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Examination Thesis, 2015
General perception of music and sound
Everyday versus specified events
Musical and autobiographical memory
Music sources: Mood manipulation
The effects of musical factors
Difficulties of music effect evaluation
Video game music and sound
Overview of the history of video game music
The pretence of realism and immersion
The paradoxical use of consonance and dissonance
The composer's struggle
Genres of video games and their use of music
Role playing, adventure and action games
Horror and emotionally disturbing games
Discussing transgression and phenomena of music from games in media
Habituation and change
Escapism and its value
Pop-culture and brand recognition
Gamers watching gamers playing games
Conclusion: Changing paradigms in music perception
Statement of Plagiarism
The purpose of this research is to combine theories of manipulative use of music with videogaming. In recent years, video-gaming has become more important, due to an ever rising popularity among children, teenagers and adults alike. The first part researches general facts about music listening in different environments, while the second and third part concentrate on video-game genres and their music, the theory of composing, as well as the social impact and phenomena arising from the increase of video-gaming in pop-culture awareness. Specific uses of video-game music are presented with recommended listening examples. With a broad approach to many aspects of music use, mood manipulation and video-game soundtracks, this paper may serve as a guidepost to further research in the field of studies of music and emotion in popular media.
Keywords׳. Music, emotion, video-games, regulation, memory, culture
I was in awe: How could a scene in a game stir up so many emotions, remind of so many personal quarrels and yet comfort and soothe a young teenager, all but within a virtual world? Even when the controller was put aside, watching or remembering the scenery and story unfold, a feeling of reassurance and companionship with the protagonists came alive. Humming their melodies or quoting their wisdoms - at that time video-games were in critical observation by parents, friends and society - with an almost rebellious intent, the motivation arose to further examine and not let go of this medium. The songs were always so memorable, as they came by easily and fit a multiplicity of personal experiences. Nowadays, with video-games becoming part of main-stream media, players might still face criticism from often half-hearted examinations of video-games in news reports. Yet now, there is a community to share, speak and play with. With the increasing use of the internet, people are able to communicate with each other, duel each other with virtual cards, play mini-games, or fight strategic battles - all sharing their own proper experiences with the games' soundtracks.
However, with a relatively new medium such as video-games, delving deeper into why they are becoming more and more popular is difficult. With almost a century of filmmaking dominating the entertainment industry, video-gaming created a new niche of entertainment. Collins is one of few to explore these “invaders in our homes” (2008, p.20). The use of music in video-gaming in general is even less examined. Juslin and Sloboda (2010) assembled data and essays examining the correlation of music and emotion. Yet there is in general more philosophical dispute of the role and impact of music to be found, than scientific approaches.
In the following, general perception of what good or bad music is, will be examined. Why is music highly influenced by culture, personal taste, time and memories? Music is used for identification, manipulation, mood regulation - effectively employed in media and commercials. Music is motivating, energising, and versatile in its presentation. Factors like instrumentation, arrangement, dissonance, harmonies or preferences all influence personal perception. Hence, evaluating valid data is not an easy task.
In addition, an exploration of video-game music itself and its impact on the players has to include its history, as well as theories of music composition. Furthermore it will be observed in what kind immersion, realism and escapism influence the emotions of the players. Therefore, an examination of the composer's side of work and proceedings is as important as hearing the music in their respective video-game genres with recommended listening examples. Exploring the use of music role playing games, adventure titles, action games, simulations, horror games and music games a connection with personal, interpersonal and social phenomena will be displayed. While within the first 30 years since video-gaming became popular, nowadays older video-game titles are renewed, habituation and change in correlation with escapism, pop-culture and brand recognition have become observable aspects.
We have to differentiate between music heard every day, and music played at special occasions. Using music depends on situations and is often bound to social events, time, era and mood. To differentiate, the science of music can be examined on two basic levels: diachronically and synchronously. The diachronic approach deals with elements of time, progression and development of music history. Classic music, baroque music, impressionism, swing, pop etc. all are perceived, conceived and created differently. The person's listening experience as well as his musical knowledge highly influence his perception and understanding of the material presented. If we compare 15th century traditional Japanese music with troubadour chanting of the middle age era, it becomes obvious that music and its perception is highly influenced by culture and inter-cultural contact. This also means that a group A is more likely to dislike the music of a group B, as of differences in harmonics and rhythm. This difference in development of a personal or interpersonal auditory habituation therefore is also alternated by cultural phenomena (Sloboda, 2010).
