Table of Contents
1.1 Development and Human Resource Development
1.2 Developing Countries
1.3 Private Institutions
1.4 Millennium Development Goals and Sustainable Development Goals
1.5 Quality Education for Human Development
1.6 How Has Private Institutions Policy Conceptualized Quality Education For Human Development Since the Beginning of the 21 St Centuries?
1.7 Class-Related Ideological Differences in Educational Provision for Students in Private
3.1 Description of Study Rationale
3.2 Case Study
3.3 Reconnect the Case Study to the Public and the Private Sector to Practice
3.4 Show How Private Institutions Can Incredibly Contribute the Human Resource Development through Education
QUALITY EDUCATION FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
Developing countries face myriad of challenges; the height of which is the wanton poverty that is associated with them (Chaturvedi 2004). But, many countries such as the Asian Tigers have shown that with targeted, appropriate and adequate investment in human resource development through education, a society may be easily transformed from underdevelopment and poverty to prosperity and higher standard of living. With Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), the international community committed for the first time as a whole to an expanded vision of poverty reduction and pro-poor growth, one that vigorously places human development at the center of social and economic progress in all countries (Conflict and Mdgs 2012). The MDGs also recognized the importance of creating a global; partnership for change. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), launched in 2015 over another 15 years long period, aimed at building on the efforts of the MDGs in the same perspective. That ending poverty must go hand in hand with strategies that build economic growth and at the same time addresses a range of social needs including education, health, social protection and creation of job opportunities.
Barriers and Opportunities at the Base of the Pyramid - The Role of the Private Sector in Inclusive Development, ‘Over the years, the state has been bearing the major responsibility for human resource development in many third world countries, just as developed countries benefitting of a welfare state (Kirkpatrick 2003). But this trend is changing. Since the beginning of the 21st century, private institutions and organizations have gradually started playing a major role in human resource development, in particular through their engagement in the education sector. The goal of this research, therefore, is to demonstrate the role of private institutions in human resource development in developing countries and how such contributions may be enhanced, the role of private institutions with regards to MDGs and SDGs, notably through strategic partnerships with public institutions and other private organizations.
In the first chapter, the study situates the problem by looking at the background issues; as far as private participation in human development in developing countries is concerned. Also, research questions and objectives are formulated to guide the study.
The second chapter focuses on the education sector and human resource development as drivers for growth. This will range from the analysis of human development and its theories to empirical analysis which will demonstrate how private institutions have contributed over the years, to human resource development in developing countries. This would help to unmask the current contributions and challenges, current and prospective regulatory issues and the gaps that would have to be sealed.
Lastly, in the third and last chapter, a case study is presented, reconnecting the public and the private sector to practice, showing how private institutions can incredibly contribute to human resource development through education.
Helping people develop their organizational and personal skills, values and knowledge are vitally important to the growth of any institution (Papalia 2015). This is the concern of the human resource development. Human resource development helps people ensure a better and a well sustainable future. Institutions ought to provide various platforms for employee's development both in and outside the work environment. Scholars believe that the background of a growing economy is a good education (a good curriculum that helps a student utilize personal talent), proper infrastructure (good roads, schools, hospitals and so on), and a suitable political environment that is the existence of peace (Vernez, Georges 2016). All of these can only be achieved by a well-equipped and trained population.
This paper will consider the role of the private institution in human resource development, particularly in the third world countries. Also, it will compare the roles of private institutions in the human resource development and the roles of the public institution in the human resource development. Additionally, the paper will also focus on the education sector especially how the quality of education influences the social activities, the quality of professional and the non-professional labor and more importantly how the quality of education is useful for poverty eradication.
1.1 Development and Human Resource Development
Development is the possession of the values and the abilities necessary to achieve personal goals and the motivation to select constructive and productive life purpose (Payne, Anthony 2013). On the other hand, human development is a theory that lies in the grounds of international developments (global level of development). Furthermore, the human development comprises the study of the human condition especially in the capability approach (a written structure that involves two standardizing claims (Oosterlaken 2015). Firstly, it claims that the freedom to obtain basic happiness and prosperity is important. Secondly, the capability approach claims that freedom to obtaining happiness and prosperity is based on human capabilities particularly their real chances to be what they will be proud of). Also, human development spreads the distribution of goods and services which are need by the underprivileged people with its main idea influenced by human decision. It is also true to believe that growth and strength to pursue different life goals and developing the human capabilities depends on strong and reliable human development strategies.
