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Bachelor Thesis, 2017
45 Pages, Grade: Distinction
CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION
1.3 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
1.4 STATEMENT PROBLEM
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.7 AIM/OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
1.8 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
1.10 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
1.11 DELIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
1.13 ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS
CHAPTER 2 – LITERATURE REVIEW
2.2 The Role of SMT in Enhancing Performance of Pupils
2.3 Motivation of Teachers and Performance
2.4Strategies for Pupil Performance Improvement
2.5 Factors Hindering SMTsfrom ImprovingPupil Academic Performance
CHAPTER 3 - METHODOLOGY
3.2 RESEARCH DESIGN
3.3 POPULATION OF THE STUDY
3.4 SAMPLING PROCEDURES
3.5 THE SAMPLE
3.7 DATA COLLECTION PROCEDURES
3.8 DATA ANALYSIS
CHAPTER 4 – ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
4.2 ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
4.2.1 Analysis and Interpretation of Respondents’ Gender
4.2.2 Analysis and Interpretation of Respondents’ Departments
4.2.3 Analysis and Interpretation of Closed-ended Questions
4.2.4 Analysis and Interpretation of Open-ended Questions
4.3 SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS
CHAPTER 5 – INTERPRETATION AND DISCUSSION OF RESULTS
5.2 DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
5.2.1 Influence of SMT on pupil academic performance
5.2.2 Effect of motivation on the performance of teachers
5.2.3 Factors hindering SMT from improving pupil academic performance
5.2.4 Strategies to be employed by SMT to improve pupil academic performance
CHAPTER 6 – SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
6.2 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS
6.3 IMPLICATIONS OF THE STUDY
6.6 SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDIES
APPENDIX A – QUESTIONNAIRE
This research project is dedicated to my loving grandmotherThembani Dibula for bringing me up; my motherMargaret Boy, my aunt Luzile Mudongo; and my siblings: Bigboy Boy, Kudzani Boy and Zibani Mudongo for their immeasurable support in my education journey.
The researcher would first like to express his appreciation to his supervisor: Mr. Tshekiso for his advice, guidance, patience and encouragement while embarking on this research project.
His special thanks go to his fellow students of this programme at BOCODOL, Palapye: Tinashe Masala, Stanford Foroma, Kabo Nasilele and Letta Moletsane for their invaluable support, encouragement and patience while in his education journey. Were it not for them, the researcher could not have come this far.
Thirdly, the researcher would also like to extend his sincere thanks to the BOCODOL, Palapye Tertiary Coordinator: Mr. Aubrey Dilaolo for his unmeasurable support and encouragement throughout his entire studies with the college.
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence ofschool management teams (SMTs) on pupil academic performance in Tutume North Inspectorate schools.
The researcher engaged a quantitative type of methodology. A descriptive survey was conducted on the subject of research through a questionnaire. A sample of 31 teachers was drawn from some selected schools in Tutume North Inspectorate in greater Central Region of Botswana. The study was guided by the objectives in addressing the problem of the study. Some of them are:
i. To find out the role of senior management teams (SMTs) in enhancing school academic performance.
ii. To find out the factors that hinder the SMTs from improving pupil academic performance.
The findings of the study revealed that school management teams (SMTs) are a significant factor that influence pupil academic performance in schools. Some of the key findings of the study are:
a. The SMTs exclude teachers from the schools’ strategic planning teams.
b. Teachers are not motivatedenough to improve pupil academic performance.
c. Some SMTs ineffectively communicate with teachers.
In order to improve pupil academic performance, the study recommended among others, the following:
a. Teachers’ expertise should be utilized in strategic planning for their schools.
b. SMTs should develop motivational programmes to encourage and motivate both teachers and pupils to meet set targets.
In laying down the foundation of this research, this chapter will present the background of the study, keywords used in the research, statement problem, research questions, hypothesis, objectivesof the study, significance of the study, rationale, assumptions, and ethical considerations.The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of senior management teams (SMTs) on pupil academic performance.
- Pupil – a learner in a primary school
- Senior management team (SMT) – primary school executives (school head, deputy school head, heads of department (HODs) and senior teachers).
- Academic performance – final result or grade earned in test or examination.
- Teacher – a person whose job is to teach pupils in a school.
Education is a great venture into many opportunities of human survival. It is through education, as a vehicle, that people are transform socially, economically and politically. However, there are many threats posed towards this transformation as the issue of school poor performance is an existing reality everywhere around the world. There remain some intergenerational gaps in our social lives due to the inequalities arising from different educational achievement or non-achievements. Our economies remain under stimulated as the upcoming generations brings nothing handy to contribute to the struggling economies, rather over burdens. Similarly to the political aspects of our lives, education doesn’t seem to escalate us to the levels to satisfactorily running our families, organizations and many other institutions. All these challenges arise basically from poor education or non-acquisition of life skills.
