List of contents
List of contents
The preliminary chapter : The woman status and her Education pre-1908
-The Harem Era and the appearance of Unveiled Women.
- The Girl's Education pre-1908
Chapter One: The development of higher education in Egypt
-The education during the era of Mohamed Ali's family.
- Establishing the national University.
- Developmenet of the national University.
- The governmental University.
- The American University.
- The University of Farouq I.
- The University of Ibrahim Pasha.
- Al-Azhar of Development.
- The high institutes.
Chapter Two: The Egyptian woman's joining to the university and the society's position regarding this matter
The feminist department at the old universities.
The girls' joining to the new university.
Male-mixing and uniform issue
Chapter Three : The Egyptian woman in higher education
-The female students in the new University.
- The female missions.
- The higher institutes for girls.
Chapter Four: The graduated girls and work fields
-The society and the woman's work.
-The work fields of the graduated girls.
To my Elder Brother / Mahmoud Mohammed Mahran, who exerted every possible effort for my sake, preferring my future to his one, and teaching me the meaning of sacrifice and preference.
May Allah grant him the best reward!
The Egyptian woman has played an important role, politically, socially, scientifically and culturally, since the ancient Egyptian state. On the political aspect, she was appointed as a queen, socially, she considered as the other half of the society, on the scientific aspect, there were female scientists who got the appreciate of the world and on the cultural side, the woman kept in pace with the man in all intellectual activities.
The history had witnessed a period of religious fanaticism which was transferred by the society to what was called as "Al Harem Era" which had the greatest effect on retarding the woman's role in all fields of life.
However, through the cultural and civilizational communication that resulted from the Egyptian relations with the west countries through the French occupation in 1798 and the educational missions during Mohammed Ali's era, the callings began gradually for bringing the woman back to her natural status through calling for her education, her freedom and her equality to the man.
Mohammed Ali was the first one who entered the Egyptian woman into the education, even that the most successful experiences were in Ismail's era. Then, these callings increased, the books were issued and the feminist newspapers were established, and accordingly, the girls joined to the schools and their numbers had greatly increased.
As a result, new generation of the educated women appeared who dedicated themselves to call for equality and getting their full rights. Those women also called for joining the woman to the university and established the feminist department at the university to get the woman a new type of the education which opens all closed doors before her.
The study period is considered as one of the most important periods in the history of the Egyptian woman, since the beginning of her joining to the university education until the end of the royal family era during which the woman got her full educational and scientific rights.
This study has depended on the historical gradualism for the events; it began from the oldest to the modernist with explaining all events
surrounding the events which affected in supporting or hampering the experiment of the higher education for the Egyptian woman.
This study was divided into a preliminary chapter, four chapters and conclusion.
The preliminary chapter discussed the woman's status pre-1908, in which we discussed the woman status before, during and after the French campaign, then Qassem Ameen's invitation for freeing the woman and supporting the educated women and the public opinion for her. After that, I look over calling of the reformers of woman education had begun as well as the role of the ruling family in educating the woman and later establishing the girls' schools by the foreigners.
The first chapter discussed the development of the higher education in Egypt beginning from establishing the high schools during Mohammed Ali's era, then establishing the national university, inaugurating the Egyptian university, the American University, the University of Farouq I, Ibrahim Pasha University and Al-Azhar development.
The second chapter discussed the beginnings of woman's joining to the university through the feminist department in the national university, then her joining to the Egyptian university, the issue of uniform and studying alongside the boys, the attitude of the supporters and opponents for this issue and the reasons of their support or their objection.
The third chapter discusses the Egyptian woman in the higher education, the different activities of female students inside the university, her participation in the journeys and parties, and discussed the other side of the higher education for woman, namely her joining to the missions or the high institutes.
The fourth and last chapter displayed the outcomes of the woman's higher education, namely her work. It handled the society position regarding her work then her joining to the work fields thanks for her university success.
Despite a lot of studies had discussed the woman's education, but these studies handled the higher education for woman in a few positions with ignoring the different reactions for her joining to the university or her activity inside the university. Thus, this work came to complete the vision of the higher education for the Egyptian woman.