Notably, the terminology ‘human development' may be characterized as an enlargement of the human efficiencies, for instance, a variety of choices, an expansion of freedom, as well as enjoyment of human rights (Watson, Malcom 2015). Human development digs its root in the early economic theories and early philosophy as well. As Aristotle would confirm, ‘the good we are looking for cannot be found within wealth and money' further, he concluded by saying that wealth is merely practical within something else (Aristotle. 1963). This theory developed its importance in the early 1980s. Scholars were eager to find out what humanity could and could not do the human capabilities. As a matter of fact, scholars began to put their focus and attention in the human doctrine specifically to human feelings and emotions, more importantly, the human psychological needs. The likes of Abraham Maslow developed a human scale development in the 1980s. The scale addressed human satisfies and needs which proved to be affected by time and current situations (Abraham 2007). Sociologists also have their own ideas and perspectives with regard to human development theories. Diane Elson concluded that the human development ought to move closer to a general and a more diverse approach to the human individual reasoning. Diane's proposal was not to see people as an agent in control of personal choices but as agents who have various choices that are controlled and manipulated by human capacities as well as social structures (Diane 1995).
Human resource development is a strategy that various or most institutions use in order to help grow their employee's knowledge, skills, and abilities for a sustainable society, institution, and communities (Desimone 2012). Practically, human resource development includes activities like coaching, mentoring, performance management, succession planning, tuition assistance, vocational training and so on. All these activities are done to help employees accomplish their goals improve their standards of living both socially and economically as well as to provide a perfect customer service.
Human resource development can be formal or informal. Formal human resource development takes the form of a college course, classroom training and so on. On the other hand, informal human resource development can be in a form of a manager training internal staff or a consultant teaching development classes to the internal employees. This is extremely useful as employees become more advanced while still working in these organizations. Notably, there is a need for government and the non-governmental institutions to promote and advice on the importance of human resource development in third world countries or the developing nations as this will improve the quality of lives similarly reducing the intense of poverty.
1.2 Developing Countries
According to scholars, developing countries are the countries with underdeveloped industrial base and a below the line human development index (HDI) in relations to other countries (Developing countries 2013). Human Development Index is a United Nation kept statistics of the life expectancy, per capita income indicators and education which are used to rank countries into categories of human development. A higher ranked country in terms of the HDI is a country with a higher GDP per capita, a country with a higher education level and a country with a higher life span. This kind of ranking determines whether a nation can achieve the desirable things in their lives. It is believed that developing countries have a low standard of living and are yet to achieve a significant level of industrialization that can improve the lives of its citizens. Similarly, there is a strong relationship between low income and high growth in population.
There are several reasons that support the stagnation of the economies and promote poverty levels. This include; poor leadership, the colonial legacy, demographics, poor institutions, growing debt, security vacuum and digital division. However this paper will only focus on poor institutions.
Governmental institution and the non-governmental institution all ought to sponsor or promote particular cause and program for instance, educational or charitable programs. Scholars believe that poor and corrupt governmental and non-governmental institution can never sustain an economy. Similarly, corruption affects the GDP per capita, the international trade, investments, and also affects the price of commodities in a negative direction. The leaders of these institutions in the developing nations sometimes vandalize public finances and no justice is done. For instance, in Kenya the National Youth Service, an institution set aside by the government to help empower the youth by training and offering life survival skills, was found to have vandalized over 791 million Kenyan shillings (The Nation Newspaper, 2015) by manipulating the integrated financial management information system (IFMIS) to add zeroes on all financial transactions.
1.3 Private Institutions
Private institutions are those institutions that are not run or managed by the government, for instance, private universities (Hall, Peter 1984). Although some receive student loans, tax break as well as grants these institutions are privately owned but subjected to government regulations. Notably, most privately owned institutions are non-profit organizations. There are differences that help distinguish these two institutions. The differences are; tuition allocation, size, and disciplines offered and finally the demography and class size (Black 2010).
Public universities receive government funds. This influences the tuition because funding is of the importance. Being that most of the public institutions were begun in the 1800s by the government, the government is mandated to provide the operation cost of the institution. Also, the government runs these institutions through a selected trustee and bond. On the other hand, private institutions do not receive government funds. They depend on personal contribution and tuition paid by the students.
Size and the Number of Disciplines
The second notable difference that is there between the public and the private institutions is the number of degrees and the size of the two institutions offers. It is proper to note that public institution will tend to have a large number of students than the privately owned institutions. A good describing example from the above is Makerere University in Uganda also known as the Harvard of Africa, where it is a home of more than 40,000 students. Also, public universities have a broad number of disciplines; a student is able to choose a course from a variety of courses offered. In contrast, privately owned universities will tend to offer a limited number of disciplines. This is because most of the private universities tend to have a particular scholarly focus. For example, some university may focus on computer science and engineering.
Demography and Class Size
Thirdly, class size may also differ. It is notable that the private universities usually keep their classes smaller which gives an easy access to lecturers and professors. On the other hand, the public university may have small classes and a large number of students forcing over 200 students to share a similar class room. Demographics and ratio also tend to differ in the private and the public universities. For instance, local students seeking attendance in public universities are enrolled in large numbers in which they pay lower fees than the foreign students.
Although a student in private university may be forced to pay an expensive tuition fee, he or she will have a committed professor, financial initiative and scholarships as well as an engaged university community.