Botswana, as a developing country, is not the only one experiencing poor school performance as this is global concern. According to a research by Foster-Allen (2013)much of the low outcomes in some schools are because of inadequate leadership by administrators, and about 40 percent of schools are performing unsatisfactorily because of poor leadership and management. Another research carried in the US by Jossey-Bass Education points out that whether in Canada, England, the United States, or any other part of the Western world, weak leadership is a major cause of school decline. Maimela and Monyatsi (2016) also highlights that the overall achievements of schools in Botswana is influenced by the nature of the school and how it is managed; that is the leadership styles applied by those in management.
The education sector is mandated with providing a lifelong learning opportunities to the young generations who are perceived to be the future custodians our countries socio-economic development. Government schools are key part of the stakeholders in the education fraternity, and it is a societal and national interest that schools perform better to achieve predetermined standards of performance. It is however not a secret that some schools continue to fail to satisfy these performance targets hence citing the presence of irregularities in the management of underperforming schools. There is a growing body of evidence that school leadership/management has an impact on student performance outcomes through the influence on teachers in the classroom (Curriculum & Leadership Journal, 2012). The issues around this matter are being investigated through undertaking a dissertation.
This dissertation is an account of a case study research project carried out by a student researcher. In the introduction, the researcher would like to present an overview of the dissertation and the way it is structured. The dissertation focuses primarily on the consistent poor performance by some of the primary schools in Tutume North Inspectorate area, which has continually failed to meet regional performance targets of; AB% pass - 40% and ABC% pass - 80%. The inspectorate has a total number of fifteen (15) schools. As per the analyzed information on school’s performance, the following is presented:
TUTUME NORTH INSPECTORATE AREA’S PRIMARY SCHOOLS’ PERFORMANCE IN PRIMARY SCHOOL LEAVING EXAMINATION (PSLE) OVER THE PAST SEVEN (7) YEARS.
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Source: Tutume Sub-region Education Office official records.
The purpose of this research is to build the empirical evidence base from examining the influence of school management teams (SMTs) on pupil academic performance by focusing on sampled schools that are underperforming in the Tutume North Inspectoral Area.
Poor performance in schools is a critical problem that one cannot be oblivious to. The problem of schools continually producing poor results is an issue that will not varnish on its own. However, it is admissible that success of a school in carrying out its primary purpose of effectively educating learners is pertinent to the kind of leadership and management present in that particular school.
According to the performance targets set by the Central Region, a school is only considered to have performed well when it had attained a minimum pass rate of 40 % AB, and 80% ABC in the Primary School Leaving Examinations (PSLE). However, some schools within Tutume North Inspectorate under Tutume Sub-region continue with being non-compliant to these set standards. In a number of fifteen (15) primary schools in the inspectorate, an average of ten (10) schools have over the past seven (7) years, from 2010 to 2016, performed below the set targets. Therefore, poor performance appears to be a serious problem in many schools. As a result, learners end up not acquiring the basic knowledge and skills that lay the important foundation for their continuing learning.
A number of challenges arises from this situation, including learners’ failure to succeed at secondary school level in order to proceed to high learning institutions, thus leading to uneducated and unemployed youth lives in poverty or survive through crimes (e.g., theft and corruption). Consequently, the government of Botswana ends up spending a lot of money and other resources, on top of those provided to the education sector, to eradicate poverty and fight unemployment-related crimes.
Secondly, education is one of the most important aspects of human resource development, and without it the economy of the country remains stagnant as young people with a lot of potential are dropped along the way up the education ladder costing our country its economic stability that could have been stimulated and sustained by the young educated generation. Poor school performance does not only results in the child having a low self-esteem, but also causes significant stress to the parents.
Perry (2009) found that managers (school management) and staff (teachers) are mandated to fundamentally rethink the way they do things in order to maximize organizational effectiveness. This implies that good performance by a school heavily rests on the school management teamsor administrative authorities in place, and teachers’ proper execution of their charges. In order to be able to understand the root causes of poor performance by schools, there is a critical need to conduct a case study investigating the influence of school management teams on pupil academic performance in underperforming primary schools in the Tutume North Inspectorate.
This research examines the role of school management teams on pupil academic performance. The research is guided by the following questions:
1) What is the role of senior management teams (SMTs) in enhancing school academic performance?
