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Term Paper, 2018
Statement of the Problem.
Objectives of the Study
The Health Belief Model (HBM)
Seat belt use
Perceived Susceptibility to road traffic accident related injury or death
Perceived benefits of seat belt use
Perceived barriers to use seat belts
Cues to Use Seat Belts
Methodology of the Study
Research Result and Discussion
The objective of this study was to investigate the barrier factors of seat belt use on public transport services in selected city administration in Amhara region. This study used simple random sampling technique to select 223 samples whereas data was collected with the help of questionnaire and personal observation. In order to analyze data, descriptive statistics with the help of SPSS 16.0 version were used.The findings of the study show that more than 83.5% of the drivers are using seat belt with different reasons. Furthermore, there is a significant relationship between perceived susceptibilityand severity of road traffic accident, perceived benefits of seat belt use and cues to action with seat belt use. On the other hand, drivers’ demographic factors have no significant relationship with seat belt use. Moreover, due to unavailability of functional seat belts, negligence of drivers, poor enforcement of laws on seat belt use, discomfort and lack of awareness on the importance of using seat belts are the major barrier factors that discourages drivers to use seat belt. As a recommendation, the concerned government offices should develop and implementstrong enforcement law and change the attitude of drivers to keep the life of drivers and passengers as well as the properties of the community.
Key Words: Seat belt use, Health belief model, psychological factors
According to European Transport Safety Council (ETSC) (2006) seat belt use rates from different countries perspectives are varied. For example, seat belt use rates in European Union countries varied from 59% to 96% for frontseat occupants and from 21% to 90% for rearseat occupants, with lower seat belt use rates in Southern (e.g., Greece) and Eastern European countries (e.g., Poland), compared to Northern (e.g., Sweden) and Western European (e.g., France) countries. Compared to the developed countries; however, developing countries where seat belt laws mostly came into effect more recently have considerably lower seat belt use rates. For instance, in Argentina after the seat belt law in 1992, seat belt use was reported to be 32% for drivers and 30% for frontseat passengers in the city of Buenos Aires. Similarly, in Saudi Arabia where a seat belt law came into effect more recently in 2000, an average seat belt use rate of 60% for drivers and 22.7% for front seat passengers was reported in two suburbs of Riyadh (Bendak, 2005).
When we come to Africa, Ethiopia as a country implements seatbelt law which is less than 20%. So, from this one can understand that Ethiopia is implementing seat belt poorly (WHO, 2009). As more countries begin or continue to take steps towards addressing their national road safety problem, it has become apparent that regular global assessments of road safety are needed. These are required not only to measure global progress, but also to enable countries to compare their road safety situation with other countries. Such a global assessment requires a standardized methodology that can provide governments, donors, practitioners, planners, and researchers with the information that they need to make evidencebased decisions (WHO, 2009).
According to WHO (2009) 97% of the world countries have incorporated seat belt law into the road safety program, but Ethiopia as a big country which has more than 83 million people has adopted seat belt law at sub national level. In order to improve the behavior of vehicle occupants to use seat belt different social change campaigns have devoted their time and effort like Medias Ethiopian Radio and Television and traffic police programs. Thus, the purpose of this study is to investigate barrier factors of seat belt use in selective city administrations.
In Ethiopia there is ministry office, Transport Minister, which focused on road and transportation issues. This office also has several regional, zonal, “Woreda” and city administration branch offices. These branch offices’ responsibility is to develop and maintain a longterm and sustainable road and transportation programs which will keep the safety of drivers and passengers. In addition to developing and maintaining sustainable road and transportation programs, respective branch offices have been trying their best to change the behavior of the drivers and passengers, and traffic polices through social marketing, the systematic application of marketing along with other concepts and techniques, to achieve specific behavioral goals for a social good. Social marketing can be applied to promote merit goods or to make a society avoid demerit goods and thus promote society's well being as a whole (Kotler, 2005). However drivers are not willing to use seat belt (Dessie Road & Transport Office, 2013). According to Abbas (2011), seatbelts were designed to prevent injury to the restrained passengers during Road Traffic Collision (RTC) by preventing the occupant from hitting the vehicle components or being ejected from the vehicle. Moreover, seat belts protect people from needless death and injury.
According to WHO report traffic accident is the third leading cause of death in most countries. As a developing country Ethiopia implements seatbelt law less than 20% (Federal Police Commission, 2007).Given this chronc problem to the country, Ethiopia, there is no research on this issue. There is no doubt that traffic accidents cause social and economic problems and leave a direct impact on people (Shaaban, 2012). Although seatbelts were recognized as an important safety measure, it still remains underused in many countries (Abbas et al, 2011). 97% of the world countries have incorporated seat belt law into the road safety program, but Ethiopia as a big country, which has more than 83 million people, has adopted seat belt law at sub national level (WHO, 2009).As more countries begin or continue to take steps towards addressing their national road safety problem, it has become apparent that regular global assessments of road safety are needed. So, the purpose of this study is to investigate the barrier factors of seat belt use on public transport services.
This research is expected to address the following questions;
- What is the relationship between sociodemographic factors of the drivers and seat belt use?
- What is the relationship between the likelihood of perceived susceptibility and seat belt use?
- What is the relationship between the likelihood of perceived severity and seat belt use?
- What are the major perceived benefits of seat belt use?
- What is the association between seat belt use and cues to action to wear a seat belt?
The general objective of this study is to describe the barrier factors of seat belt use in public transport servicesin selected city administrations, Amhara regional state.
The specific objectives of the study are stated below.