1.4 Millennium Development Goals and Sustainable Development Goals
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are a set of expectation planned by the United Nation involved countries to eliminate poverty while Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are a pathway to the future plans. Sustainable development goals address hunger, malnutrition, and poverty, tackles unfairness, builds more inclusive communities deal with climate trends and protect the planet and disapprove all form of violence against women (Annals of Global Health 2016). Millennium development goals are developed purposely to reduce poverty and extreme hunger, to ensure the average level of education a person gets is the primary education, to empower women, to trim child mortality, and to fight HIV/AIDS as well as other diseases.
The role of the private sector with regards to the SDGs and the MDGs must be directed at the base of the pyramid, where there is the largest and the poorest social economic group. There are various organizations that help the people in these regions, for example, the United Nations Development Programs (UNDP). The UNDP helps join hands with the people in this region to help build a society that can withstand disasters and at the same time build a sustainable community that gives quality to the lives of the people living here. Nevertheless, there are barriers and opportunities that are experienced in these regions while trying to reduce the intensity of poverty and bring development. Some of the barriers experienced may include; skill barriers, social barriers, decision making barriers, health barriers and so on. On the other hand the opportunities may include new health opportunities, reverse innovation, career development, vocational education and training, developing entrepreneurship and so on.
1.5 Quality Education for Human Development
The private sectors ought to play a big role in ensuring quality education for the human development. For example, in Ghana, as any other nation in the world, the parents here believe that education is the key to their children living a prosperous life. But what if the education is not provided by the government?
In a research done by Laura Lewis (2013) in Ghana proved that there is a total number of 207 schools in which 7 of the schools are public the rest 200 are privately owned. The research further proved that between the years 1990 and 2010 the number of students joining the private schools doubled from initial 11 percent to 22 percent. Similarly, in the most parts of Africa particularly the poorest countries the private schooling is advancing. For instance, 50 percent of private school enrollment is experienced in Liberia, 60 percent of private school enrollment is experienced in Sierra Leone while in Burkina Faso private school enrollment was experienced at 40 percent.
In order to maintain a high level of population literacy in any given country or nation all mediums that provide education ought to be evaluated and easily accessible. While different governments continue to provide the education they should also consider the potential that the private sector or the non-state have in regards to education. Though it is normally assumed that the state institution offers quality education for families opposite to this is that some if not most families opt for the non-state institution because of an inadequate quality of education provided by the public institutions. The private institutions can include the community focused non-government organizations (NGOs), religious centered organizations, private companies, trade union, individual practitioners and the small-scale informal sectors. According to a research titled the "Forthcoming", the percentage of students attending private schools increased by 11 percent, that is 11 percent to 22 percent between the years 1990 to the year 2010 ( Andreas 2010).
The purpose for involving private institutions in the education sectors is basically to maximize all the benefits available. Further, private assistance in the education sectors can help improve the level of private assistance especially if the government has limited financial capacity. Also, an increasing evidence proof that private institutions have a well-armed manpower and equipment that can possibly meet the demands regarded to specific groups. Notably, correctly understanding the role played by the private institutions can help accrue the content and potential benefits that these institutions provide.
Non-state providers manage and run government funded private schools. Equally, these schools receive aid from the legislation in form of bursaries, direct payments, grants as well as the transfer of government resources for example text books. On the other hand, there is those privately driven school that is funded by the government but managed by the private body. Equally important, these institutions ought to meet the cut performance and the measures set by the government through a voucher contract (government paying private institutions focused on the size enrolled students).
Private bodies involving in the education sectors can help achieve technical as well as management skills crosswise all lines of the education sector. Moreover, it is because of the good management flexibility within the private sector that easily creates improvement and innovation. Other studies show that private schools give out better or equal outcome compared to the public schools. For instance, voucher scheme in India has shown to save the Indian economy almost two-thirds in student capitation at the same time assuring significant improvement within the curriculum in all subject. Also, private institutions in India have proved to open for longer day and longer academic year. Similarly, they have smaller classes, minimum class absence and extra devoted time on extra subjects (Muralidharan and Sundararaman, 2013).
Similar studies show that the private schools are cost effective compared to the public schools likewise students achieving good grades. Teacher's motivation, parent's involvement, and student attendance have proved to have a positive effect on academics. That is when parents and guardians involved in their kids' education; the kids tend to do better. Equally, when parents take their children to fees paying schools, the guardian can choose to change the child school at his or her convenience. This means that there is a sense of internal accountability mechanism.
Being that education empowers people and gives them the chance for escalation in their life it is even more important if each and every one in a particular population gets an education. The private sectors entry into the education sectors has given the opportunity to the student that initially could not attend school because of the limited of disciplines like medicine, engineering, pharmacy and so on. Furthermore, the private bodies or universities provide courses for the purpose of personal interest and talent that could be tapped by different companies. Therefore, it is fine to say that private schools or universities play a vital role in the human development section.
- Quote paper
- Edison Otieno (Author), 2107, The Development of Human Resource Departments in Private Institutions, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/432873