The fact that inter-cultural conceptualisation of music determines the understanding of music by a larger amount of people explains the vast variety of music heard on an everyday basis. Listening norms, and cultural paradigms thus influence hence the emotional bandwidth conveyed by different types of music (cf. Juslin, Liljeström, Vöstfjäll, Lundquist, 2010). If a person never had listened to pop-music, or a subtype of this particular style, he would not have any emotional connection with the songs presented. If a song is arranged in a happy and joyful manner, e.g. in a major key, the emotions perceived by a person are not bound to be as solemn and uplifting as the song. As a consequence, music is highly influenced by personal experience and history. The emotions the listener feels when hearing a particular song are connected with personal memories and bygone emotions. As such, music can revive emotions and memories linked by sound.
The impact that music makes on everyday listening experiences combines multiple key elements: culture, era, memories, knowledge, popularity, habituation, nostalgia as well as the time and place of listening. While everyday music can be forced upon you during a shopping trip, or in a supermarket, it takes on another quality not found in other, more special events such as weddings, concerts or funerals. Sloboda (2010) describes this kind of experienced and imposed music in everyday situations as surface hearing. This term defines emotional hebetude caused by a superficial or repetitive hearing of sound. He states that in order to invoke any deep emotional impact on a listener, the music has to stimulate the listener via situational, correlational, exceptional and personally subjective qualities. Being highly subjective, it is exceptionally hard to draw a line between everyday music and non- everyday music.
Eventually, superficial or attentive music listening is dependant on the listener's behaviour, actions and focus while hearing sound. According to a study by North, Hargreaves and Hargreaves, 20% of all participants claimed to intentionally use music to enhance and manipulate their own emotions. 64% claimed that music is generally accompanying them on an everyday basis, even without focussed listening. Two other studies by Sloboda (2010) state that either 12% or 2% of participants actively listen to music in a focussed and analytical manner (cf. Sloboda, 2010, p.653 f). All presented types of listener do yet not guarantee a gratifyingly stable approach to manipulation of emotion, due to unpredictable subjective perception.
The factor of emotional impact is the element of surprise. Emotions tend to be strongest whenever they are invoked unexpectedly. In everyday music listening, shocking or surprising elements are rare to be found. Therefore it could be stated that music as a standalone term cannot achieve an impact of astonishment despite its potential to cumulatively manipulate emotion. But on the contrary, music can contain calculated elements of surprise. Loud or unexpected sounds, harmonies or noises may trick and unsettle the listener's emotional expectations, as e.g. the composer Haydn did in his 94th symphony1. This example of abrupt mood-changing quality can clearly be defined as a поп-everyday music approach. Therefore a differentiation between everyday and поп-everyday music may be influenced by unconventional elements implemented in music. Yet it is important to note that repetition and knowledge of поп-everyday music may shift into an everyday experience due to habituation. It is questionable whether a focussed and attentive listener could predict a sudden shift in music without being emotionally affected.
Emotional impacts of music are deeply connected to the autobiographical memory. The term explains the system of memories assembled during life, having a bigger influence on the person's perception and individual worldview. The autobiographical memory is essential to build an identity and can be divided into two kinds of memory types (Conway, Cohen, 2008, p.21 ff). Firstly, episodic memory consists of experiences, events and people in a particular environment and time period. Secondly semantic memory consists of facts, view of the world, system and life itself. While episodic memory primarily saves short-term memories, either later dulled, filtered into semantic knowledge or forgotten, autobiographical memory forms a link between both semantic and episodic memories. While the subject of autobiographical memory and all its intricacies can be thoroughly employed with the subject of musical memory and self-perception, the main focus here is to be set at the impact of emotion and emotional qualities of music, influencing personal identification with music.
