Marketing Communication, Direct Marketing, Public Relation and Advertising

Research Paper (undergraduate), 2018

40 Pages



A. Definition of Communication
B. Marketing Communications
c. Interactive Communication Model

A. What is Marketing?
B. Main Marketing Concepts
C. Basic Marketing plan
D. Marketing Mix Component

A. Direct Marketing (DM)
B. Advantages and disadvantages of Direct Marketing
C. Direct Marketing Process
D. Direct Marketing Tools
E. The size of the Direct Response Evaluation

A. Promotion vs. Advertising
B. Sales Promotion
C. Cross-Border Promotion
D. Evaluation of Sales Promotion

A. Public Relation (PR)
B. Comparison PR and Advertising
C. Type PR Program
D. PR Planning
E. PR Goals and Strategies
F. PR Tools
G. PR Evaluation

A. Definition of Advertising
B. Roles and Type Advertising

A. Media Basics
B. Print Media
C. Broadcast Media
D. Internet
E. Non-traditional Media



Communication science exists in every area of ​​life, including in marketing activities. Promotional activities, advertising, through communication media facilitate marketing activities to achieve the desired goals.

This book contains marketing communication lecture materials and will always be developed so that students can become business practitioners who have critical and advanced analysis. The main references in this book are Advertising written by Sandra Moriarty, et al, along with supporting references from various sources.


The authors would like to thank all those who support this book to the end, that is, all readers and Grin Verlag.

This book I dedicate to student prospective business practitioners eagerly learning marketing communications, as well as for my husband Suko Puji Laksono, my childrens Tata Suko & Raya Suko.

May be useful


The purpose of this chapter:

Students as potential business practitioners are able to: Describe the definition of communication, marketing communication, interactive communication model

A. Definition of Communication

According to Thedornson and Theodornson in Bungin (2014), communication is the dissemination of an idea, idea, attitude, or emotion of a person or group to another, especially through symbols (Sambas, 2015). Among the symbols used, language is the most appropriate symbol because language is a representative symbol of the thoughts or feelings of people. Language is a symbol capable of revealing past, present, and future events.

Communication refers to the way of giving, receiving and exchanging information by writing, visual or speech, consisting sender, message, encoding, media channel, decoding, receiver and response or feedback (Mohamad, 2015). Harold D. Laswell states that communication will run smoothly if there is an element who; which aims to know the person who controls the message, say what; material for analyzing the delivered message, in which channel; to speak the media channel used, to whom; to know audience, with what effect; related to the resulting message effect. For successful communication, the quality of the linkage of elements are important (Leitner, 2004)

B. Marketing Communications

Marketing communications include personal sales, advertising, public, relations, sales promotion, direct marketing, events and sponsorships, sales points, communication aspects of packaging. the typical purpose of marketing communications: public relations is collecting news, attitudes, opinions, maximizing credibility, and liking, creating and improving stakeholder relationships. Promoting consumer sales stimulates behavior, generates immediate responses, intensifies needs and motivations, rewards behaviors, stimulates the environment and relevance, creates power through channels. Promotion of trade sales creates industry acceptance, pushes through channels, motivates cooperation, strengthens sellers, dealers, and distributors. Purchase points increase direct sales, draw attention to certain decision points, create interest, stimulate urgency, encourage trials and trigger purchases. direct marketing stimulates sales, creates personal interest and relevance, informs, creates acceptance, confidence. Event fund awards build awareness, create brand experience, participation, interaction and brand engagement, create excitement. packaging to raise sales, draw attention to selected points, deliver product information, create brand reminders. Specificity to strengthen brand identity, continue brand alerts, strengthen satisfaction, encourage repeat purchases.

c. Interactive Communication Model

Mass communication is a process that explains the perpetrators of communication and important steps. in general, the mass communication process is one-way from the source to the receiver, but Ogilvy's (Moriarty, Sandra. Mithcell.Nancy. Wells, William, 2011) that interactive communication such as personal conversation, ie two-way communication, dialogue, and marketing communications begin to move in that direction. two-way communication is one of IMC's goals as it helps to create long-term brand relationships, sustainable dialogue also creates new ways of knowing consumer opinions.

