An Analysis of Water Usage and Quality in the State of Bauchi, Nigeria


Bachelor Thesis, 2018

51 Pages, Grade: 1


Excerpt


TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
1.2 Aims and Objectives
1.3 Vegetation and Climate
1.4 Settlement and Land Use
1.5 Relief and Drainage

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 General Geology
2.2 Review of the Basement Complex of Nigerian
2.3 Migmatite – Gneiss Complex
2.4 The Schist Belt
2.5 The Older Granite
2.6 The Younger Granite
2.7 Geology of Bauchi State
2.8 Hydrogeology

CHAPTER THREE
METHODOLOGY
3.1 Sample Collection
3.2 Equipment used for Water Analysis
3.3 Analytical Method for Physical Parameters
3.3.1 Temperature
3.3.2 Conductivity
3.3.3 Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)
3.3.4 Colour
3.3.5 Turbidity
3.3.6 PH Test
3.3.7 Odor
3.4 Analytical Method for Chemical Parameters
3.4.1 Determination of Fe (T) Concentration
3.4.2 Determination of Copper (Cu2+) Concentration
3.4.3 Determination of SO42- Concentration
3.4.4 Determination of NO3- Concentration
3.4.5 Determination of Potassium (K+) Concentration
3.4.6 Determination of Phosphate Ion(PO43-) Concentration
3.4.7 Determination of NO2 Concentration
3.4.8 Determination of Calcium (Ca2+) Concentrations
3.4.9 Determination of Magnesium Concentration
3.4.10 Determination of Alkalinity (NaCl-) Concentration
3.5 Method of Bacteriological Analysis
3.5.1 Indicator Organisms
3.5.2 Method of Enumeration of Colliform Units
3.6 Petrography

CHAPTER FOUR
RESULT AND INTERPRETATIONS
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Presentation of Analytical Result
4.2 Physical Analysis Result
4.2.1 Total Dissolved Solids
4.2.2 Conductivity
4.2.3 Turbidity
4.2.4 Colour
4.2.5 Odor
4.2.6 Ph
4.3 Chemical Analysis Result
4.4 Bacteriological Analysis Result
4.5 Petrography
4.5.1 Biotite Gneiss

CHAPTER FIVE
DISCUSSION OF RESULT
5.1 Water for Domestic Use
5.2 Water for Agricultural Activities
5.3 Water for Industrial Purposes
5.4 Sources of Dissolved Mineral Species

CHAPTER SIX
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
6.1 Conclusion
6.2 Recommendations

REFERENCE

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

Water is one of the most important natural resources that man is endowed with. Water is next to air as a major sustainer of life in addition to serving as a vital substance for human existence. It plays a major role in progress of our life and National development. In Nigeria majority of the water used domestically in villages, towns and cities are from the ground water resources.

Water quality comprises of knowing the Geology and hydrogeology and environmental of the area of interest. In studying the Geology of an area one has to know the different rock types that bear the water in that area and the structures associated with it. Hydrogeology is area of geology that deals with the distribution and movement of groundwater in the soil and rocks of the earth’s crust. It deals with flow of water through aquifers and other shallow porous media.

The quality of water as stated above embraces the combined physical, chemical and bacteriological characteristics which are evaluated by analytical measurement, especially the concentration of the various constituents and its effects or properties caused by the presence of these substances which may come from different sources. These properties are correlated to the standard of most multinationals such as World Health Organization (WHO), United State environment protection agency (USEPA) and NAFDAC.

The major ions that are commonly analyzed for domestic use include Ca2+ , Mg2+, Cu2+, Fe2+, Na+, No–3, Po2–3 and So2–3. Other parameters are temperature, conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), color and turbidity (Todd, 1980).

Some of these multinationals like World Health Organization and United State Environmental Agency (USEPA) have set standard based on the modern scientific approach whereby the ground water is considered safe and portable if it complies with the physical, chemical and bacteriological accepted international standard.

The objective of these international standards is aimed at reducing to the nearest minimum, the spreading of water borne disease and intake of qualitative water for improve health condition. To achieve stated objectives, physical, chemical and bacteriological qualities of ground water were assessed in 4 boreholes and 6 hand dug wells within the study area.