2) To what extent does motivation of teachers affect their performance?
3) What are the factors that hinder the SMTs in improving learner academic performance?
4) What strategies can the SMT employ to improve pupil academic performance?
Pupil academic performance in primary schools is affected by strategies employed by School Management Teams (SMTs).
The researched addressed the following objectives in order to answer the questions above:
i. To find out the role of senior management teams (SMTs) in enhancing school academic performance.
ii. To find out the extent to which motivation of teachers affect their performance.
iii. To find out the factors that hinder the SMTs in improving pupil academic performance.
iv. To find out the strategies the SMT can employ to improve pupil academic performance
The findings of this study could shed light to School Management Teams (SMTs) on how to achieve quality education in low performing schools. The study might provide insight into the problems whose solutions might help inform specific actions to be taken to efficiently and effectively deal with poor performance of these schools.
This study would not only assist the School Management Teams of low performing schools to improve their level of performance, but it would also provide strategies to guide the primary school teachers on how to improve the performance of learners to a level that would allow them to smoothly transition from Primary Education to Secondary Education.
This study is further intended to be directly useful to the education officers at the sub-regional, regional and national offices in the Ministry of Basic Education, by providing information that can guide the assessment of the impact of reforms in place.
Also to benefit from this study are the Education Policymakers, by providing conclusive evaluation on the impact of the National Revised Policy on Education (NRPE) on the quality of education in primary schools in Botswana.
The researcher chose to do the study for the reasons that in doing so; an empirical evidence base will be built from examining the influence of school management teams on pupil academic performance.
During the entire process of conducting this research, various problems were encountered.
The main problem experienced by the researcher was the limited time allocated to the research as the researcher was taking other three courses which had their deadlines so close with the one of the research. In overcoming this challenge the researcher had to seek study leave from work to cover the workload.
As a distance learner, it was also challenging for the researcher to access information, services, and assistance from the college office and colleagues due to the distance. In minimizing this challenge the researcher relied on internet, emails and social media to acquire the assistance needed.
The main focus of this project to examine the role of school management teams on pupil academic performance. Its findings are directed at wanting to improve standards of schoolsperformance byrevealing; the role of senior management teams (SMTs) in enhancing school academic performance, the effect of motivation of teachers on their performance, the factors that hinder the SMTs in improving learner academic performance, and the leadership strategies can the SMT employ to improve pupil academic performance. The study will be conducted as a case study targeting Selolwane Primary School, Timbi Primary School and Maphorisa Primary School, all in Tutume North Inspectorates a sample of low performing schools within the broader. The population of the study will be the school heads, deputy school heads, senior teachers and junior teachers of the mentioned schools because they are the ones directly involved in formulating and implementing teaching strategies that has resulted in poor performance.
This research was granted permission to conduct this research by both the Botswana College of Distance and Open Learning and the local education authority. The schools at which research will be conducted have been requested to offer their honest contribution by the Education Office. The researcher ensured that:
- This research is of quality and integrity.
- Informed consent was solicited from respondents.
- The confidentiality and anonymity of the research respondents is respected.
- Respondents’ participation in this study is voluntary.
- No harm is caused to the respondents.
- This research is independent and impartial.
This research is conducted under the following assumptions;
- The participants will respond to the questionnaires and interview questions in an honest and candid manner.
- The sample criteria are appropriate and therefore, assures that the participants have all experienced the similar problem of the study.
- Participants have a sincere interest in participating in this research and do not have any other motives not relating to the study.
This chapter provides the literature review, which is an overview of previously researched information on school management and academic performance. This chapter will be addressed using the literature or findings from other researches relating to this one. The information to be reviewed will be guided by the objectives of the study that are already mentioned in Chapter 1.
Planning is the key function for any improvement initiatives within an educational institution, so in order for SMTs to enhance academic performance it is crucial to have a thorough plan to work towards. However, planning cannot be done in a haphazard manner since it is an activity that involves strategic initiatives that will lead the school towards action-oriented goals. In this sense, it becomes the professional role of the SMT to engage in strategic planning, specifically designed to enhance academic performance (Naicker and Waddy, 2002).
According to the findings of a study conducted by Ndimande (2005) academic performance of learners' is primarily dependent on the SMTs' initiative and endeavors to design strategic planning programmes created especially to promote and sustain quality and excellence in schools . Schools with poor strategic planning are likely to under-achieve by the end of the year. The study further reveals that SMTs do not implement programmes, do notinvolve parents in learner performance enhancement programmes, teachers are not fully motivated to enhance learner performance, there is ineffective communication between SMTs and the staff, and some teachers are not familiar with the vision and mission of the school. Generally, poor strategic planning in some schools adversely affects learner performance.