The model describes how communication works, starting from the message source, Source-S, message sender, Message-M, sent in word / visual form through information channel, Channel-C, such as newspaper, radio, TV, then message encoded and interpreted by receiver, Receiver-R, such as readers, listeners or viewers. Responses, feedback, obtained by monitoring the response of the recipient of the message. The process is often interrupted, the noise, which is the things that interrupted sending and receiving messages, such as bad connections or unclear sentences.

Figure 1. Interactive communication model:

illustration not visible in this excerpt

The models can be translated into marketing like this: the source is the marketer, determining the purpose of the message such as advertising or other marketing communications in terms of message effects to the consumer audience (recipients), the medium can be printed media, broadcast media, interactive media.

illustration not visible in this excerpt


The purpose of this chapter:

Students as prospective business practitioners are able to explain what marketing is, a key marketing concept, a basic marketing plan, a marketing mix component

A. What is Marketing?

Many people who define marketing informally are selling, in other words selling means marketing. From an old point of view, marketing is how to design a product, test it, create it, brand it, package it, price it, and promote it (Moriarty, Sandra. Mithcell.Nancy. Wells, William, 2011). While AMA (The American Marketing Association) in Morissan defines marketing as follows: the process of planning and excelling the conception, pricing, promotion and distribution of ideas, goods and services to create the exchange that satisfies individual and organizational objectives (Morissan, 2010). In that definition AMA focuses on the consumer. Traditionally, marketing objectives are generally to sell products in the form of goods and services / ideas. Current marketing developments include relationship marketing involving all stakeholders of the company i.e. employees, distributors, distribution staff, consumers, agencies, investors, government agencies, media, and community members; permission marketing invites potential customers to be target market in order to get marketing communications, for example Suzuki will launch a new product NEX II, Suzuki invites consumers to try to drive the product; experience marketing that involves consumers in a personal and active so that consumers feel have strong ties with the brand; guerilla marketing has the purpose of creating buzz or talk of a brand. Messages posted in public places; digital marketing is marketing using the Internet to do e-business. The internet, in connection with other marketing activities, is a cost efficient and interesting alternative for offline market research (Weimann, 2001). Marketing of motorcycle products can only be done on the local market or region that has been determined, but marketers have started trying to do digital marketing, especially for the complementary product that is spare-part; viral marketing where consumers create buzz about the product or brand via email or blog, mobile marketing is using wireless communication to reach people who are actively moving. Sub-dealer Suzuki Magetan uses Bluetooth to market Suzuki motorcycle products in Magetan city, both public and private; social network marketing is using social network like to inform the product.

B. Main Marketing Concepts

The marketing concept contains two stages:

1. Conduct research to determine the needs and desires of consumers
2. Develop, create, market, and provide product services that can meet the needs and needs, namely to provide solutions to problems faced by consumers.

Marketing concepts include exchange, differentiation and competitive advantage, added value, and branding. marketing helps create a product exchange with something else. For that, there must be two or more people who have something to exchange, the desire and the ability to give something to others, the existence of a way to communicate with each other. Competitive advantage arises when there are different brands and superior to competitors. Honda has advantages over other motorcycle brands. for most villagers, they call motorcycles as Honda, while urban people call motorcycles according to brand or type. The concept in marketing is called product differentiation. Product differentiation can be done through price, design, performance, distribution, and brand image. Marketing and advertising activities can add value to the product, making the product more valuable, useful, and attractive to consumers. Branding or brand image or special meaning is the result of communication and personal experience of consumers of a product. Branding is the way a marketer creates a special meaning for a product. Branding is an important contributor to product differentiation and value added. Branding makes products look different and unique, can transform products by creating an emotional relationship between consumers and favorite brands of people.

C. Basic Marketing plan

A marketing plan or design is a document that contains strategies for using marketing elements to achieve marketing goals. The steps in the marketing process (Moriarty, Sandra. Mithcell.Nancy. Wells, William, 2011) are:

Step 1:

- Research the consumer market and competitive market. The goal is to know the market so that it is used to make the right decision. Information is collected from primary research and secondary research. The information comes from the consumer.
- Develop SWOT analysis (strength, weakness, opportunities, threats). SWOT helps managers gain an important understanding of the data

Step 2:

- Define marketing objectives. Marketing objectives are generally quantitative. For example, increasing the number of customers, increasing profits, and so forth. Marketing objectives can be short-term and long-term. Examples of marketing objectives can be seen in the marketing and communication plan for Bournemouth (Paul, 2013), short term: establish new market and gain large part (about 10% of the market share within one year). Long terms: increase brand awareness by 8% within 5 years.

