okwelle and Ayonmike (2014) posit that skills and inculcated information to learners as well as social values that are attained through TVET give one another an opportunity to employ the natural and physical atmosphere and to make life more effective for developed sustainable scientific, technological as well as economic development. Education and entrepreneurship training as well as the needed skills have an effect in developing capacity and promoting entrepreneurial culture (Frank, 2007). Entrepreneurship education has the potential to allow graduates to be competent and generate their own money, and possibly to align their skills with those of private employers’ needs (Premand, Brodmann, Almeida, Grun & Barouni, 2012).

In Botswana, there are some strategies which are used by the country to empower its citizens as well as encouraging entrepreneurial activity at the national level, and some of the strategies include funds, having enough access to business and technical skills, empowering which include training, increased access to markets, better working conditions and supporting employment well established projects (Sergis, 1999; National Developemnt Plan, 2003-2008). Other studies that have concentrated on entrepreneurship promotion in explicit nations do not have consistency in terms of suggested activities that facilitate acquisition of entrepreneurial competency and knowledge. Nonetheless, entrepreneurship training, education together with some elements of technical support, access to funding the projects as well as access to markets appear as very important factors of entrepreneurship growth in most of the researches.

The challenges that are linked to offering Technical and Vocational Education Training (TVET) in Botswana have been extensively presented. The structure of TVET is different from a convectional educational structure and viewed as an incomplete system without any clear pathways, badly interpreted in labour markets, some researchers regarded it not contributing anything to economic development needs as it was expected to (Botswana Country Report, n.d)

However, TVET sector should instead focus on different social and economic development significances; hence the sector should concentrate on issues such as poverty eradication, food distribution and security together with social coherence to economic expansion and global attractiveness.

The general agreement is that the contemporary TVET structure needs to consider the modern together with the much-anticipated socio-economic circumstances including working environment demands, the needs of formal together with informal sector linked to employment and professional insights of TVET with the inclusion of good teachers with a clear vision. Additionally, TVET sector should attempt to detailed employment needs of both in rural and urban environments and have an ownership of value system (Botswana Country Report, n.d).

A Tracer Study that was carried out by Botswana Training Authority in 2006 summarised that the vocational training structure is failing to develop readily employable individuals since there is not enough practical training conducted at the colleges, hence most of the institutions’ curriculum focus on theory.

The studies that have been already conducted by some scholars have found out that the status of Vocational Training in Botswana has been viewed as being not satisfactory since most of the institutions enrol poor quality of learners and curriculum not being reviewed very often.

2.8 Significance of entrepreneurship

Entrepreneurship is an important aspect behind every industry’s success and this involves higher education institutions (Li. 2008). The control of SMEs businesses in many nations’ (Morrison, Rimmington, & Williams, 1999; Tinsley and Lynch, 2007; Thomas, 2004; Shaw and Williams, 2004) has led to acknowledgement of the importance of entrepreneurship. The entrepreneurship industry is characterised by small to medium enterprises and these are entrepreneurial activities.

Collins, Hannon, and Smith, (2004) highlighted that the current universal economic crises and the modern technological advances for the 21st century signifies that higher qualifications is no longer the road to employment. Bigger companies are now hiring less personnel and there is an increased demand for entrepreneurial graduates especially in urban and peri-rural areas. Furthermore, in today’s business institutions around the globe, it is rather the learners being educated for entrepreneurship they are being taught about (Kirby, 2005; Laukkanen, 2000).

