Integration of Population Variables into Rural Development Programs with Ethiopian Case


Scientific Essay, 2018
29 Pages

Excerpt

Contents

1. Introduction

2. Some Key Concepts and Theories
2.1. Definition of terms
2.2. Major Population Variables
2.2.1. Size of population
2.2.2. Age-Sex Structure/Population Pyramid
2.2.3. Distribution of Population (Migration)
2.3. Theoretical Perspectives and Debates

3. Conceptual Linkage between Population Variables and Rural Development Program

4. Policy Implication of Integrating Population Variables into Food Security Program

5. Conclusion

6. Way forward

7. References

List of Figures

Figure 1: Trend in Global Population Size

Figure 2: Infant and under-five mortality rate per 1000 Births, 1970 – 2055

Figure 3: Size of Ethiopia’s population (millions), 1960–

Figure 4: World Population Pyramid

Figure 5: Ethiopian Population Pyramid

Figure 6: The Demographic Transition Model Showing Demographic Changes

Figure 7: Relationships between Population and Development.

Abstract

The main purpose of this essay is to examine the integrations between population variables and rural development in general and food security in particular. A critical review of literature and analysis of secondary data were carried out to understand these dynamic linkages. For all nations, people are the ultimate and the only recipient of development results. Even if the population variables are decisive planning inputs, however, they were ignored and treated as exogenous factors in the process of development planning during the 1950s and 1960s. And so, the resultant problems such as poverty, unemployment, inequality, and other social ills were pervasive and deep-rooted in rural areas of the developing countries. The major reason for this tragedy was belived to be the failure of development theories, policies, and approaches adopted during the 1950s and 60s. It was during the 1970s that the issue of integrating population factors into development planning attracted the attention of some international organizations (such as UN) and vigorously advocated since then. Therefore, so as to balance the pace of the population growth and rural development process, all development actors in Ethiopia should adopt holistic and synergetic approaches in such a way that enhance agricultural productivity and boost investment in rural social and physical infrastructures.

Key Words: Population, Population Variables, Rural Development, Food Security, Integration, Ethiopia

1. Introduction

All nations, developed, developing, and less developed, alike, around the world strive after development claiming that they are working towards meeting the basic needs of their people and improving the living standard of present and future generations. This implies that for any nation, people are the ultimate and the only recipient of development results. One scholar describes the worthiness of people in the development saying that development is ‘about, by, and for human beings’ (Mandishona, 1987, p.73) This shows that whenever and whatever we are thinking or talking or planning or doing etc about the issue of development, people should come to the frontline.

Unfortunately, development planning of the 1950s and 60s was mainly focused on the rate of economic growth, which is necessary but not sufficient condition to ensure development (multi-dimensional issues). More viciously, though population variables were decisive planning inputs, they were ignored and treated as exogenous factors in the process of development planning (United Nation Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA), 1991). Consequently, even if United Nations (UN) declared the 1960s as the golden age (decades) of development, horrifyingly, high levels of poverty, unemployment, and inequality were registered in the majority of the countries. In general, though the 1950s and 60s were an era of unprecedented population growth in the developing world (The Johns Hopkins University & Bishai, 2006), it was during 1970s that the issue of integrating population factors into development planning attracted the attention of some international organizations (such as UN) and vigorously advocated since then.

For example, the first international deliberation of population factor in development was indicated in the 1967 UN Declaration of Population which states that population issues should be considered as a key constituent of national development planning. This was followed by the World Population Conference held in Bucharest in 1974 which recognizes that population variables and development are co-dependent and that population policy and objectives should be an integral part of socio-economic development policies. This was further strengthened during the 1994 Cairo International Conference on Population and Development, which clearly recognizes the indisputable integration of population and development. Therefore, it would be fair to maintain that the interest of integrating the population variable into development planning systems, mainly in the developing countries, has originated from the failure of development theories/models and approaches adopted during the 1950s and 60s to improve living conditions of the greater part of the people. However, historically Malthus (1798) has been a source of scientific based 'population knowledge’ and laid a foundation for scholars and others to debate on the issues of population and development.

When we narrow our discussion from a broader development to a specific one (for example, a rural development which focuses on improving the quality of life of rural people), explaining the linkages between population factors and development would be understandable. As indicated above, development theories and approaches adopted during the 1950s and 60s not only focused on the mere quantitative change (economic growth) but also they ignored rural development in general and agricultural sector in particular (and ultimately rural people). Because, development during that time was equated with modernization which generally means industrialization and urbanization, showing that urban and industrial development (modern sector) was the top priority during the 1950s and 60s. The resultant problems such as poverty, unemployment, inequality, and other social ills were pervasive and deep-rooted in rural areas. It was found that the ‘modern sector’ was unable to absorb the rapidly growing population, the majority of which remained rural and poor (Stockbridge & Dorward, 2015). Therefore, it can be concluded that the failure of development theories and approaches based on the economic and industrial growth (and ignored rural people) had changed the attention of international organizations, nations, and academia towards rural development policies in the late 1960s and early 1970 (World Bank, 1975). It is at this juncture that we need to clearly understand the importance of integrating population factors/variables into development initiatives.

Given this background, the purpose of this essay is to assess the importance of integrating population variables (for instance, size and growth, composition/structure, and distribution) into rural development programs. Among various rural development programs, the scope of this essay is limited to food security program. More specifically, this essay is guided by the following key questions: What are the major population variables that need to be considered in rural development programs in general and food security program in particular? How do population variables conceptually link to rural development (food security program)? What are the policy implications of integrating population variables into food security program?