- To determine the relationship between sociodemographic factors of the drivers & seat belt use.
- To measure the relationship between the likelihood of perceived susceptibility & seat belt use.
- To see the relationship between the likelihood of perceived severity & seat belt use.
- To identify the major perceived benefits of seat belt use.
- To describe the association between seat belt use & cues to action to wear a seat belt.
Review of Related Literatures
The HBM is a social cognition model that refers to the way individuals make sense of social situations. Such approach to a study of human behavior focuses on individual’s cognition or thoughts as processes which intervene between observable stimuli and responses in situation. By using social cognition approaches, social behavior is described as subjective perceptions of reality rather than a function of objective description of reality (Conner and Norman, 1996).
Mostly, HBM is practiced in highly developed countries like on the issue of smoking, Tuberculoses, dietary behavior and etc. Indeed, there is very little research evidence of implications for the HBM components in health behavior from developing countries like Ethiopia.
The model assumes that people are rational decision makers whose desire is to avoid a negative health consequence as the prime motivation. The HBM is based on the understanding that a person will take a healthrelated action (such as using a seat belt when driving a car) if that person feels chances of negative health condition (such as likelihood of road accident related injury or death) and that such a negative health conditions has severe outcomes. Thus, the HBM is based on sex key concepts namely perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, sociodemographic characteristics, seat belt use and cue to action.
Several studies have been studied to assess the pattern of seat belt use among different countries. However, most of the studies were conducted in developed countries, especially in western countries and few are in developing countries. For instance, in the U.S. from 1994 to the 2008 seat belt use rates have increased steadily, with 90% seat belt use on expressways in 2008 (NHTSA, 2008).
A study conducted in Saud Arabia using observations, an average seat belt use of 60% for drivers in the first few months after enactment of seat belt laws (Bendak, 2005)and later on decreased to 27% (Bendak, 2007). Similarly, a study done in Israel among teenagers reported that 64% of teenagers used front seat belts all of the time whereas only 8% used the rear seat belts of all of the time (Knishkoey, 2002). Some of the factors that have been found to be associated with increased seat belt use are older age (bendak, 2007), education (Shinar, 2001), married drivers (Bendak, 2007), and long distance driving experience (ibi). In the continebt of Africa, very few studies on seat belt use have been conducted. For instance, a South African study conducted in several provinces showed that seat belt use for the front seat passengers (4561%), and back seat passengers (116%) were much lower than for drivers 97588%). The national figure for seat belt use for drivers in 2002 was 81% (Olukoga, 2005). In Ethiopia, however, studies to asess the pattern of seat belt use among drivers have not been done.
Perceived Susceptibility is one’s belief of the chances of getting a condition. A few atudies have investigated perceived susceptibility to road traffic accidents. A study conducted among AfricanAmerican and Caucasian boys and girls in USA found that the boys and girls believed that they were at the greatest risk of being injured in a motor vehicle accident (Ey et al, 2000). In a study done in Turkey, it was found that risk perception was not a good predictor of seat belt use. Betl use was mainly influenced by individal factors such as gender, perceived frequency of an accident and age (Calisar, 2002).
Perceived benefit to health action denotes one’s belief in the efficacy of the advised action to reduce risk or seriousness of impact. Several studies have been conducted to examine beliefs about the effectiveness of the seat belt. A prospective study was carried out between December 1991 and October 1992 to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of hospitalized drivers regarding seat belt usage in United Arab Emirates (UAE). It was observed that the majority of patients stated that seat belts are the best protective measure against all injuries and severe injuries of road traffic accidents. There was also a strong support for the mandatory use of safety seat belts (56%) (Bener et al, 1994). Another study in Saudi Arabia found that 89% of the drivers knew the importance of wearing seat belts (Bendak, 2007). Moreover, in Spain, undergraduate students were of the opinion that seat belts are more effective for avoiding injuries or death when driving at higher speeds than when traveling at lower speeds (Cunill, 2004).
Perceived barrier refers to individual’s opinons of the tangible and psychological costs of the advised action. Fhaner et al (1974) asked drivers in UAS why they did not wear seat belts. Reasons given varied from difficulty to unlock or fasten the belts, feeling of discomfort, restraint harming the driver’s image and providing in a sense of insecurity. Some respondents felt was wearing a seat belt might cause accidents because the driver might feel “too secure” and drive less carefully.
Verbal and verbal cues may act as reminders to activate readiness to take a healthy action. Adolescents in the USA reprted higher safety belt use during the time the mandatory safety belt use law was in effect, and those who learned to drive that period reported higher safety belt use law was in effect, and those who learned to drive during that period reprted higher safety belt use than those who learned to drive when no law was in effect. Parents’ and friends’ safety belt use and perceived benefits of safety belt use were positively correlated with adolescents use (RiccioHowe, 1991).
This study was conducted by using descriptive type of research design. The population of this study is taxi drivers in Dessie, Kombolcha and Hayik, and Mini bus drivers who work from Dessie to Kombolcha, and Dessie to Hayik routes. The size of population was598. The size of the sample is 223 whereas the sampling technique used was simple random sampling. In order to collect data, questionnaire and personal observation were employed. To determine the relationship between dependent and independent variables, Pearson correlation coefficients were employed.In order to check whether the measuring instruments are valid or not, panel of experts at departmental level was conducted. Thus, because of these concerned experts the content, criterion related and construct validity were checked. Whereas to check the reliability of data collection instruments questionnaires were tested in the form of pilot test on selected study participants. Once the researcher has conducted pilot test, questionnaires were reviewed and modifications were made.
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