Firstly, it is firstly essential to note that emotions are triggers and variables determining memory encoding. D'Argembeau, Comblain and Van der Linden (2003) stated that memories bound and connected to emotions are reactivated more often, better remembered and more detailed. Furthermore, memories of the past, either good or bad, influence the way we feel and think about ourselves, situations and personal achievements (D'Argembeau, Van der Linden: 2008, 538 ff). According to D'Argembeau et al. (2003), positive memories consist of more details than negative memories. Furthermore, positive memories seem to be less forgotten than negative memories, although all memories and their encoded emotions are likely to become less intense over a longer period of time (Walker, Vogi, Thompson, 1997, p.399 fif). Moreover a recollection of autobiographical memory important to a persons identity is perceived in a different perception of time, leading towards a more proximate estimation of positive past events, and a further past perception of negative memories (cf. D'Argembeau et ak, 2008).
Combining the concept of autobiographical memory with musical memory, it is important to state the a same song played in differing contexts can lead to different results, based on several factors. With this in mind, the term of musical memory refers to the capability of a person to effectively distinguish sound, melody, rhythm, musical progression, tones and pitches. Hence, if a person is not capable of identifying particular musical concepts, an encoding of a particular music, emotion and memory is not possible. However the way music and sound is perceived determines the process of emotional encoding. According to Platel (2005), semantic memory of music is defined as general recognition of music without temporal and locally contextualised elements, while episodic memory of songs specifically reminds a person of a particular piece or the spatial factors in which they where perceived. Further research of Platel (2005) has shown that episodic and semantic memorisation of music are independent from each other. His research can be supported by Levitin (1992), suggesting that people with or without musical training are able to remember music in their correct pitch, despite the fact that most people are incapable of absolute pitch, rather than remembering songs in a relative pitch.
When combined, music perception, emotion, place, time and positively or negatively connoted situations result in memories and a complex construct is built. A recognition or recall of events can be triggered by each of the listed factors, and interact with each other mutually, independently or not at all. Moreover, the complex interaction moulded with personal identification is to be noted. In the context of visual feedback, a study by Boltz, Schulkind and Kantra (1991) suggests the interwoven cues given from audible and visual stimuli. Visual cues were combined with music. Participants not able to recall certain aspects of a presented scene were confronted with a particular musical cue from the demanded film. This helped recover the participants' memories of this particular scene. It is safe to say the combination of visual and audible aspects, be it films, series or video games is evident. Other research has shown that words presented in a song form are to be remembered more easily (Yalch, 1991, p.268 ff.). This principle is not only used in commercial jingles, but as well in situational contexts of other visual media.
In combination with autobiographical memory, music with or without lyrics can affect personality and memories in another way. Similar to brand recognition, the listener is calibrated to a certain tune, while the effectiveness of this tune depends on the importance and memorial impact of a subjective listening experience. Rolla (1993) states that ideas and feelings are transmitted via musical language. It is furthermore stated that the combination of sound, voice, language and instrumentation communicates emotion and mood much more directly than when expressed independently. Moreover, words sung in songs appear not only to be memorised and internalised more frequently, but effectively alter the listener's perception of memorised events, depending on the mood and message of the song's lyrics. Music sources: mood manipulation
Music can serve as a tool to regulate emotions. If we compare forced and voluntary listening of music, e.g. in a supermarket versus at a concert, an imbalance of personal control is shown. While an unfitting or unpleasant musical accompaniment in an open environment can create negative emotions, a voluntary visit at a musical event may enhance the person's mood. Minding that music choice and its emotional impact is subjective and contextual, regular observations can be made nonetheless. A fitness centre is more likely to play energetic and fast music to motivate the athletes. A romantic dinner however would normally not benefit from upbeat music, thus the stereotypical choice of music would be light jazz or soft rock.
Even though there is a high tolerance level for forced music listening, it always is dependant on the listener's personal taste, identification and age2. Music is therefore used in context and to set or simulate a mood in a private or public3 environment, which can either be accepted or displeasing4. This sort of strategic use of music can be encountered in several types of markets or shops. By playing selected songs in selected parts of a market, customers may be motivated to buy a product, correlating to the music. If a wine market were to play French accordion music, it is emphasising multiple features. Firstly, a degree of authenticity and secondly a reminder of French culture and cuisine. Positively connoted memories of the customers to wine and perhaps a holiday in France might influence their behaviour so far, as to buy an extra bottle of wine. Again, this method is highly reliant on stereotypes and will only work if those stereotypes are known and unconsciously perceived. If someone who never had wine, or never had heard of France or French music was to enter this market, the person is likely to not be influenced by the songs played. This concludes that there is an intense dependency of experiences, stereotypes, made about the artist/musician/composer5, personal preferences and previous knowledge to effectively manipulate with music.