2.9 Entrepreneurship education in vocational training programs

The shift of TVET programs have been on the preparation and made advance on job seekers. That is simple to say vocational training and education has not been included in exploring other concepts that are beyond the olden roles of moulding learners for jobs that are available. The expansion numbers of youth who are unemployed is now a stressing situation that has now resulted in economies where now it has reached a serious proportion. The growing numbers of graduates from every time they graduate from their respective institutions would resort to the supply of labour exceed the market demand. This now makes TVET institutions to develop the mentality of motivations and self-employment. According to Nelson and Nguiru (1987) modifying the education curriculum in order to make people ready for entrepreneurially defined work. Growth attention has been awarded to technical and vocational education and training in Botswana as a policy tool to enhance employment and employability of youth graduates. Trainees learn job-specific and employability skills as well as being given the chance use these acquired skills through work experience or apprenticeship programs that link students with the business community (MOE, 2001). This need entrepreneurial skills, among the technical and vocational graduates involves the related knowledge and skills that are needed in entrepreneurial set-ups such as teamwork, critical thinking, problem solving and communication skills. In brief, the total entrepreneur must be created by an individual who is having technical, business, personal skills in addition it is the related drive and experience that makes an entrepreneur special and successful. UNSECO addressed the issue of TVET by firstly proposing that entrepreneurship skills should supplement the technical knowledge and skills youth gain in formal setup. Entrepreneurship skills assist graduates to have the attitude and know-how that is needed to make self-employment a viable career option (UNESCO, 2005).

From the provided insights, what can be extracted involving preparing trainees for a changing world of work TVET should consider the extension of training beyond the delivery of occupational skills and knowledge, it must also offer trainees additional incentives of thinking out of the box with the objective of creating and broadening their comprehensive knowledge of the career opportunities. Furthermore, Nelson and Nguiru (1987) stated that for TVET training, institutions should adequately prepare students for the world of work self-employment for future sustainability. Institutions will have to orient graduates with entrepreneurial business trainings. This is simply saying programs should be designed in vocational and technical training institutions in order to help graduates develop the mentality of entrepreneurial skills and leadership skills which are fundamental for success in having their own business and operating a small enterprise as an ingredient for success.

2.10 Skills for employability programs

There is a growing understanding in African nations to support young generation in coming with their own businesses and developing their skills together with their entrepreneurial skills in order to encourage them to have aplomb, to be innovative and responsible members of society, with potential benefits for the younger generation and for the organisations and countries of which they are part of (OECD, 2014). Skills for the employability that focus on the needs for skills in the world holistically so as national training and training processes are better be able to meet the expectations of the labour market and the needs of the students (OECD, pg.116).

Skills needed for employability is a programme whose overall objective is to support economic and social development through the development of abilities so as to produce chances for the youth.

The TVET’s objective should be to develop proximity relationships with the industry, government enterprises. TVET as an international programme should aim to meet the challenges of globalisation and the demand for skills in a global economy, TVET should encourage partnerships of other higher institutions so as to work alongside decision-makers, allowing access in other African nations in relation to skills and training, and also creating opportunities for the sake of innovation (OECD, 2014). Other developed counties such as the United Kingdom organise entrepreneurship activities such as dialogue on policy, development of professional networks, institutional partnerships on entrepreneurship and company prizes.

Developed nations take these activities to other African nations like British Council organises a company prize contest in Tunisia for young people who are engaged in entrepreneurship in vocational training schools. This competition will involve around 120 individuals and then they are made to compete in teams of five people. The competition will include a number of local activities in the year end, then after an intermediate competition in January that will be followed by a final competition in February. Then those students who are successful will win a trip to study in the United Kingdom to strengthen their entrepreneurial skills and receive training from the leading British entrepreneurs (OECD, 2014).

2.11 Entrepreneurship competencies and attributes

Bird (1995), mentioned that entrepreneurial competencies is “underlying characteristics such as generic specific knowledge, motives, characteristics, self-conduct, social roles and skills which result in venture creation, sustainable and growth”. Entrepreneurship competencies are specific category of competencies that relevant for execution of successful entrepreneurship (Mitchelmore & Rowley, 2010).

Baum et al., (2001) defined the caption as “individual characteristics like knowledge, skills that are necessary to implement a specific task”. Kiggundu (2002) viewed entrepreneurial competencies as the total sum of entrepreneurs ‘attributes such as the mind-set, values, knowledge, skills, abilities characteristics, proficiency and behavioural attributes that are important to successfully sustain entrepreneurship. Competencies of entrepreneurs have two-sided evolving, and the first concept is being those that are more strongly encapsulated in the entrepreneur’s background and secondly components that could be achieved at work or through theoretical or pragmatic learning (Man & Lau, 2005 in Mohamad et al., 2012:11). TVET graduates who have these entrepreneurship skills should possess and display these traits.