1.1 Location and Accessibility

The area mapped is Buzaye located within Bauchi Local Government area of Bauchi state. The area covered was total area of twenty five square kilometers (25sqkm) and comprises of different rock types. The area is bounded by longitude N 09◦13’51.01” and E 09◦39’33. 82” and latitude N 10◦ 14’44.32” and E 9◦ 39’23.36 ” within sheet 149 Bauchi NW map of the Gelogical Survey of Nigeria. It is about 20km away from Bauchi town along Bauchi – Jos road and it is easily accessible by foot. There are also minor roads which link the area. FIG1.

1.2 Aims and Objectives

The main aims and objectives of the study are as follows;

1. Determine the ground water quality in the boreholes and hand dug wells in the area and its suitability for domestic and agricultural uses.

2. To provide information for the use of organizations interested in ground water resource development in the area.

3. To satisfy one of the requirements for the award of degree of Bachelor of Technology (B.Tech) in applied Geology at the Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University.

1.3 Vegetation and Climate

The study area is characterized by two seasons annually, the dry season and the rainy season. The dry season is divided into hot and cold (harmattan). The dry season usually last for about seven months, from October to late April as the weather changes to dry harmattan to hot weather, (Falconer, 1911).

The rainy season is relatively short and averagely last for few months from May to September. The season is characterized by temperature range of 320C to 420C. The months of March to May records the hottest period. (Falconer, 1911).

1.4 Settlement and Land Use

The area is characterized by nucleated and dispersed settlements. The study area is sparsely populated. Most of the area is used for agriculture and therefore, the major occupation of the people in the study area is farming. They cultivate crops such as maize, groundnut, beans, soya beans and guinea corn. The plants are watered by the precipitation that falls during the raining season. Cattle, sheep and goats rearing are practiced by the inhabitants.

1.5 Relief and Drainage

The entire Bauchi and its environs are characterized by a hilly topography with elevations ranging from 533 to 783 meters above sea level (Shemang and Umaru 1994). The hills may be seen as isolated with conical elongated or irregular shapes. Others occur in a chain forming a ridge with ridge in the NE.

The drainage system of the entire Bauchi and its environs has a dentritic pattern with streams flowing rapidly from one main watershed (Shemang and Umaru 1994; Shemang and Likkason 1995). One flows from Bauchi to Miri and the other from Miri to North of Miri (Umaru 1987). The three main streams in the area are : Tambari which flows from the South-west to the North-east and the Barkumbo river which flows to the North-western

CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 General Geology

Nigeria lie in the eastern region of the West African Craton and North West of the Congo Craton, the Nigerian Basement lies south of the Tuareg shield. (Ajibade and Woakes1987).

About 50% of the Nigerian Crystalline Basement complex of Precambrian to early Paleozoic age are buried under Cretaceous to Recent sediments at the four corners of the country and dominantly along Y – arms of Niger and Benue Rivers (Olanrewaju 1988). The rocks of the Basement Complex are exposed in four main areas of the country north of river Niger/Benue, covering parts of Kaduna, Plateau, Bauchi, Kano and Sokoto states. South West covering greater parts of Kwara, Oyo, Ogun and Ondo states. The south West, spanning the Northern parts of Cross-River State, and as far north as Yola and the Northern parts of River Benue in Adamawa State (Olanrewaju 1988).

2.2 Review of the Basement Complex of Nigerian

The crystalline Basement Complex of Nigeria is Pan-African (600 ± 150ma) mobile belt lying between the Cratons of West and Central Africa (Caen-vachette and Umeji, 1987). Evidence from the Eastern and Northern margins of west African Craton indicates that the Pan-African belt evolved by plate tectonic processes which involved the collisions between the passive continental margin of the West African Craton and active Continental Margin (pharusian belt) of the Tuareg shield about 600ma ago (Burke and Dewey, 1972). The collision at the plate margin is believed to have led to the reactivation of the internal region of the belt (Ajibade and Woakes, 1988).

The geology of parts of the Nigerian Basement was reviewed by (Mc Curry, 1976) and (Rahaman, 1976) ideals of the evolution of Nigerian Basement Complexes have recently evolved dramatically owing to the availability of more detailed field, laboratory studies, especially the geo-chronological and geological studies of Grant and other (Grant, 1970, Van Breeman et al 1976; Ogezi 1977, Ajibade, 1980).

The Basement Complex evolved by reworking the older ensialic material during successive orogenic events (caen-vachette and Umeji, 1987). Radiometric ages indicate that the Nigerian Basement is polyclic and includes rocks of Liberian (2700 ± 200ma), Eburnian(2000+ 200)pan-African (600 ± 150ma) and questionably Kibaran (1100 ± 200ma) ages (Ajibade and Woakes, 1989).