One of the most important points in this study is refuting the demonstrations phenomenon which occurred during the initials and the lasts of 1930s against the woman education in the university as well as outlining the different reactions. This study discussed the political, social, cultural and the scientific activities of the female students inside the university which affected greatly on the failure of the demonstrations which resist their education, then her continuance in the university.
One of the most important points in this study is linking the success of the female students in the higher education to the work market, after getting the highest scientific degrees, the girl looked forward to the highest jobs and positions in the country.
The study has depended on the rich documents and courses which are enough to cover the events of this period. The most important of them are Abdeen documents, Al-Fatah and Al-Mosawer journals.
The researcher has got the references that handled the woman education at the university; the most important of them are the two books of Professor Latifah Mohammed Salem "The Egyptian woman and the social change 1919-1945" and " the development of the Egyptian woman's status".
However, the largest problem faces the researcher during the research is the rarity of the documents that discussed the reaction of the society against the woman education, but the researcher treated this problem through depending on the contemporary courses for the events.
The preliminary chapter: The Woman Status and her Education Pre-1908
Al-Harem era and the beginning of unveiled women
Al-Harem concept 1 had appeared during the ottoman period as result of the immoderation in the religiousness. This issue reached the climax during ottoman state before connecting to the other cultures which affected the roots of the whole society, one of the most effects of this communication is the change of the society culture which led to the change of the woman's status and its role.
The luxurious Egyptian woman was receiving her human experiences from her mother and her babysitter 2 as well as everything relates to her body, her beauty and feminist experiences in order to be able to achieve the success in her marriage house 3.
As for the educated women, they were very few, the old educated woman "Sheikhah" who was going to the Harem at the palace daily to teach the girls and female slaves how to pray beside some verses of the Holy Qur'an4.
If the palace owner was opened minded, he would entrust with his girls to one Sheikh who keeps the Holy Quran, how to write her name, the spelling letters and some verses of Holy Qur'an. If she reached nine years, she wouldn’t get out or see light but if she looked secretly behind a veil5.
As for the uniform, it was Hobrah 1 and veil (Borqoa') during going out her home, but in feasts, she was wearing Yashmak 2 instead of the veil (Borqoa')3. The woman didn’t know the outside world but through the narrow holes of oriel and thick veil on her face 4.
As for the ordinary woman, she interested in her ornament, since she was using Kohl in her eyes, made her fingers red through using henna, but she didn’t get out to the street unveiled, since she was covering her face by Borqoa' and wasn’t expose her ornament but for her husband or Cairo women in its hundred sauna for the pride 5.
The French occupation and its effect on the woman's status
The soldiers and officers of the French occupation 6 came to Egypt and some French women as their wives or as concubines 7. Despite Napoleon's strictness in preventing the women from their companionship, but 200 women sneaked into the navy ships, then they were followed by 2000 women 8.
On their way from Alexandria to Cairo, the French seized the opportunity to attack a lot of Egyptian women, in particular the cities which witnessed battles that hampered the army march 9.
When the French army camped in Cairo after 3 weeks from their arrival to Egypt, the European prostitutes descended to the streets and districts naked or semi-naked with high laughs in order to seduce the eastern man10.
They were roaming in the streets and road unveiled making fun of their deeds. These deeds attracted the attention of the Egyptian woman in particular, and Napoleon's soldiers mixed with the Egyptian people through the marriage or having sexual intercourse1.
The dealing of the French men to their wives made the Egyptian women look at the large difference between their status and the status of the French woman, in particular after the leaders of the campaign getting married to the Egyptian women, such as Mino who married to Zobayda Al-Rashedyah, embraced Islam and called himself (Abdullah Mino) and after the Egyptian women living with the French women in addition to telling them the way by which their husbands deal with them 2.
Few months passed, we found that the form of prostitution in France moved to Egypt, special buildings for prostitution were established at Ghayt Al-Noby, near to Al-Azbakya, the houses of wine, singing and music spread, anyone was going into these houses had to pay a certain amount of money except those who bear the permission of entrance or free permission granted by the French authorities 3.