Furthermore, the manipulative force of music and sound is displayed in automatisms and a generation of information (cf. Gabrielsson, 2010, p.722). An example of the use of sound to invoke information would be the gong as a signal that a class is commencing. The effect of this particular sound may influence the pupils emotions, as their pulses may rise at the start, and lower at the end of class. This phenomenon is defined by the terms instant recognition and instant response (Sloboda, 2010, p.663): instant recognition depicts the immediate decryption of an audible symbol, leading to an instant response. The instant response is a direct reaction to the information inherent to the musical sign. Yet beforehand, the sound and its sign have to be learnt and known. The manipulative force of these musical or tonal signs may only be debilitated through personal examination or external factors. If a person were to examine the unease in a cliché situation, such as a crowded elevator playing light jazz to relax its passengers, he or she might unwind and view the situation in a different light.
This cliché often illustrated in films does not however not uniquely mean that everyone in this elevator is annoyed by the tune. Music is generally intrinsically analysed and perceived, not making it not obvious that the other people in the situation might even enjoy the song. The process of intrinsic listening is also linked to evaluating the quality of the music. This results in another subjective variable. In personal categorising of music into simple or complex art, another parameter is shown influencing the difficulties of manipulation through music.
The manipulative force of music is based on the reinforcement and suppression of emotions. Again, it has to be stated that personal preferences in music play an important role in the effectiveness of mood regulation. The resonance and result of manipulation of music is arbitrary to the music of choice, which can be explained by personal music taste. Whilst person A likes classical music, person в might have a deep aversion to it. As people tend to stimulate their emotions purposefully in a matter of mood enhancement, music is rarely heard to underline ones character6. Music can nonetheless be used as well by a person in the way to purposely appear part of a social group. Somebody normally enjoying classical music could influence his character and appearance by listening to a music style that displeases him, but allows him to fit in at specific social activities. Yet, this behaviour is again a matter of individual perception, self-conscience and stereotypical thinking.
Mood regulation and enhancement operates as a targeted drive, superposing a secondary stimulus on top of a primary stimulus. An example of this would be up-valuing a cumbersome task by listening to upbeat and motivating music. Thereby, three different types of mood regulation and enhancement techniques can be distinguished: entrainment, meaning enhancement and energizing enhancement (cf. Sloboda, 2010, 671). The term entrainment is used to describe a sound or song juxtaposing and deterring from a bothersome situation. Meaning enhancement concerns situations in which music serves as an emotional guideline, enhancing and valorising a specific situation (e.g. romantic music at a rendezvous). The energizing use of music describes a sustainable motivational factor, being used at longer activities, such as jogging.
The question of when sound becomes music is highly disputed. Composer Dane Rudhyar (1984) explained in an article entitled “When does sound become music?” that the “immense variety of sounds - some heard in nature, [...] by touching, hitting and blowing into all kinds of manmade substances and objects - have been put together and presented as music”. He then differentiates between “recognizable natural sounds (like animal cries [...] or waves breaking on a sandy beach)” and “musical sounds”. Rudhyar concludes that the consistent determinant which defines sound as music is culture, referring to expectation. He states:
The term culture may be interpreted at several levels of meaning. In this case it refers to the expectation which people conditioned by a particular culture have of hearing certain sounds or not hearing others. It refers to what has become customary or traditional in a number of definable circumstances — for example, attending a church service, listening to a troubadour returning from the Holy Land, or crowding a modern concert hall to hear a specially trained virtuoso or an orchestra. The specific circumstances in which music is heard are very important because, at least originally, they have much to do with the "musical" character of the sounds heard and the psychic or personal responses of those hearing them. (1984)
Rudhyar's statement strongly correlates with the opinion of Juslin, Liljeström, Vöstfjäll and Lundquist, as he emphasises the importance of culture and expectation. Yet the “musical” character he talks about is determined by multiple factors. Rudhyar illustrates different examples of musical locating, as a concert hall or an orchestra, but not specifically describing the impact of selected musical factors. In a comparative assembly of numerous studies, Gabrielsson and Lindström have established a table highlighting different musical factors and their influences on the listener (cf. Gabrielsson, Lindström, 2010, p.383-7). The decision as to separate sound from music has led to a chart that structures different musical properties, making a clear separation of musical features possible. The following column will present certain aspects of this table, using Gabrielsson's and Lindström's summary of studies.
