The Role of Nigerian Pidgin English as Communication Device


Bachelor Thesis, 2018
28 Pages, Grade: 4.28

Excerpt

Table of Contents

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study
1.2 Statement of the Research Problem.
1.3 Aims and Objectives
1.4 Significance of the Study
1.5 Scope and Limitation of the Study.

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Multilingualism
2.3 Diglossia
2.4 Pidgin and Creole
2.5 First Language and Second Language
2.6 Code Switching
2.7 The Nigerian Pidgin (NP)
2.8 The Place of Pidgin in Contemporary Nigerian Society
2.9 Features of Nigerian Pidgin
2.10 The Status of Nigerian Pidgin
2.11 Previous works on pidgin

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Types of Research
3.3 Subject of investigation
3.4 Research Instruments
3.5 Research Procedure
3.6 Theoretical framework

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION
4.0 Interview Methodology
4.1 Interview Findings
4.1.1 Introduction
4.1.2 Social Context
4.1.3 Code Switching
4.1.3.1 Reasons for Occurrence of Code-switching
4.1.4 Speaker's Mood
4.1.5 Role of Pidgin

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Conclusion
5.3 Recommendation

BIBLOGRAPHY

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

Pidgin generally is a simplified means of communication between or among individuals of different cultures or ethnicities. Nigerian pidgin English described as a combination of indigenous language and English. It is a language derived from tile mix of various languages such as Igbo, Edo, Yoruba, Effik etc.

In Africa, pidgins found include; Nigerian pidgin, Cameroonian pidgin, Serria Leone Krio etc. Pidgins are mostly inventionist and innovative in nature and because of their spontaneous adaptability, they can be as structured or as unstructured as needed unlike other languages. This is to say that in pidgin, there are no strict rules given in utterances.

There are several assumptions by Akande and Salami (p.10) which say that the urban characters of the university environments are strong factors influencing the students' use and attitudes to Nigerian Pidgin English. They insist that apart from their education, living within the university communities, the students are likely to enact more urban networks that are usually made up of multilingual and multi-cultural contents.

Akande (p.38) argues that Pidgin English could be regarded as a marker of identity and solidarity. It is an inter-ethnic code available to Nigerians, who have no other common language.

According to Alastair Kane Pidgin English is "the mongrel language of the world, and a patchwork tongue of trade, migration empires and historical movement Alastair Kane (p.19) claims that “pidgin English, in its varying forms is a lingua Franca- a simplified bridge language evolving through necessity, enter extended contact between language”. is formed from numerous languages and influences, pidgin is a wide term covering a range of regional hybrids, which evolved through historical events such as the spread of empires, settlements, migration and international trade.

Holm (p. 21) considers language contact to be nearly as old as language itself. To support this idea he points out that in the ancient Egypt there was a trade language developed among several Hamito-Semitic languages in contact in the Nile Valley, which can be considered a pidgin. A pidgin, or pidgin language is a simplified version of a language that develops as a means of communication between two or more groups that do not have a language in common. It is most commonly employed in situations such as trade, or where both groups speak languages different from the language of the country in which they reside. Major language changes usually occur over centuries, but the language contact that forms pidgins results in ‘rapid language change and evolution’ (Patrick. 2006). A pidgin language is a variety created by combining two or more existing languages through the process of ‘pidginization’. When people need to communicate but speak different native languages, they may combine their own languages to create a new ‘pidgin language'. This language is then transferred by word of mouth to others and becomes the acknowledged way for the different speaking communities to communicate.

As Francesco Goglici (p.1) notes, Pidgin in Nigeria has its origin traced historically in trade contact between the British and local people in" the seventeenth century. It is part of a continuum of English pidgin and creoles spoken in other West Africa countries like Cameroon, Ghana, Benin republic, Sierra Leone etc. In the past the use of Pidgin English Nigeria was mainly identified with non- educated people i.e. people who spoke the Pidgin English were either undetected or deemed to be uneducated. Francesco goes on to elaborate that the use of Nigerian Pidgin English is now more rampant even the educated people of the country use it to enact trade as evident in big cities ports, towns etc. where it is used among people belonging to different ethnic groups majority in the southern parts of Nigeria.

Shaibu (p.13) describes Nigerian pidgin as a combination of indigenous languages and English. It basically uses English words mixed into Yoruba, Benin or Igbo grammar. Nigerian pidgin used to be seen mainly as the code of non-literate as well as a bastardization of English, therefore, was considered as indicative of academic proficiency in English. However, Akande (p.4) notes that the social linguistic reality in Nigeria today is such that Nigerian Pidgin is spoken by university graduates, professors, lawyers and journalists.

Farooq A. Kperogi (1), compares the relationship that exists between Pidgin English, “broken English” as well as the "Nigerian English". He says that Broken English is somewhat a pejorative label used by native speakers of the English language to describe the often hysterical violations of the basic rules of standard English syntax by non-natural speakers of the language while Pidgin English on the other hand, is seen by Farooq A. Kperogi(p.3), as a technical term in linguistics that refers to a "contact" or "trade" language that emerged from the fusion of foreign languages and indigenous language.

Akande and Salami (2010) assume that the urban characters of the university environments are strong factors influencing the students’ use and attitudes to Nigerian Pidgin English (NPE). They hold that apart from their education, living within the university communities, the students are likely to enact more urban networks that are usually made up of multilingual and multicultural contents. It is noteworthy to emphasize that the university communities have a large number of users of the Nigerian Pidgin English. Basically, it could be argued that Nigerian Pidgin English plays a unifying role among its users, as it is the language of the educated and the uneducated irrespective of their linguistic backgrounds. Akande (p.38) argues “it could be regarded as a marker of identity and solidarity. It is an inter-ethnic code available to Nigerians, who have no other common language.