The Egyptian woman during the occupation's departure
The effect of the French occupation wasn’t limited to the woman's freedom or being unveiled, but it also affected all aspects of the social, political and scientific life. Some historians considered the coming of the French campaign to Egypt as the beginning of the modern history in Egypt.
After the French campaign leaving Egypt, the women went out in demonstrations against the Turkish rulers. When one of Turkish leaders killed one youth in Bab Al-Sha'riyah, the women went out asking for beheading this leader and went to Al-Azhar alongside some Sheikhs of Al- Azhar4, thus, the ruler had to pay a large amount as blood money for for the family of the killed youth as well as deposition of the Turkish leader1.
When the Turkish rulers imposed excessive taxes on the Egyptian people, the women went out in a big demonstration in (1803) bearing drums and some house tools condemning imposing "al-farda"2 and then they were accompanied by the ruler's soldiers who went to the castle asking for killing Othman Al-Bardisy3.
The women also went out in a big demonstration during Mohammed Ali's era and went towards Al-Azhar screaming at the faces of Al-Azhar' scientists, tearing their books, among them was Nafisah Al-Moradiah "the wife of Morad bey", therefore, Mohammed Ali sent to Al-Azhar scientists to know their demands4.
Following the French, the dancers' phenomena appeared who were dancing on the violin tones on boats in Luxor 5, the people from each place were coming to see the dancers' shows 6.
Moreover, there was a big tribe which was called "The dancers' tribe of (Al-Ghawazy)". They were wearing the clothes of the middle class in houses, they were choosing the colored clothes, wearing different jewels, putting kohl in their eyes and putting henna at their fingers, hands and legs7.
Al-Harem era was actually ended after Ismail's era, during his exile to Europe, he couldn’t spend money on the large number of slave women and their sons, so, he had to distribute them on his relatives from the royal family and his retinues to marry them8.
In addition, to prevent the salves trade in Egypt, since the salve and the wife of sultan Abdel-Aziz were sisters, thus, Khedive Ismail prevented the slaves' trade1 and emphasized the equality of all people to sultan Abdel-Aziz2.
After this, the women of high class families appeared and participated in the literary life and the feminist renaissance, we find princess Nazly Fadel3 opens her salon for the thinkers of her era in order to study the political affairs of Egypt, we also find Fatima Ismail who donated for the university, as result, the feminist department was established in the university4.
Qassem Ameen and liberating the woman
Qassem Ameen5 came from Europe asking the Egyptian woman to stay at her home, but after his meeting with Mrs. Nazly, his position completely changed since he found a woman speaks various languages and has awareness of all political and social matters6.
Through incitation by Mohammed Abdo, Qassem Ameen published his articles in which he called for liberating the woman and education at "Al- Moayed" newspaper , and he collected it in a book called "Women liberation" which was published in 1899 , and he appealed all educated people to see by themselves the society mistakes and looking for the treatment for them7.
After issuing two books by Qassem Ameen and the elites' calling for liberating the woman, there was a little movement towards mixing and travelling to Europe and America to study. Uniforms had development and clothes quickly reduced, the matter which amazed the thinkers 1.
The Public opinion and women liberation
The women's magazines Issued in the early twentieth century, which contributed in increasing the awareness towards the issue of women, thus, women issued magazines such as " the childerns' guide", "Coptic family", "Princess", "chastity" and all of them called to sofour2 or liberty of women3.
Hend Nofel also published "The girl" , Maryam zahr issued "the mirror of the beautiful girl", Louis jabalieen issued the "Paradise" , Alexander Khoury issued "Anees Al-Galees", Sadia Saad El-din issued "Shagrat Al-Dor" , Anisa Atallah issued "The Women", Rozah Anton - Sister of ( Farah Anton)- issued "Ladies and Girls" , Labibah Ahmed4 issued "Girl "Girl of East" , Gamila Hafez issued "Al-Rihanah", Fatima Rashid issued "Promotion of women" and Malaka Saad issued "The fairer sex". All these magazines contributed notably in changing the thought towards the woman's status and its natural position inside the society 5.