A research paper by Mosibudi (2012) concurs that commitments of teachers is affected by lack of motivation from SMT which play a major role in academic performance of learners at schools. It continue to suggest that lack of parents encouragement to be more involved in school matters, and disallowing them to be conversant with almost all the achievements made by the school, is an error from the SMT part.
a. Strategic Planning
In the context of school management, strategic planning is a systematic function of the SMT that involves the process of envisioning a desired future of the school, and translating this vision into broadly defined goals or objectives and a sequence of steps to enhance performance. It is only through a strategic plan that a school can be effective because it helps to identify and express goals, key improvement strategies, action plans and, finally, monitor and evaluate the school’s progress for the purpose of change management (van Wyk et al. 2014). This is supported by Ndimande (2005), citing Naicker and Waddy (2002: 59), that strategic planning encompasses six important steps namely, vision mission statement, priorities, action plans, implementation and evaluation.
b. Parental Involvement
According to Mji (2006) parental involvement is undeniably critical in the sense that parents have the distinct advantage over their children as they can provide a more stable and continuously positive influence that could enhance and complement what the school fosters on their children. Involvement of parents is one of the factors influencing school, teacher and student achievement in the sense that SMT advocates for change in the school with parents of the students (Waters et al. 2003).
c. School Vision
The school has to have a clear direction and everyone has to have an idea about what the school is trying to do. This guide states that for the effective management of the learners, the school vision should be clearly articulated and clarified to all educators so that educators can perform better and assist learners to try harder to improve their performance (Ndimande, 2005).
Motivation can be perceived as a teacher’s desire and commitment to achieve both individual and school goals, and it is evidenced by job performance. Teacher motivation can be derived fromjob satisfaction, and any kind of career development in the teaching profession they receive, such as promotion, in-service training, workshops, seminars and refreshers courses. This implies that teachers derive their satisfaction from work related environment and that give them high morale to perform better than average Adeyinka et al., 2013 and Mruma, 2013)
a. The Relationship between SMT and Teachers’ Motivation
The SMT is also responsible for exercising effective leadership over the teachers, and it is not just about envisioning the future and establishing change but motivating people as well. It takes a motivated staff to want to perform a duty because they want to perform it, as a result, their performance will be enhanced. The SMTs is responsible for devising strategies to motivate teachers, and this strategies should be deployed to sustain the higher levels of motivation which will in turn maintain consistence in learner academic performance. The implication here is; teacher motivation is directly proportional to teacher performance. In short, an SMT that implements good motivational strategies obtains motivated teachers who perform to accomplish performance standards through effective teaching of learners. Well taught learners perform well in tests and examination, which is used to grade the academic performance of the school. It is a transfer of energy from top to bottom, with an end product of high academic performance.
b. Effects of Motivation on Teacher Performance
Donkoh (2016)conducted studies ofmotivation, University of Ghana. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether performance exhibited by teachers was due to the motivational packages and satisfactions they received on their job or not. It surveyed a sample of 110 teachers from two public primary schools and two private primary schools, and data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. The findings support the argument that well motivated teachers are generally good performers. Teachers who are satisfied with their motivation climate are likely to rate their performance highly, because they feel that, following the creation of a positive motivation environment, the organization will expect them to be good performers.
A studies of motivation conducted by Nyathira (2013), University of Kenya. The purpose of the study was to investigate institutional factors influencing motivation among teachers in job performance in public primary schools in Kongoni division, Naivasha district, Kenya. A descriptive survey design was used for 106 teachers from 11 schools. The findings shows that feedback from supervisors motivates teachers in their job performance, so is school head’s role of evaluating teachers work as confirmed by 55.9% of teachers, and that when school head allows teachers to make independent decision on their job, there will be improved job performance.
Ndimande (2005) conducted a study on motivation, University of Zululand. The purpose of the study was to investigate the impact of school management teams on learner academic performance. 40 teachers were used in the survey, and the research followed a descriptive research design. The findings revealed that that lack of motivation creates an ethos of complacency in the school; teachers become unconcerned about pupils’ learning, as a result, pupils do not aspire to improve their overall academic performance.