1.2 Statement of the Research Problem.

Nigerian Pidgin has grown more rampant over time and is used by quite a majority of youths throughout Nigeria. It is a popular communicative means among most Nigerians as it is a language which blends together the relationship between the educated and uneducated asses, particularly the youths. It is evident that students of Benson Idahosa University feel very comfortable whenever they are expressing themselves in Pidgin.

This research will explore the positive and negative effects which Nigerian pidgin has on the students of BIU and asses the attitude to Pidgin.

1.3 Aims and Objectives

The aim of this research is to explore the effects of speaking pidgin in a multilingual university setting such as BIU.

The objectives to this study include:

1. To determine the extent of pidgin usage in BIU.
2. To examine the attitude of student to pidgin use.
3. To examine the role of Pidgin this contexts

1.4 Significance of the Study

Pidgin English is an important code for communication in a multilingual society, where many cultural differences are in existence and in one way or the other dominated the day- to-day conversations of the students of Benson Idahosa University. Pidgin plays a major role as it enables students from different cultural backgrounds to communicate with each other in any informal environment because there are no rules guiding its usage unlike the standard English where you have to abide by the rules of concord, syntax, phonology and semantics among others. Students feel more convenient when they express themselves in pidgin because there is always a tendency of being careful not to breach the rules of concord, grammar, syntax etc. pidgin is commonly used during conversations among students because, in an academic environment, conversations appear more formal and restricted as they tend to carefully use words in order not to contend with the rigorous rules and process involved with the standard British English.

This study will enable students to have more insight on the pidgin which they use to communicate with everyday and how it affects them and the environment due to their extensive usage.

1.5 Scope and Limitation of the Study

The scope and limitation of this research project is restricted to the analysis of data collected within the premises of Benson Idahosa University from the students of the university.

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Introduction

This chapter is concerned with the review of relevant theories and concepts such as: multilingualism, diglossia, pidgin and Creole, first and second language, code - switching, as well as previous works on Pidgin.

2.2 Multilingualism

According to the linguistic society of America, most of the world's population is bilingual or multilingual and only a minority of the world's peoples are monoliguistic. Multilingualism is the ability of an individual speaker or a community of speeches to communicate in three or several languages. In this case, a person who can speak multiple languages is known as a polyglot or the multilingual individual. (Clyne, p.53) refers to muItilongualism as either the language use or the competence of an individual or to the language situation of an entire nation and society. This means being able to use more than one language to be competent in more than one language.

2.3 Diglossia

This refers to the sociolinguistic situation where two languages or different varieties of the particular language are able to co-exist together within the speech community. In sociolinguistics, diglossia is the situation where two distinct varieties of the language are spoken within the same speech community. A type of diglossia exists whereby one language variety is used for writing and another for speech. Diglossia refers to one particular kind of standardization where two varieties of a language exist side by side throughout the community, with each having a definite role to play. It is the relatively stable language situation in which, in addition to the primary dialects of the language of the community, there is divergent, highly codified variety, the vehicle of the large and restricted body of written literature either of an early period or in another speech community, which is learned largely by formal education and is used for most written and formal spoken purpose but is not used by any sector of the community for ordinary communication.

This refers to the sociolinguistic situation where two languages or different varieties of the particular language are able to co-exist together within the speech community. In sociolinguistic, diglossia is the situation where two distinct varieties of the language are spoken within the speech community. A type of diglossia exists whereby one language variety is used for writing and another is used for speech. According to Fergusson (p.232), Usually, one is a more standard variety called the high variety which is used for example in most educational institutions, religious services etc. the other one is called the low variety which is used in family context, social interactions etc (Richard et al, 1992:108). One of the most important features of diglossia is the specialization of function for high and low forms (Fergusson, 1959:235). This is to say that each form has special domains to be used in. High forms could be used in religious sermons, letter writing, parliamentary speech etc while low forms could be used in family conversation, folk literature, and soap opera.

2.4 Pidgin and Creole

A pidgin language is generally understood to be a simplified language but whose grammar is very different". It is also defined by Holmes (p.10) who says that "a pidgin language is a reduced language that results from extended contacts between groups of people who share no language. It evolves as a result of communication, particularly trade. People who are less powerful are more accommodating, and the words from the language of those that have more power”. According to Helen Bush Caver and Mary T. Williams (p.1) the term Creole was first used to identify descendants of French, Spanish or Portuguese settlers living in the West Indies and Latin America in the 16th century. There is general agreement that the term "Creole" derives from the Portuguese's word "crioulo", which means a slave born in the household". When groups of people speaking different language come together and intermix a language called a pidgin. It allows of two or more non- intelligible native language to communicate with each other. Subsequently, such a language can replace the settlers original language and become the first language of their descendants, such language are called creoles.

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Details

Title
The Role of Nigerian Pidgin English as Communication Device
Course
ENGLISH EDUCATION
Grade
4.28
Author
Year
2018
Pages
28
Catalog Number
V438172
ISBN (eBook)
9783668787261
ISBN (Book)
9783668787278
Language
English
Tags
role, nigerian, pidgin, english, communication, device
Quote paper
Joshua Izenose (Author), 2018, The Role of Nigerian Pidgin English as Communication Device, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/438172

Comments

  • guest 16 days ago

    This book really helped me. Working on my B.A project on sociolinguistics and I really helped a lot

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