The role of educated females
There were some educated females contributed in liberating the woman like "Aisha Al-Timoreya" who recited songs expressing what woman suffered and "Malak Hefny Nasef" or "Bahethat Al-Badya "the desert researcher" )6 who called for women liberty and damaging the narrow- minded styles as she published in her book (the woman's affairs) which contained her ideas in this regard1.
Emphasizing on her desire in liberating the woman, after their participation in the global conference of the feminist federation in Italy, both of Huda Sharawy and Siza Nabrawy taking off (Borqoa' ) after their return and recipients were surprised by their unveiled faces2.
Not all women who called for liberating the woman were supporting their absolute unveiling, but some of them were moderate in their calling such as Bahethat Al-Badyah and Nabwaya Mosua, thus, they indicated to the bad effects of the exaggeration in unveiling and veil, they also attacked those who drifted behind the European falseness, there were also some women who considered each new thing as going away from the religion3.
The Syrian saloons appeared at the era of Ismail pasha who supported the immigration of Syrians to Egypt to cure the weakness of learners and teachers , and they worked in education administration, as result, the opened- minded Syrian women came to Egypt to spread the mental and literary promotion4, one of the most famous saloons is Mai Ziadah's saloon5.
The voluntary feminist organizations which were established at the end of nineteenth century by the educated women female educative affected greatly in changing the women position socially and politically6.
After women got her liberty, she was an ignorant then became educated , she was slave later she became a lady , she was just a machine but after became with job , she was a way from society but after she had the same position of the man .
The Girls' education pre-1908
The girl's movement from Al-harem era to the illumination era was very difficult step, but the conditions changed the woman's status completely in a few years, as result, the desire of some elites met the desire of the rulers of Mohammed Ali's family through invitation of the missionary missions which affected greatly on the education of the Egyptian woman.
The pioneers of reformation and their role in girl's education
The pioneers of the reform contributed largely in educating the girl through their calling in which they showed the benefits of her education and the bad results of her ignorance. Thus, they published the magazines, issued the books and held the intellectual saloons for spreading their invitation for educating the woman, the most famous of them were Refa'a Rafe' Al-Tahtawy, Mohammed Abdo and Qassem Ameen, and we will discuss the role of each one in detail:
Refa'a Rafe' Al-Tahtawy
Refa'a Rafe' Al-Tahtawy called for women`s education, as result he wrote books, delivered the speeches and wrote the books. After he came from Paris, he wrote a book of "Takhlees Al-Epreez" in which he wished that the Egyptian women to be like French woman 1.
Al-Tahtawy asked the girls to educate and adhere with education and appealed her family to educate her, as it also the experience ruled that the education of girls more good than harm, but no more harms in it from disadvantages and no bad in this. Moreover, he appealed the men to women's politeness and literary can replace her beauty, but beauty cannot replace the politeness 2.
Al-Tahtawy issued his second book "The honest guide in learning boys and girls", in which he expressed frankly his denial to the woman status in Egypt and he enacted the conditions by which the Egyptian woman can be free and that will promote Egypt and different fields of works1.
He issued this book in 1873 and wrote about the right of woman in education, he indicated that the girl's education is more important than the boy's education, this made the princess Chisma Afet Hanem"the wife of khedive Ismail" established the first school for girls in Cairo2.
He emphasized on girl's education and educating the Muslim's girls to contribute in the Islamic renaissance. He indicated that anyone who abuse women, would be considered as ignorant with Islamic laws. Mohamed Abdo also called to the equalization between girl and boy and he Cited Qur'anic verses to support his opinions 3.
Mohamed Abdo criticized the princess Nazly as she focused on the political efforts and wouldn't establish an association for women development 4, he asked the cultured women to do that and build schools for girls. he also defended sincerely with his student Qassem Ameen about his ideas which he expressed in his two books5.
Qasim Ameen mentioned the benefits of girl's education by showing the false and fables resulting from her ignorance and transforming her into a productive not consumer machine. He cleared that is a good for her society because of increasing her fortune and mantel's fruitage 6.