2.12 Chapter summary

By offering dual vocational and entrepreneurial training will assist novice entrepreneurs to create and build transferable competencies in entrepreneurship while nurturing highly marketable skills. TVET as vocational organisations their programs can inspire youth employability as well as enterprising behaviour in local and regional economies. TVET programs can be as well encapsulated in many ways in order to attain its objective in the country depending on the strengths and weaknesses of respective courses. Not all students may want to divert their careers to entrepreneurship but exposure to the entrepreneurial skills can as well provide transformative knowledge of new market niches. By availing both of these paradigms to youth in Sub-Saharan Africa will bolster and empower local societies so as to improve their socio-economic status, sustainability, diversity and productivity by growing social welfare and help the country’s economy by creating new jobs and new markets.

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Introduction

This chapter discusses the research design and methodology which were employed in the study. The chapter describes research methodology which were carried out in this study in order to respond to the research questions mentioned in chapter one and further explored the data collection approach which was used during the field visits. The outcomes of the literature review in chapter two signified that although there was a global research conducted to address the problems that are faced by TVET institutions on entrepreneurship for not producing graduates with passion on entrepreneurship, less focus has been given to entrepreneurship curriculum versus vocational education in Botswana. The chapter reviewed research paradigm, research design, population and sampling, data collection and data analysis and qualitative data trustworthiness. Lastly the chapter discussed ethical considerations.

3.2 Research Paradigm

A paradigm is a way in which social phenomena are examined from the particular understandings of different phenomena and which these phenomena are expanded and attempted (Saunders, Lewis, & Thornhill, 2012). Paradigms that are commonly applied in business management include Positivism – associated with quantitative research. Involves hypothesis testing to obtain “objective” truth.,Interpretivism –associated with qualitative research (Kuada, 2009). Pragmatism is whereby determinant of the research philosophy adopts research questions, and Saunders et al. (2012) further argue that with pragmatism it is possible to use positivist and interpretivism. Interpretive paradigm is a philosophical position in which connected with understanding the way people make sense of the things around the world (Saunders et al., 2012). According to Willis (2007) interpretivism usually seeks to understand a particular context, and the core belief of the interpretive paradigm is that reality is socially constructed.

Venkatesh, Brown and Sullivan (2016) reviewed pragmatic paradigm as a philosophical context that is not loyal to any of the systems of research philosophy and authenticity and hence authors who believe in this statement have to use various ways in information collection and data analysis. On the other hand, Allison, Allison and Baskin (2009) signified that a paradigm is a package of beliefs on assumptions on the nature of reality, the position of human understanding, and the types of approaches that can be applied to research questions. Considering its strengths and flexibility, this study will be guided by the pragmatic paradigm.

3.3 Research design

Mafuwane (2012) defined research design as a plan that is to be used for study, which holistically provide framework for data collection. As cited from MacMillan and Schumacher (2001), Mafuwane (2012) further continue to say that it is a strategy for choosing subjects, research sites, and data gathering processes with the aim to answer the chosen research question(s). Additionally, they indicate that the aim of a concrete research design is to provide outcome that can be judged and credible. A research design is the preparation of conditions for the data to be collected and how it is to be analysed with the purpose to mix relevance to the research aim with the economical procedures in place (Kothari, 2004). On the other hand Saunders et al., (2012) define research design as a framework for the collection as well as data analysing to respond to research questions and also not excluding research objectives in order to provide reasonable justification for the choice of data sources, collection approaches and analysis techniques.