a. Definition of Leadership Strategy
Leadership strategy cannot be confined to one definition as it is a broad concept of organizational leadership. In an educational context it can be defined as the school’s leadership requirements, including the number of leaders, levels of leaders, the skills, behaviors and capabilities these leaders should have and will need going forward. It can also be defined the alignment to the goals of the institution or school, leadership vision, integration of leadership development with other talent processes, and the plan for the maintenance of the strategy. Becoming or remaining successful school requires a different way of thinking about how to utilize the resources available to enhance academic performance of learners. Leadership strategy also involves the ability of leaders to influence others to voluntarily make decisions that enhance the prospects for the school's long-term success. When the school undergoes change strategic leaders are required to provide a sense of direction, and build ownership and alignment within their workgroups to implement change (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Strategic_leadership and http://www.bersin.com/Lexicon/Details.aspx?id=14373).
b. Strategy and Performance
Rautiola (2009) conducted a study on leadership and student academic achievement, Northern Michigan University, which purpose was to discover the effects school leaders have on student achievement. Surveys were conducted with 96 principals and 2,764 teacher respondents. The study has shown that successful leaders do exhibit certain traits, which lead to both school improvement and increased student achievement. Much of the success of schools and teachers appears to depend on collective efficacy, alignment of goals and accommodating working conditions, which are conducive to student learning. Trust, communication and strong relationship building are a few of the key components successful school leaders have bred into their schools.
According to studies by Norviewu-Mortty (2012), Edith Cowan University, the purpose of the study was to investigate principals' strategies for improving the academic achievement of students. The findings states that principals of disadvantaged schools who succeeded in disseminating and consolidating a school vision and mission with their staff and students, and involved parents and community via their shared vision and mission, were able to rally the entire school community towards a positive change and to transform low academic standards to improved academic achievement. This implies that the SMT with leadership of the school head can engage their stakeholders, such as the parents or PTA, the alumni, sponsors, and village leadership in understanding and buy-in into the change to improve academic achievement. The staff and learners also must be conversant with the mission and vision of the school to give them direction and motivation to achieve the two.
In the case of an under-resourced school principals must establish school and community partnerships through the Parent Teacher Association, parents and the wider community. These partnerships can be used to obtain financial and other resources for the school and for teachers’ welfare in order to improve the teaching and learning environment and student achievement.
The studies continued to find out that other strategy to improve academic performance of a school is by first resolving the basic issues of student indiscipline (lateness and absenteeism), teacher unprofessionalism (lateness, absenteeism and uncooperative conduct), and a lack of minimal infrastructure (extremely insufficient classroom furniture and learning materials) before concentrating on supervision of teachers’ teaching and students’ learning. By so doing, a positive learning environment will be created yet minimizing negative forces acting against the efforts to transform the academic achievement of the school.
A study paper by Mafuwane (2011), University of Pretoria, the purpose of the study was to investigate the variables related to instructional leadership and their contribution to learner performance. The respondents to the questionnaires that solicited information were principals, deputy principals and HODs. According to its findings, the intervening variables that may have an effect on learner performance include; creation of culture and setting a vision, implementing the vision, having high expectations of both teachers and learners, the principal‘s orientation towards learner performance, and motivation and commitment.
Another study by Darroch (2006), University of Alberta. The purpose of the study was to uncover attitudes and understandings about themes of: collaborative decision-making, building capacity; high performance expectations; and teacher leadership. Twelve interview questions were to collect data, which was analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively. Findings uncovers that;
- When teachers have a personal connection to the school's vision, they are more compelled to work in support of it. There is positive reinforcement in moving toward a vision.
- Formal and informal teacher leadershipthat exist in the schools where teachers work in teams to share best practices influences shared responsibility and empowerment that creates an opportunity for those who feel strongly about school improvement to play pivotal roles in the process of improving student learning.
- Consensus and collaborative decision-making is not easy or especially time-effective, but it does instill the high level of commitment needed to enhancecontinuous improvement.
- This practice of setting high performance expectations provides teachers with some concrete, guiding principles and challenges meaningful, achievable professional growth.
It is usually said that ‘the buck stops at the top’ to imply that someone who is responsible for making decisions is the one who will be blamed if things go wrong. In this case, it is the SMT that is in the forefront mandated with the responsibility to creatively and innovatively make decisions, find solutions to problems, and establish strategies that enhance performance. A school’s or learner’s poor academic performance is a result of poor management and leadership employed by SMT. By poor academic performance we mean a situation in learning that involves learners’ failure to attain set standard performance in a given evaluation exercise such as a test, examination or a series of continuous assessment. A candidate who scores less or below a given standard is regarded as performing poor academically (Okoye, 1982).
Ndimande (2005) conducted studies of learner academic performance, University of Zululand. The purpose of the study waste investigate the impact of School Management Teams (SMTs) on Learner Academic Performance (LAP).It surveyed a sample of 40respondents, and data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. The findings reveal that learner academic performance is critically affected in schools where learners are involved in decision-making process and where they are not given immediate feedback after their assessment activities. As a result, opportunities to improve learner academic performance were lost. The study further reveals other key findings which suggest that:
- Many STMs have not implemented staff development programmes.