2. Some Key Concepts and Theories

Before discussing the linkages between population variables and rural development programs, it is imperative to operationalize/contextualize some of the key concepts used in this essay.

2.1. Definition of terms

Population is the number of people occupying a certain geographic area (in this essay rural) in a particular time period, drawing substances from their habitat for their livelihood, and has interaction with one another and their surroundings.

Population variables are attributes of a human population (such as size and growth - births, deaths, etc; age and sex structure - aging societies, youth bulges, dependency ratios, demographic dividends, etc; and spatial distribution - migration, density, etc) that can be studied.

Population size is the number of people living/present in a defined geographic area (for example, in this essay rural area)

Population growth is an increase in the number of people living in a particular area.

Population growth rate is the speed at which size of a population changes over time.

Population Distribution is the arrangement (spatial) or spread (density) of people living in a particular area in a particular time period.

Mortality is the frequency and number of deaths in a human population. It measures individual deaths in a population.

Total Fertility Rate is the average number of live births/children a woman is expected to have during her reproductive lifespan (15-49 years period).

Age and sex structure is the distribution of the population in terms of age and sex composition. It is often represented by a chart called population pyramid – a bar chart, arranged vertically, showing the distribution of a population by age and sex.

The dependency ratio is the ratio of dependents - people younger than 15 or older than 64--to the working-age population - those ages between 15 and 64.

Migration is the movement of people from one geographic location to another.

Development is the process of improving the quality of all human lives via raising their living levels, enhancing their self-esteem, and increasing their freedom.

Rural is an area outside the urbanization area and characterized by non-urban lifestyle, work structure, social setup and organization, and settlement pattern.

Rural Development is a process of improving the quality of life of rural people via raising their living levels, enhancing their self-esteem, and increasing their freedom.

Rural Development Programs are diverse socio-economic initiatives (food security, education, and health, road, and transport, water and energy supply, etc) designed to improve the livelihood of rural people.

Food security is a situation whereby all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life (FAO, 2002).

2.2. Major Population Variables

The major population variables that often play fundamental role in the study of human population nexus (rural) development among others include size and growth, age-sex structure, and distribution of the population.

2.2.1. Size of population

As indicated above, population size refers to the number of people living in a defined geographic area in a particular time period. It is usually measured in terms of fertility (birth) and mortality (death) rates. The difference between the two variables is called natural increase if fertility outweighs mortality or natural decrease if the opposite occurs. Migration (which is the movement of people from one place to another) influences population size as well. It is apparent that migration affects population size via increasing the number of people in recipient areas or reducing the size in sending areas. Particularly, it is considered as a normal part of development processes and structural transformation; given that it acts as a source of livelihood diversification strategy (FAO, 2016a), especially for the poor. Therefore, fertility, mortality, and migration are the key population indicators that measure the size of population At this point; it would be imperative to briefly look at some data regarding these variables at global and/or national level (especially, Ethiopia).

The current trend of the population at global level indicates that the world population continues to augment by over 80 million people per year, where the lion share of the growth is coming from the world’s least developed countries. According to United Nations Population Division medium projection (2012), by 2050, the world’s population will reach about 9.6 billion people and will continue to grow through 2100. At the global level, during the last century, fertility levels had reduced in the majority developed countries. Available data show that these countries will experience slight or no population growth in the coming years. However, as can be seen from the Figure 1 below, developing countries (including Ethiopia) are and will be the source of almost all population growth today and in the coming decades. Because high levels of fertility persist, mainly in the poor countries where a woman continues to have at least four children during her lifetime (Carl & Kaneda, 2013).

Figure 1: Trend in Global Population Size

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten Source: Carl & Kaneda (2013)

As far as Ethiopia is concerned, both mortality and fertility have been declining. For example, according to United Nations (2015), the infant mortality rate (IMR) declined from 140 deaths per 1000 live births between 1980 and 1985 to 114 between 1990 and 1995 to 78 between 2000 and 2005 and it more declined to 50 between 2010 and 2015. Likewise, child mortality shows a similar trend where it was declined from 237 deaths per 1000 live births in 1980–1985 to 191 in 1990–1995, to 123 in 2000–2005 and to 74 in 2010–2015 (Figure 2). When we look at the spatial distribution of mortality, it shows a decline in both rural and urban areas, though it is relatively high in rural. For example, Central Statistical Agency & ICF International (2012) reported that in 2010 the infant mortality rate and under 5 child mortality rate were 59 and 88 per 1000 live births in urban Ethiopia, whereas these figures were 76 and 114 per 1000 live births, respectively, in rural areas. The key factors behind such achievement are found to be a good progress in public health services like controlling malaria, improved access to safe drinking water, improved toilet facilities, and vaccination (Assefa, 2017).

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Details

Title
Integration of Population Variables into Rural Development Programs with Ethiopian Case
Author
Year
2018
Pages
29
Catalog Number
V437682
ISBN (eBook)
9783668783713
ISBN (Book)
9783668783720
Language
English
Tags
integration, population, variables, rural, development, programs, ethiopian, case
Quote paper
Amanuel Kussia (Author), 2018, Integration of Population Variables into Rural Development Programs with Ethiopian Case, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/437682

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