Qasim Ameen explained his saying that he did not want the absolute equalization between men and women, but he wanted the whole equalization in the primary education at least. He said that the Veil (Hijab) was considered as a habit practiced by all nations almost, but vanquished regularly according to promotion of society and progress requirements 1.
He said that the men in this era prefer to marry the educated high class woman not a servant, used in all things and they hoped that the mothers of their sons should have experience and education 2.In1900, he published his second book (the new women) in which he emphasized on his previous opinions 3 and supported them with secular thought4.
The historians see that one of the most important results for the girl education is her getting out of her home, however, the researcher sees that this represents the most important reasons on which the woman liberators depend for the success of their calling for liberating the woman.
The role of the royal family in educating the girl
The members of the ruling family played very important role in educating the Egyptian woman through establishing the schools beginning from Mohammed Ali's era, it's clear existence at Ismail era, and flourished during the periods of the later rulers, and we will explain the role of each ruler in educating the girl till the inauguration of the university as follows:
The girl's education during Mohammed Ali's era
Mohammed Ali brought "Edward Dour" who worked as inspector at ministry of knowledge, who wrote a book calling for women's education5.
Mohamed Ali thought to build a medicine school for girls 6 for educating educating the secret disease so he established it in 1830, and he ordered a group from the palace to go to school to teach the medicine 1.
Mohamed Ali tried to make his soldiers' daughters joining to the school and he used the desire and threats style, as he showing the advantages of joining to this school and the punishment of refusal but they preferred punishment 2. Thus, he was forced to buy ten black slaves to learn the medicine and surgery and this was the first step for the school of delivery which was attached to the school of forensic medicine in Abu Za'bal3.
On the surface this is not a good example for Egyptian women's education for Medicine, but it was a supporting element especially after success of experience, after that the female Egyptians joined slaves and orphans at school and they increased in 1836 and nineteen girls of them were Egyptian girls4.
1 This word was used in Islamic era referring to exaggeration in religiosity, but it originally backed to ancient Egypt because the word "Hnr" in the ancient Egyptian hieroglyphic language means Harem referring to the royal palace. For more details, look: Engy Mohamed Yahia El-kilany: scenes depicting females’ occupations in ancient Egypt at the private tombs from the old kingdom to the end of the new kingdom, (PHD. degree, Minia university, 2007), P.19.
But in the Arabic language deprived from the word "Haram", for which the man conflicting to protect, also means "women" or "people of the man". For more details, look: Magda Saleh Makhlouf, The Harem in Othoman palace, (Arabic horizons Printing house, Cairo, 1998), p.10.
2 A bondmaid brought from south of Sudan either from Cordovan or from Nile sources, was knapping by slave trader to buy them in slaves market. For more details, look: Isma’il Mazhar, The Women in democratic era, (Egyptian Press, Cairo, 1949), p.107 .
3 Eglal Khalifa, Recent Feminine Movement: Issue of Arabic women in Egypt, (Public Egyption association of book, Cairo, 2008), P.15.
4 Lane, W., A., Manners and customs of modern Egyptians, (Cosimo classic, U.S.A, 2010), p.59.
5 Heyworth-Dunne, J., An introduction to the history of education in the modern Egypt, (Burleigh press, Bristol, England, 1939), p.14.
1 Black or white cloth weared by the women outdoors on all clothes. For more details, look: Tahia Kamel Hassan, Egyptian costumes from pharaohs to era of Mohamed Ali, (Knowledges printing house, Cairo), p.257.
2 It's a white wear put around breast, hands and shoulders. For more details, look: Anis Mansour, Said Ali Isma’il and others, Encyclopedia of women over the epoches, ten volumes, first volume (Public Egyption association of book, Cairo, 2004), p.91.
4 Golley, N., Reading Arab women autobiographies, (University of Texas press, U.S.A., 2003), p.19.
5 Abdallah Imam, Papers from the history of the Egyptian women, (The golden book, Rosalyousef, Issue 1, 1987),p.159.
6 The researcher forethought here to ignore the name of "French campaign" and used stead the "French occupation", because he thought that ,it's western name such as Fraser campaign, British protection or before crusades campaigns to disappear their greed in exhaustion of the east goods.