The differentiation of articulatory elements, such as staccato and legato have shown that they are perceived very differently. While staccato elements may invoke emotions as joy, agitation and intensity, they may as well create feelings of fear and anger. A popular example of the usage of staccato elements in music can be observed in the popular murder-scene in Psycho by Hitchcock (1960). Composer Bernard Herrmann used staccato elements to audibly visualise the movement of the murderers knife, as well as the tension of the scene. In contrast, legato elements in music may be perceived as solemn, melancholic, lamenting, longing, soft, tender or sad. The differentiation between modes has shown that music composed in major modes is causing positive emotions, while minor modes induce negative emotions. Furthermore, harmonics play another important role in the perception of music. Gabrielsson and Lindström differentiate between simple or consonant harmonics, as well as complex and dissonant harmonies. While harmonic music is perceived as happy, joyful, serene, dreamy, solemn, tender or majestic, dissonant music evokes feelings of excitement, agitation, sadness, gloom, tension, fear and anger. In detail, consonant intervals are considered pleasant, while dissonant intervals are displeasing. The frequencies of high- pitched and low-pitched intervals are either considered as happy or potent, while the other is considered sad or less powerful. In general, high pitch levels in music evoke the same feelings, while low pitch levels generate feelings of sadness, tranquillity or seriousness. The same pattern is seen in pitch variation in music. While large pitch variation causes positive and pleasant emotions, small variety arouses disgust, anger or boredom. Other musical
factors presented are loudness and loudness variation. The louder a musical piece, the more likely it is to illicit emotions of excitement, strength, but also anger. The softer the volume, the delicate, peaceful, and tender the music is perceived. While large variation in loudness generates feelings of fear, a small variety is considered pleasant. Rapid changes in volume are either perturbing, or playful, while few or no changes at all seem to emphasise the quality of the piece itself, highlighting other musical elements further. Lastly, rhythm and tempo of music also arouse different emotions. According to the findings, the more differentiated and complex the rhythms, harmonies and structure of a musical piece, the more it is likely to evoke negative feelings. Whereas regular or smooth rhythms are connoted with positive or dignified emotions, irregular are considered amusing. Again, complex rhythms seem to evoke feelings of anger, while varied rhythms are considered joyful. Repetition of rhythms or musical sequences lead to increased tension. The tempo of those rhythms further influences the listener's perception of emotion. The faster the music, the more it is connoted with joy, activity, joy and energy. The slower the music, the more it induces feelings of serenity, sadness, tenderness, boredom or peace.
The musical factors presented can therefore be interpreted as that the more compliant or conformable the song, the more likelier it is to provoke positive emotions, while complex or opaque structures and harmonies provoke negative emotions. Yet the mixture of components is scarcely interpreted. The findings of Gabrielsson and Lindström effectively differentiate this factor in the musical form, as again low complexity is perceived as more relaxing and complex than tense. The theory of Rudhyar, that culture and expectation highly influence the listener's perception is particularly striking, as the accumulated findings of musical factors almost seem banally logical, yet mundanely illogical. The paradoxical situation to differentiate elements of music in a generally culturally homogeneous environment of a musical study is bringing forth multiple doubtful elements. Up to this point, it may be questionable whether the modem globalised usage of music and different factors and elements of its varieties have influenced our listening expectations so far, as to interpret varied musical elements consistently the same. However, it can be said that different approaches to music composition have different effects on the listener. One of the most important factors might be the choice of instruments music is played and presented on. Instrum entation
The musical variables presented in the previous chapter would have been harder to analyse, were there no instruments to play music. Instmments come in all shapes and sizes and have been established and invented over countless centuries by all known cultures. Even though some instmments might be very recognisable and associated with certain kinds of music, instmmentation deals with the constmction of melody and arrangement. Interchanging instmments has a dramatic effect on the perception of a melody, as much as changing instmments of a song's general arrangement. For example, the tune of a violin weeping a beautiful melody would sound very different if a tmmpet played it. The differences to instmments and their sound are found in the way they are crafted and played. These differences can even occur inside an instmment's range of various exemplars, special versions and tonal alterations. Moreover, different versions of the same instmment might play, sound, and resonate differently. Disparities in attack, release and sustain as well as possible methods of playing, be it staccato, legato, portamento or sforzando, diverse sounds and play-styles are made possible by a certain choice of instmment.