- Some SMTs have not involved parents in the formulation or implementationof learner academic performance enhancement programmes.
- Educators are not fully motivated to enhance learner academic performance, such as improving the teaching skills of teachers.
- General lack of communication between SMTs and the rest of the staff members compromises potential enhancement of learner academic performance in the sense that there will be no or little of monitoring and evaluation of performance.
- Some teachers are not familiar with the vision of the school and consequently do not realize its goals.
- Learner academic performance is negatively impacted in schools where there are indications of poor strategic planning.
- A lack of non-management educator involvement in curriculum development also negatively impacts learner academic performance.SMTs have a key role to play in leading and directing the process of curriculum design within their schools.
Njuguna (2011)conducted studies of academic performance, Kenyatta University. The purpose of the study was to establish the factors influencing academic performance of the public primary schools. It involved a sample of 21 deputy school heads, 105 teachers and 210 pupils making a total of 336 participants. The study adopted a descriptive survey design utilizing both quantitative and qualitative techniques. The findings suggested the following factors:
1. Factors within the school and home environment which come into play and influence academic performance of the public primary schools:
The use of mother tongue and English language in schools; ineffective monitoring of private studies and individual learners progress; inadequacies in assessment of the effectiveness of the teaching/learning strategies, unsuitability of the teaching/learning resources to pupil achievement; inefficiency in recording and reporting pupils progress; lack of shared vision and focused mission of the schools; and inadequate and poorly maintained physical and material resources.
2. The socio-economic factors included:
Low parental/guardian education level and regard for education; low income of the parents/guardians; and pre-occupation with work.
3. The socio-cultural factors which emerged include:
Community/parent low regard for education; embracement of the initiation rite of passage; engagement in sexual activity and dating; and the entrenchment of the terrible outlawed religious beliefs like early marriages.
This chapter was about finding information from scholars who have conducted researches that are related to the influence of senior management teams on pupil academic performance. The literature have revealed that strategic planning, engaging parents in their children’s education, and formulating a clear vision and mission of the school that gives teacher direction and guidance, are part of the role of senior management team as a way of enhancing performance. Motivation and leadership strategy are other factors that can be employed to improve teacher and pupil performance. Factors that inhibit senior management teams from improving school grades are, poor implementation of staff development programmes failure to implement learner academic performance enhancement programmes, ineffective communication between SMTs and teachers and pupils, and poor strategic planning, just to mention a few.
This study was conducted basing on the research methodology which formed a fundamental part of the research accordingly. This chapter outlines the research design, population of the study, sampling procedures, sample, instrumentation, data collection procedures,data analysis, and conclusion.
Research design is a detailed outline of how a study will take place. It includes how data is to be collected, what instruments will be employed, how the instruments will be used and the intended means for analyzing data collected.
This study focuses on the opinion of teachers on the influence of SMTs on pupil academic performance. The research approach for the study is a mixed approach, which isa triangulation of quantitative and quantitative research. A quantitative research uses numbers that ensures precision in measurement, which produces objective and empirical data whereas a qualitative research produces subjective, anecdotal and impressionistic data (Makore-Rukuni, 2001). The research design of the study is descriptive survey research.
The entire group of individuals to which the researcher is interested in generalizing the conclusions defines the target population of the study.Tutume North Inspectorate area has fifteen primary school. Three primary schools were selected from which the sample would be chosen. The selected schools were Maphorisa, Timbi and Selolwane Primary Schools as these schools were most easily accessible. In each of the schools teachers (without portfolio) were selected as the representatives of the population to answer the questionnaires.
A simple random sampling technique was used in this study where a sample was selected randomly from a larger population, with every individual in the sample having an equal chance to be chosen. Conclusions about large groups were drawn by taking a sample. In this case, the respondents identified for this empirical study were ordinary teachers in the selected schools. The option of using teachers as representatives allowed the researcher to make accurate estimates of the thoughts and behaviour of all teachers in Tutume North primary schools. The sample was handpicked from school’s establishment register, a document that shows list of teachers and their positions.
A sample is a segment of the population selected to represent the population as a whole. The sample for this research is thirtyordinary teachers sampled from the selected schools. A different number of respondents from individual schools were used depending on the size of the school.The sample of the population was the teachers without portfolio.