Step 3:

- Assess the needs and desires of consumers of a product
- Segmenting the market by groups that may respond. The target market is a particular consumer group that is considered a potential consumer for the company's product, while segmentation is to identify the specific group in the market whose wants and needs can be met by the company's products. Demographic segmentation is to distinguish audiences based on demographic characteristics, such as age, gender, education, employment, etc. Geographical segmentation is to distinguish audiences by region of residence. Geodemographic segmentation in the sense of audiences living in a certain region is believed to have similar demographic characteristics. Psychographic segmentation is a segmentation based on lifestyle and human personality.
- Targeting specific markets. The target market is to select one or more consumer segments that will focus on promotional activities and promotions (Morissan, 2010).

Step 4:

- Do differentiate and position the product in the midst of competition. Positioning is the way consumers view and compare competing brands, how people perceive one brand over another in the same category. According to Davidson & Rogers (2006) positioning is a vital element of a communication plan (Paul, 2013). Positioning is a communication strategy that relates to how audiences place a product, brand, or company within its brain, within its imaginary realm, so that audiences have certain judgments (Morissan, 2010)

Step 5:

- Develop a marketing mix strategy: select product design and performance criteria, pricing, distribution, and marketing communications.

Step 6:

- Evaluate the effectiveness of the strategy.

D. Marketing Mix Component

Marketing mix is ​​product, price, distribution, and communication. The product is the object and the reason why there is a marketing effort. In the product there is design and development, branding, packaging, and maintenance. Products must always be innovative if they do not want to be abandoned by consumers. "Brands astutely follow consumer trends ..." (Hischer, 2013). Cosmetic products that retain traditional image and hereditary heritage are more attractive to consumers. Body lotion Citra yellow natural, made from natural spices, with glass bottles first got a response from the consumer, the scent and skin looks yellow natural. Now, Citra products less desirable by consumers with the innovation of spice green tea and packaging in the form of plastic bottles. Distribution includes a channel used to transfer products from the manufacturer to the consumer. Distribution is also called channel marketing. Whether Suzuki motorcycle can maintain its exclusive image if it displays its products in used motorcycle outlets? Product prices are based on market conditions, competition, consumer purchasing power, product benefits, and consumer economic conditions. On motorcycle marketing, price list is the term used to inform the price to the consumer. Pricing strategies include customary pricing, using a price for a long period of time, and psychological pricing, which uses advertising strategies to influence consumer ratings. Marketers combine the four elements into the marketing program. Marketing communications include personal selling, advertising, public, relations, sales promotion, direct marketing, events and sponsorships, sales points, communication aspects of packaging.

illustration not visible in this excerpt


The purpose of this chapter:

Students as prospective business practitioners are able to explain the definition of direct marketing (DM), advantages and disadvantages of DM, DM process, DM tools

A. Direct Marketing (DM)

Direct marketing is a multi-channel marketing system that uses a variety of media to connect sellers with consumers who transact directly, such as retail and wholesale (Moriarty, Sandra. Mithcell.Nancy. Wells, William, 2011). In the past, marketing communication is one-way, now it is two-way or dialogical between marketers and consumers, in other words, direct marketing opens the door to interaction.

B. Advantages and disadvantages of Direct Marketing

Direct marketing has many advantages including: can be personalized and more persuasive than the message in the mass media, the results of direct marketing can be measured so that return on investment easy to know (ROI), direct marketing technology allows the collection of relevant information about the consumer, the product has added value and the purchase is not limited to one location, the marketer can control the product until delivery, the advertising will be more effective, direct marketing more flexible in terms of shape and time.

Excerpt out of 40 pages


Marketing Communication, Direct Marketing, Public Relation and Advertising
University Merdeka Maduin
Catalog Number
ISBN (eBook)
ISBN (Book)
File size
594 KB
marketing, communication
Quote paper
Veny Ari Sejati (Author), 2018, Marketing Communication, Direct Marketing, Public Relation and Advertising, Munich, GRIN Verlag,


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