In order to manage the complex task of arranging a musical piece, the composer has to know when to use an instmment, when to fade it in or out, or when to avoid it or use it to emphasise a feature. The multifaceted possibilities empower the composer to express his intention and create a musical sphere for a concerto, a simple song, a soundtrack for a film or series and video games. Often the chosen instruments will reflect a scene or give a psychological image a particular character. Choosing different registers will influence the perception of a scene (cf. Weidinger, 2006: 72). This means that an upbeat scenery or protagonist is likely to be underscored with uplifting, high-pitched music in contrast to a sombre setting or character where the general tune will be more bass-heavy and grim. However, an antithetic approach will evoke different connotations and emotions to the listener. If the protagonist himself appears to be vigorous but sombre music is played in the context of characterisation, it is telling the listener that the protagonist is likely to be malicious.
Register itself can be divided in three subtypes: Low, medium and high. It is important to note that the term does not describe the full possible scale of all notes, but only the notes playable by a certain instrument. The differences in timbre of a musical note played by a flute in different pitches can be significant to the ear. Bulleijahn (2001: 88) assembled a list and compared multiple instruments in respect to the character of sound transmitted to the listener. Three instruments included are: Low register flutes, which evoke secretive and subtle emotions; medium register notes are perceived as romantic; and high register notes as scenic, bright and gentle. Low notes from horns, which are perceived suspenseful; medium register as warm and pestering; high register as confident and powerful. Low register violins, which seem sombre, dramatic and morose; medium register as warm, romantic and passionate; high register as lustrous, melodic and chary. In conclusion, it can be seen that not only the way an instrument is played conveys different emotions, but also the usage of range. Furthermore a sudden shift in melody and arrangement is always possible, resulting in a possible dynamic change in character and unpredictable musical phrases.
However, a crucial faction is the believability of instrumentation and its arrangement. As seen in the previous chapters, stereotyping and musical memory affect the emotions of the listener. Concerning instrumentation, this means that the imagery presented is defined by the arrangement of the musical accompaniment. The effects of musical scale and stereotypical instrumentation are essential to construct a fitting overall picture. A pompously orchestrated piece will clash with the image of a mouse sleeping, as will a mono-instrumental weep of a harmonica with a full-scale battle for freedom. Moreover, putting Chinese instrumentation side by side with an African desert will initially provoke dubious emotions. But not only the usage of instrumentation but also harmony and scale influences the listener's perception. Furthermore utilising instruments, more often used in times past, like for example a harpsichord, can cause emotions of leaps of time.
Moreover, placement of instruments can play an important role in the perception of space and emphasis of melody. Narrow and close arrangements can produce intense and uneasy emotions, even if harmonic. Widely spaced and differentiated orchestrations elicit openness and invite the listener to a broad and distinguishable soundscape. Wide arrangements are often used to underline a wide and open scene, such as an open field, landscape or a sense of adventure. In contrast, tight spacing in instrumentation and sound- perception is likely to be found in scenes of trouble or anger. It is again important to note that an antithetic approach is always possible, generating mixed imagery, emotion and connotations.
The numerous parameters influencing music perception evoke a problem: The problem of differentiating those different factors in the intermediate utilisation of multiple musical elements at any one time can result in a myriad of complications when compiling useful data.
1 Haydn's Symphony Nr 94. in G-Major is subtitled “The Surprise”. After a couple of more calm and relaxed passages, Haydn implemented a loud drum hit in his composition, ft is joked about whether the composer had worried his audience might fall asleep during the concert.
2 The older the person and the more self-control, the lower the tolerance level for forced-upon music (Sloboda: 2010, 658)
3 e.g. street music, pubs, bars, malls, public spaces, cinemas etc.
4 Simulated or mood-manipulating music led to the creation of Pipedown, an organisation demanding that forced-upon music is to be banned, as it interferes with personal space and would forcefully manipulate those who hear it. (cf. www.pipedown.com)
5 Only 7% of all music heard is played live (street music, gigs, concerts etc.) leading to anonymisation of artists. Therefore no fully real emotional affection can be established.
6 If music was to be played at a kings entrance ceremony, the fanfares would not underline the character of the king, but his position in society.
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