7 Eglal Khalifa, Op.cit, p.14.
8 Abdallah Imam, Op.cit, p.157.
10 Abdel-Rahman Al-Jabrti, Wonders of Memoirs in news and autobiographies, preparation and survey: Abdel-Aziz gamal Al-Din, Fourth volume, (Madbouli library, Cairo, 1996), p.579.
1 Abdel-Rahman Al-Jabrti, Op.cit., p.579.
2 Eglal Khalifa , Op.cit.,p.16.
3 Abdel-Rahman Al-Jabrti,Op.cit.,p.151.
4 There were two kinds of sheikhs in Al-Azhar , the first from the higher rank and the other from the lower rank, but the first team "scientists" was the influenced team in policy and public matters. For more details, look: Marsot,A.L.E. Women and men in late eighteenth century Egypt , (University of Texas press ,U.S.A. , 1995 ).,p.55.
1 Eglal Khalifa , Op.cit.,p.17
2 Al-farda is a kind of taxes invented by Turkish on all aspects of life even the clothes, such as when a person buy something to wear must pay" Al-farda" to wear it .for more details, look: Eglal Khalifa , Op.cit.,p.17.
3 Ibid. p.18.
4 Abdalla Imam , Op.cit,P.218.
5 This habit still founded in the banks of the Nile in Cairo.
6 Smith.j.v.c, Pilgrimage to Egypt, (Gould and Lincoln, Boston, 1852), p.309.
7 Tahia Kamel Hassan, Op.cit, p.246.
8 Iqbal Barraka , The new women , (Electronic publiching house),p.27.
1 Russell, M., Middle East in focus Egypt, (Santa Barbara, California, 2013), p.59.
2 Qais Gawad Al-Ezawy , The Ottoman empire : New reading in factors of decline, (Arabic house for for sciences , Beirut, 2003),p.11.
3 Daughter of Mustafa Fadel pasha and brother of khedive Ismail who donated his library to the Egyptian university. She speak good Arabic,English,French and Turkish languages. For more details, look: Talhami,G.H, Mobilization of Muslim women in Egypt , ( University press of Florida , U.S.A,1999)., p.8.
4 Eglal Khalifa, Op.cit. p.27.
5 He born in 1863 from Turkish father and saudian Egyptian mother, he studied law in France (1881-1885), and then come to work a lawyer then as a jurist. In 1894, he published his book "the Egyptians" to reply on the French writer "darcore" who wrote a book fight the Egyptians and Muslims , in which ensured Qassem Amin that Islam gave the women rights, which forbidden to the French women. For more details, look: Bou-Ali Yassin, Rights of women in Arabic writing, (New youth printing house, Syria, 1998), Pp.44-46.
6 Piquada,L.,Discourse on women education in Egypt during the nineteenth and early twentieth
century in Egypt, convergence of proto feminist nationalist and Islamic reformist thought, (Master of arts, National library of Canada , 1999 .(,p.8.
7 Mariscotti, c., Gender and class in the Egyptian women’s movement 1925-1939, (Syracuse university press, New York, 2008), p.3.
1 ( Abu Al-Hassan Ali Al-Hassany Al-Nadawy, Conflict between Islamic idea and western idea in Islamic lands, (colloquim press house , Lebanon , 1968).,p.129.
2 The researcher doesn't mean here dispraise press invitation to liberty or misbelieving to its purposes nobility, because the word"sofour" had changeable meaning. so, the researcher see that it changes following to habits and traditions of the society.hence,definition of sofour changes from some period to the other, for example we find definition of sofour in Mohamed Ali's period summarized in being the women outdoors, but in the beginning of twentieth century sofour became women's education. In the thirtieths "after women obtained all educational rights", Society considered sofour is "the women labor", but after her participation in all fields of work and in the beginning of fortieths the definition of sofour summarized in women's uncovered body.