Polyphase metamorphic rock with polycylic deformation in Nigeria often yields a Pan-African isotopic age (Caen-vachete and Umeji, 1987). It was consequently thought that the whole of the Nigerian Basement Complex had suffered from the Pan-African orogeny and the older unaffected rock are extremely rare. (Caen-Vachette and Umeji 1987). The most obvious effect of the Pan-African Orogeny in Nigeria is the emplacement of large volumes of granitoids and the resetting of mineral ages in virtually all rock types in the Basement (Ajibade and Woakes, 1989). However, little is known about the nature of Pan-African events in Nigeria or about any of the earlier events. (Ajibade and Woakes, 1989).

The Basement rocks have been classified into three major groups (Cooray, 1974; McCurry 1976) namely:

i. An older group the gneisses
ii. A younger group the schist belt (Pan-Africa) and
iii. Granite intrusive, the older granite (pan-African).

Sytectonic to late tectonic Granitiods (older granites) which intrude both the migmatite Gneiss complex and the Schist Belt (Garba 1985).

2.3 Migmatite – Gneiss Complex

Large areas of the basement complex have been converted to Migmatite and Granite Geniss and many of the features in the original Gneiss have been obscured (Mc Curry, 1989). A poly metamorphic Migmatite Gneiss complex with Quartzites, amphibotites and calcareous rocks with ages ranging from Liberian (2800ma) to Pan-African (600ma). (Garba 1985). Their preponderance together with ages of about (2800ma) and their apparent similarities the widespread belief that the greater part of the Basement complex is probably “Dahomeyan” (Mc Curry 1989).

Many Gneiss show indication of a sedimentary origin, and is believed that an ancient sedimentary sequence has been metamorphosed and granitized to form Gneisses which incorporate relict Quartzites, calcareous rocks and basic schist which have resisted granitization and provide the only positive evidence of early sedimentary depositions. (Mc Curry, 1989).

Changes from gneiss into Migmatite are subtle and gradual and units cannot generally be separated on geological maps (Mc Curry, 1989). The Migmatite include rocks of varying lithology, texture and structure, sharing differing degree of granitization and migmatisation. They are composite rocks consisting of metamorphic host rock and acid injection which may be pegmatitic, feldspathic or granitic material (Turswell and Cope, 1963).

Migmatite in which structural features of original crystalline rocks are wholly or partly preserved and anatectic Migmatites in which original structure have nearly or completely obliterated, so the rocks approach granite in composition (Mc Curry, 1989). The embrechites form part of the older metasedimentary sequence while the anatectic are more closely related to the Granitic rocks (Mc Curry 1989). In North-East Nigeria, anatechtic Migmatite are further divided into injection migmatite and permeantion Migmatites (Carter et al, 1963).

The Migmatite Gneisses are composite rocks in which several distinct petrologic units can be distinguished. These include the early Gneiss mafic-ultramatic rocks and Granitic rocks which are present as Augen-Gneiss, pink white Granite Gneiss, pegmatites, Aplites (Rahman and Ocan, 1981).

2.4 The Schist Belt

The Nigerian schist belt, also commonly described as “younger Metasediments” (Cooray, 1974), Mc curry 1976) or newer “Metasediments” (Oyawoye, 1965) consist essentially of a supracustal sedimentary succession containing minor volcanic basic sills and Alva (amphibolites) and ultra muftis, which had suffered polyphase deformation and metamorphism under low to medium grade condition (Adekoya, 1995).

The schist belts are restricted to western part of Nigerian longitude 80E within N-S trending zone (Ajibade et al 1989).

This postulation stemmed from lack of adequate investigation of the geology of Oban massif and other related areas with present of schist, small scattered masses of low grade schist have been recorded outside this zone at Dustin Ma (Ajibade et al 1989) part of Oban massif (Rahaman et al, 1981), and mambila plateaus as well as intervening areas between two belts within the zone they can therefore be considered to be emotional remnants of a sedimentary volcanic supracrustal series overlying and older Basement (Adekoya, 1995).

The lithological difference between the belts have been used as evidence for suggesting that the schist belt were not deposited in the same basin and for suggesting the presence of two genrations of schist belts (grant, 1978), Turner, 1983; Fitches et al 1985) or whether the difference reflect lateral volcano sedimentary basin (Ajibadae and Woakes, 1978).