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The research instrument that best suited the requirements of this study is the questionnaire, which was designed to collect information that addressed the influence of SMTs on pupil academic performance. A questionnaire is an instrument containing a set of questions presented to a respondent for answers. A semi-structured questionnaire that contains both open-ended and closed ended questions was given tothe respondents to read the questions, interpret what is expected and then write down the answers themselves.The questions in the questionnaire were categorized into four sections to address the four research questions of the study. The questionnaire also collected the bio data on the respondents that included genderand departments under which they serve. Using a questionnaire is a very convenient way of collecting useful comparable data from a large number of individuals, and it can produce objective, valid and meaningful results (Mathers et al, 2009).
With the help of the research consent letter from the Tutume Sub-region Education Office, the researcher was given access by the schools to personally distribute the questionnaire to individual teachers of Maphorisa, Timbi and Selolwane primary schools. Questionnaires from each school were completed and personally collected by the researcher after a week. A total number of 31 questionnaires were distributed. All the 31 questionnaireswere collected, and were all completed, which makes a 100% response rate by the respondents.
The purpose of analyzing data is to obtain usable and useful information. The data collected was organized using frequency tables as the statistical method of data presentation. The exercise of analyzing and presenting data involves the process of organizing large amounts of raw information collected during a study and presenting it in a manner that is easier to read and understand.Data analysis was done in a manner that addressesindividual research objectives.
This chapter presents the findings of this study. The findings are reported in six categories; gender of respondents, departments that the respondents fall under, and four research questions.
A frequency table have been used to summarize the gender of the respondents. The table shows the gender category, frequency and percentages.
Table 4.1: Frequency distribution according to respondents’ gender
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Table 4.1 shows that 38.7% of the respondents are male teachers and 61.3% of them are female teachers. This distribution shows a balanced gender representation by the respondents considering that primary education in Botswana is female dominated department.
Respondents are distributed in their schools according to departments; infant, middle primary and upper primary departments. The table below show the frequency distribution and percentages under each department.
Table 4.2 Frequency distribution according to respondents’ departments
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Table 4.2 shows that infant department was represented by 45.2% of the respondents, 25.8% respondents were from middle department, and 29% of the respondents for upper department. This shows that all the departments in each school under study were fairly represented. The infant department has many streams, up to four, hence the 45.2%. The other two departments usually takes about half the school combined.
Objective 1:What is the role of senior management teams (SMTs) in enhancing school academic performance?
Table 4.3:Frequency distribution according to SMTs’ role in enhancing school performance
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1. I am well conversant with our school’s vision and mission statement.
The majority of the respondents (90.3%) agreed to be conversant with their schools’ vision and mission statement while 9.7% of the respondents disagreed.
The SMT effectively and regularly monitor, evaluate and improve pupil performance enhancement programmes in my school.
Majority of the respondents by 54.9% disagreed that the SMT effectively and regularly monitor, evaluate and improve pupil performance enhancement programmes in my school whereas 45.1% of the respondents agreed.
3. Issues of pupil indiscipline and unprofessional conduct of teachers are properly dealt with in my school.
About seventy-seven and half percent (77.5%) of the respondents agreed that in their schools issues regarding pupil indiscipline and teachers’ unprofessional conduct are well dealt with while 22.6% of the respondents disagreed.
4. Teachers participate in strategic planning in my school.
Majority of the respondents (74.2%) disagreed to the participation of teachers in strategic planning in their schools but 25.8% of the respondents agreed to that happening in their school.
5. The members of SMT in my school are often away for professional and personal reasons.
About two thirds (67.7%) of the respondents disagreed that members of SMT in schools are often away for professional and personal reasons while 32.3% of the respondents agreed.
Objective 2: To what extent does motivation of teachers affect their performance?
Table 4.4: Frequency distribution according to the effect of motivation on teachers’ performance
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1. Teachers are highly motivated in doing their job in my school.
Only 29.1% of the respondents agreed with the above statement, whilst 70.9% disagreed that teachers were highly motivated in performing their jobs.
2. Career development programmes, such as in-service training, workshops, seminars and refreshers courses, are effectively implemented in my school.
Although 61.3% of the respondents expressed their satisfaction with the implementation of career development programmes, 38.7% indicated dissatisfaction.
3. The SMT employs motivational strategies to motivate teachers in my school.
Sixty-four and a half percent of the respondents did not support the above statement, whilst 35.5% supported the statement that SMT employs motivational strategies to motivate teachers.
4. Teachers are allowed to make independent decisions regarding their job in my school.
Although the majority (57.8%) of the respondents expressed satisfaction that teachers are allowed to make independent decisions in their job, 42.2% expressed dissatisfaction.