3 Iqbal Barraka, Op.cit, p.8.
4 She is the daughter of Dr. Ahmed Abdel-Naby who graduated from medicine school and midwife safiya who the graduate of Midwifes school. For more details, look: Eglal Khalifa, Op.cit.,p.104.
5 Bou-Ali Yassin, Op.cit, Pp.38, 39.
6 She called as researcher of the desert, because she married one of bedouin tribes sheikhs. For more more details,look: Kotkata ,M., Der aEgyptische portrait maeler ahmed sabri(1899-1955) sein leben und werk an beispielen seiner frauenportraets, Magistra der philosophie ,(Universität Wien, Institut für Kunstgeschichte, ,wien ,Dezember 2007) .,p.39.
1 Latifa Mohamed Salem, The Egyptian Women and social change 1919-1945, (Public Egyption association of book, Cairo, 2008), p.23.
2 Samir Sarhan & others, Encyclopedia of recent Egypt, first volume , (Ministry of culture , Cairo,1996),p.92.
3 Ibrahim Awadin, The women as female desert researcher saw, (The crescent, Issue 974, September 1978), Pp.47, 48.
4 I specified the Syrian high rank who belonged to the liberal thought, but the most immigrants Syrians in Egypt are from the middle rank who come to complete their Islamic studies in Al-Azhar.for more details, look: Alsayyed Samir Abdel-Maqsoud, The Levant people in Egypt from The ottoman opening to the beginnings of Nineteenth century, (Public Egyption association of book, Cairo, 2003), p.258.
5 Khaldi, B., Egypt awakening in the early of the twentieth century Mayy Ziadah's intellectual circles, (Boutheinakhaldi ,U.S.A.,2012).,p.33.
6 Saleh,A.E., women's movement in: kuwait, Egypt, Iran and the UK , ( Amanisalehelessa, U.K., 2010), p.29.
1 Refa’ah Rafe’ Al-Tahtawy, Paris profile, (Public Egyption association of book, Cairo, 1993), Pp.384-403.
2 Sami Souliman Mohamed Al-Sahm, Education and social change in Egypt during Nineteenth century, ( Public Egyption association of book, Cairo, 2000), p.259.
1 Eglal Khalifa, Op.cit, p.20.
2 Iqbal Barraka, Op.cit, p78.
3 Ahmed, J.M., the Intellectual Origins of Egyptian Nationalism, (Oxford University Press., London, 1960).p.11.
4 Ahmed Amin, Reform leaders in recent epoch, (Lebanon book store, Beirut), p.313.
5 Ibid. p.86.
6 Qasem Amin, Liberty of women, (Electronic Publishing house).Pp.24-26.
1 Ibid. p.72.
2 Haddad, Y., women, Religion and social change, (State university in New York press, 1985), p.281.
3 Tall'at Harb opposed thought of Qassem Amin and advised women by the head cover, In addition publishing two books for replying on the books of Qassem Amin.for more details, look: Abdel- Mon’im Al-gemi’i, Pages of the Egyptian women history in New era , (house of books and national documents, Cairo,2007),p.10
4 Piquada, L., Op.cit., p.60.
5 Ahmed Amin, Op.cit, p.86.
6 After eight years of the death of Mohammed Ali, an English women presented request to obtain to diploma in medicine, but her request was refused. Another lady repeated her request in 1862, but also it was refused. The ladies organized their rows and protested on these decisions. After insisting and protest, their requests were accepted in 1865. For more details, look: Cambridger, contributions to the history of education, University press, p.272.
1 Omar Abdel-Aziz Omar, Studies in the contemporary and recent history (1517 -1952), (Academic knowledge house, Alexandria, 1989), p.73.
2 Abdallah Imam, Op.cit, p.224.
3 Omar Abdel-Aziz Omar, Op.cit, p.72.
4 Ibid. p.73.
- Quote paper
- Mostafa Shaker (Author), 2014, The Egyptian Women and Higher Eduacation (1908-1952). Women's Struggle from Academic Deprivation to Community Leadership, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/435118