The schist belts are composed mainly of metamorphosed pelitic and semi-pelitic rocks. However, each belt differs in the amount and type of associated minor lithologies such as conglomerates, greywacke, quartzite and volcanic rocks (Ajibadae and Woakes, 1978). All the schist belts have been metamorphosed in the green schist facies.

The schist belt have been variously considered to be Achaean in age, middle proterozoic (Oyawoye 1964, 1972) and Pan-African (Mc curry; 1973) more recently Grant, 1978) and Turner, 1983) have suggested that there are two generations of schist belts one Kibaran, the other Pan-African.

Kibaran age has been questioned on accounts of low initial ration of Sr86/Sr86 by (Ajibade et al 1987) and (Rahman 1988). However the extent of Kibaran rock in Nigeria remains an enigma thus leaving the Pan-African as the generally accepted age is interpreted to be the time of their deformation and metamorphism during pan-African orogeny (Adekoya, 1995).

The age of the schist belts is critical to any discussion of the evolution of the Nigerian Basement during the proterozoic very few detailed structure and there are fewer reliable geochronological data. The few data available have been interpreted in different ways thus leading to considerable controversy on the age(s) of the schist belts (Ajibade and Woakes, (1989).

Much interest has been shown on the schist belt partly for being a major lithostratigraphic unit of Precambrian Basement complex and partly for its economic potential (Adekoya, 1995). However, one of the major problems of the schist belt in Nigeria Geology is the question of determining their ages and environment of deposition (Adekoya, 1995). The determination of the geotectonic significance at the metasedimentary belts and their relative ages are some of the major problems of Nigerian geology (Fitches et al, 1995).

Inter banding of marbles, quartzite and iron formation with Gneisses and Migmatites and also the occurrence of sillimantie, andalusite, cordierite and garnet in these rocks indicated that they are of sedimentary origin (Vachette and Umeji, 1987). The gradation from pelitic (e.g. Granite Gneiss at Itakpe) depicts a facies change from a marine to a shoreline environment of their progenitors, lenses of amphibolites within the Granitic Gneiss Unit may well represents pockets of clay/shale inter layered with semipelites and gray- wackes (Vachette and Umeji, 1987).

These rocks were folded and metamorphosed around 2000ma after the major metamorphism of Itakpe and Ego rock about 2200ma ago; minor orogenic/metamorphic events appear to have occurred till the end of Eburnean fectonism (Vachatte and Umeji, 1987).

It is envisaged that South East Lokoja could be a South Ward prolongation of the Kibaran metasediments in Northern Nigeria (Kushaka Metasedimentary belt) which has similar petrologic, structural and isotropic characteristics (Vachette and Ekweueme, 1987). Their earliest metamorphism and deformation took place during the Ikibaran episode, these metasedimentary belts like their Maru and Kushaka counter parts could have been a part of a Kibaran basin (Vachatte and Ekwueme). This belt appears to represent a major region of quietly accumulating fine clastic sediments that denote show steady subsidence uninterrupted by major tectonic activity (fitches et al, 1985).

Isotropic data from schist in South East Lokoja show that Kibaran events followed the destabilization period of about (1680ma) and participated actively in the evolution of the basement complex of the area (Vachette and Ekwueme, 1987). This events does not appear to have been restricted to the Lokoja area since it also affects rocks in the Oban Massif in SE Nigeria and possibly beyond (Vachette and Ekwueme, 1987).

The schist in Lokoja and the rocks in the Oban Massif there is a strong evidence that these Kibaran rocks were rewarked at the same period by Pan-African events dated 787,126ma (Ekwueme, 1985) for the latter and 687 ± 13ma for the former that is to say about 680ma (Vachette and Ekwueme, 1987).

Isotropic clocks in the schist belt were reset by Pan-African events involving polyphase deformation and Metamorphism which over printed the previous Eburnean (Adekoya, 1995) this may explain why radiometric dating record only the last thermotectonic events they went through (Adekoya, 1995).

2.5 The Older Granite

The Pan-African Granitoids are called the older granite in Nigeria to distinguish them from Granite complex of central Nigeria referred to as younger Granite (Ajibade and Woakes, 1989). The “Older Granites” of Nigeria include a wide spectrum of rocks varying in composition from tonalite through granodiorite to granite, syenite and charnokitics rock. The Granitoids have been emplaced into both the migmatite-Gneiss complex and schist belts and they occur in all part of the Nigerian Basement. They give K-Ar and Rb-Sr ages in the range 750ma to 450ma and they are the only undisputed products of Pan-African Orogeny in Nigeria (Ajibade and Woakes, 1989). Older Granite show high level intrusions emplaced by stopping and diapiric processes (Fitches et al 1985).