There are different types of research designs available that can be used by researchers. One of the research types that are preferred by researchers is the mixed method approach (Creswell, 2003). Tashakkori and Teddlie (1998) defined this method by stating that it involves both qualitative and quantitative collection of data analysis in parallel and this is whereby both kinds of data are collected and then analysed in a sequential way. Whereas Bazeley (2003) argued that it is a method that researchers use both numerical and descriptive form as well as alternating tools such as statistics and analysis. This is a type of research in which a researcher uses qualitative research approach for single phase of a research and a quantitative research for another phase of a study. The key points to bear in mind when using mixed method is that it can expand the chances of gaining scientific credibility and research utility and policy makers, another important aspect is that despite of some objections to epistemological combining methods, both approaches can complement each other to yield more holistic study (Chilisa & Preece, 2005).

According to Chilisa and Precce (2005) Qualitative research is the study in which the researcher conducts research about human being’s perspectives in natural settings, utilizing various techniques like interviews as well as observations and also report findings using descriptive mode other than numerical approach. Suanders et al., (2012) purport that qualitative research is referred to as naturalistic because the researcher is supposed carry out a research within a natural setting, or research context so as to establish trust, participants involvement, access to meaning as well as in-depth understanding. interpretivism also explores the meaning, purpose and reality (Michael, 2011). This research approach is used in a naturalistic atmosphere where a research design is used to come up with richer theoretical perspective than the information that already exists in the literature review (Saunders, et al, 2012). In essence, with this approach the descriptive interactions within the participants and the researcher which is executed in natural settings, there are minimized boundaries resulting in a more flexible and open research procedures. The distinctive interactions suggest that various outcome will be created by a participant and the researcher in a given situation (Michael, 2011).

Another research method used by different authors is quantitative. As cited by Tichapondwa (2013) from Burns and Groove (2005:23), whereby it is said that quantitative research is a formal, objective as well as a systematic process in which statistical data is analysed in order to get information about what is studied. Normally the approach on quantitative is used to describe variables, to evaluate relationships which is seen among the variables, to decide cause-and-effect interactions that seen on the variables. Quantitative involves a deductive method to the relationship that is there on theory and research and the main aim of the study is to test theories pragmatically. It also integrates some practices and norms of the natural scientific model as well as of positivism (Bryman, 2004).

This research adopted a qualitative approach which is more of exploratory in nature. Qualitative research design was adopted since all the data collected is going to be finer hence it has also the more insight into the phenomenon and this is supported by Cresswell, (2008). Furthermore, the purpose of qualitative study is to find out socially constructed of reality, to emphasis on the relationship that is existing between the researcher and the study object, as well as to stress the nature of the inquiry excluding the rigorous investigation or measurement in terms of quantity (Tichapondwa, 2013). The design is considered effective in soliciting comprehensive knowledge of participants about their perceptions of entrepreneurship skills development as well as enhancing professional development practices. This insight design allows for massive participation in the study resulting in informants classifying their barriers and finding the gaps that are best suited to their constraints (Rocke-Collymore, 2014).

This study was conducted in the Republic of Botswana at the selected location which is the North East of the country, and the area involved Francistown as the second largest city in the country. Francistown is located in the northern part of Botswana and is 400 kilometers from the capital city which is Gaborone. The map of Botswana is shown in figure 3.1 below to show where Francistown is located in Botswana. Because there are only four institutions offering diploma in various programmes in Botswana being Oodi College of Applied Science, Gaborone Technical College (GTC), Botswana College of Engineering and Training and FCTVE, as a result only one institution was selected to carry out the study which is FCTVE offering diploma progammes. As shown in figure 3.1 the study area is identified on the map.

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Details

Title
The Extent of Entrepreneurship Skills Development through TVET Programs in Botswana
Course
Education
Grade
Pass
Author
Year
2018
Pages
85
Catalog Number
V427027
ISBN (eBook)
9783668723290
ISBN (Book)
9783668723306
File size
946 KB
Language
English
Tags
extent, Entrepreneurship, TVET, Botswana, Development
Quote paper
Masters of Commerce in Tourism and Hospitality Management Naomi Chabongwa (Author), 2018, The Extent of Entrepreneurship Skills Development through TVET Programs in Botswana, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/427027

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