The Charnokitic member of the older granite suite deserves special mentions as it’s occurrence – in parts of the country has been used as evidence for Archean granulite facies metamorphism in Nigerian Basement (N.G, Obaje 2009). The term Charnokitic was suggested by (N.G, Obaje 2009) to describe the dark rocks which contain the common charnockitic mineral, Quartz + plagioclase + orthopyroxene ± alkaline feldspar ± clinopyroxene ± Biotite ± hornblende ± fayalite. The charnokitic rocks vary in composition from noritic, diorite to enderbite and true charnockite, they occur either associated with the other member of the older Granite suite or as discrete bodies within the Migmatite Gneiss complex (Ajibade and Woakes, 1989)There are three phases recognized in the emplacement of older Granites an early phase comprising granodiorites and granodiorites, a man phase made up of coarse porphrytic Granites and Syenites and late phase comprising homogeneous Granites and dykes of pegmatites and aplites. The older Granite includes rocks of a wide range of composition. Granite, Granodiorite adamallites, quartz monzonites, Diorite, fornalites, syenites, pegmatites and aplites (Rahman el al, 1991). Granitic to granodiorite composition are most common. Texturally these rocks vary from strongly foliated Granitic Gneisses which were originally porphyritic, granodiorites, diorites and tonalities through porphyritic granite with strongly aligned feldspar phenocrysts (often interpreted as an Igneous lamination) to non-foliated granites (Rahman et al, 1991).

2.6 The Younger Granite

The Mesozoic Younger Granite ring complexes of Nigeria form part of a wider province of alkaline anorogenic magmatism. They occur in a zone 200km wide and 1,600 km long extending from northern Niger to south central Nigeria.

Rb/Sr whole rock dating indicates that the oldest complex of Adrar Bous in the north of Niger is Ordovician in age, with progressively younger ages southwards. The most southerly ring complex of Afu is Late Jurassic in age (N.G, Obaje 2009). Aeromagnetic anomalies suggest that a series of buried NE–SW.

Over 95% of the rocks can be classified as rhyolites, quartz-syenites or granites, with basic rocks forming the remaining 5%. Many of the rocks have strongly alkaline to peralkaline compositions, other are aluminous to peraluminous.

More than 50 complexes occur in Nigeria varying from <2to>25 km in diameter (N.G, Obaje 2009). The ring complexes cover a total area of about 7,500 km with individual massifs varying from 1,000 km to <1km

. The majority are between 100 and 250 km with circular or elliptical outlines. Each of the ring complexes, whether they consist of overlapping centres, as at Ningi-Burra, or individual centres, such as Ririwai, began as chains of volcanoes (Bowden and Kinnaird, 1978). Early ash-fall tufts and agglomerates were deposited. Younger Granites visible on the Forest – Jos road. Domed sheets are less developed, but the dyke is extensive from eruptions of explosive activity. Abundant ignimbrites deposited from

ash flows dominate the volcanics with only minor rhyolitic and thin basic flows.

Volcanic feeder intrusions are a minor but important link during the caldera-forming stage, between the subvolcanic roots and the overlying volcanic pile. Fayalite hedenbergite quartz porphyry often has ignimbritic textures.

The Younger Granites are discordant high level intrusions emplaced by means of piecemeal stoping through the collapsed central block. Initial stages in development of the complexes involved intrusion of vast amounts of acid lavas, tuffs and ignimbrites, now only partly preserved as a result of subsidence along ring faults. Almost everywhere these rhyolitic rocks directly

overlie the metamorphic basement, which means that the younger granites were emplaced in uplifted areas that were undergoing erosion. Granitic ring dykes are the major component of most complexes, ranging from 5 km or less to over 30 km in diameter, and varying in plan from the polygonal to circular or crescent, and through 34 2 The Younger Granites (N.G, Obaje 2009)

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Details

Title
An Analysis of Water Usage and Quality in the State of Bauchi, Nigeria
Grade
1
Author
Year
2018
Pages
51
Catalog Number
V437155
ISBN (eBook)
9783668785731
ISBN (Book)
9783668785748
Language
English
Keywords
analysis, water, usage, quality, state, bauchi, nigeria
Quote paper
Abdulmajid Isa (Author), 2018, An Analysis of Water Usage and Quality in the State of Bauchi, Nigeria, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/437155

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