5. Overall, there is job satisfaction amongst teachers in my school.
Most of the respondents (74.2%) concurred with the statement that overall there is job satisfaction amongst teachers but 25.8% refuted. The statistics above indicated that some teachers are not satisfied with their work.
Objective 3: What are the factors that hinder the SMTs in improving pupil academic performance?
4.5: Frequency distribution according to factors that hinder SMT from improvingpupil performance
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1. There is poor strategic planning in my school.
Despite that 58.1% of the respondents agreed that there is poor strategic planning, 41.9% disagreed with the statement.
2. There is ineffective communication between SMT and teachers in my school.
Majority of the respondents (64.6%) disagreed with the above statement whereas 35.4% agreed that there is ineffective communication between SMT and teachers.
3. There are insufficient teaching/learning resources in my school.
Majority of the respondents (90.3%) supported that there is insufficient teaching and learning materials yet 9.7% did not support that. The indication is that some schools still perform below set standards despite the availability of teaching and learning materials.
4. Parents have low regard for their children’s learning in my school.
Most of the respondents (80.6%) agreed with the above statement against 19.4% who disagreed that parents have low regard for their children’s learning.
5. In my school there is effective and regular supervision of teachers, and immediate provision of feedback to the teachers.
Although 38.7% of the respondents are satisfied with regular supervision of teachers and immediate provision of feedback, 61.3% are dissatisfied.
4.2.4 Analysis and Interpretation of Open-ended questions
The analysis and interpretation of the open-ended questions was done using a frequency distribution table to show statistics on responses for question 1. The statistics are further interpreted by statements that incorporate responses for question 2.
Objective 4: What strategies can the SMT employ to improve pupil academic performance?
Question 1: What strategies do you think can improve academic performance in your school? Name as many as you want.
Question 2: Would you say the strategies mentioned above (at 1.) will be effective? Give reasons.
Table 4.6: Frequency distribution according to academic performance improvement strategies
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a. Motivational programmes for teachers
Forty-five percent of the respondents mentioned that academic performance can be improved by fostering motivation of teachers.
b. Participation of parents
Thirty-nine percent of the respondents suggested that parents should take part in the learning of their children.
c. Teacher support resources
Nineteen percent of the respondents mentioned that teachers require resources that will assist them in the teaching to improve the performance of their learners.
d. In-service training programmes
Sixteen percent of the respondents indicated that there should be the implementation of in-service training programmes to capacitate teachers to perform their duties with dedication.
e. Effective Communication
Thirteen percent of the respondents indicated that in order for pupil academic performance to improve there must be an effective communication within the school.
f.Supervision of teachers
Ten percent of the respondents have emphasized that supervision of teachers can improve their performance, thereby, improving the academic performance of the pupils.
g. Strategic planning
Seven percent of the respondents emphasized that strategic planning that involves teachers will help to improve academic performance.
The findings of the study were obtained through analysis of data collected using questionnaires. Analysis of data was done according to the objectives of the study, using frequency tables to show statistics for each questionnaire item. The findings reveals both positives and negatives in the influence of SMTs in pupil academic performance. In the next chapter, the findings are discussed in full details.
This chapter presents the interpretation and discussion of the results. This is the part of the study that will present the exercise some of the expectations will either be confirmed or refuted by the findings. The results will be discussed with reference to both the literature review in the second chapter, and the findings in chapter 4.
Discussions was done following the order of the research questions as they have been presented in chapter one. The views of various scholars will be considered in the discussion of results. The purpose of the study was to examine the influence of SMTs on pupil academic performance. The results support the argument that SMTs have an influence on the academic performance of pupils.
The findings reveal that most respondents are conversant with theirschool’s vision and mission statement. According to Darbi (2012) the mission and vision statements of an institution will influence staff when they know of them and implement them in their day to day work to accomplish them.However, the findings shows that in some of the schools people are not aware of the vision and mission statements.Not knowing the vision and mission of your school would lead teachers away from the desired goals, and pupils may fail.
Findings indicates that supervisors do noteffectively and regularly monitor, evaluate and improve pupil performance enhancement programmes in their schools.For instance, Performance Management System (PMS) which works as balanced score card have academic related objectives that teachers must achieve annually. If the SMT monitors and evaluates this innovation regularly and effectively academic performance can be improved.
It is also revealed that issues of pupil indiscipline and unprofessional conduct of teachers are properly dealt with, which allows the entire school to remain focused in improving academic performance without such barriers.There is however an indication that there is an existence of cases of indiscipline of pupils and teachers’ unprofessional behaviours that is improperly handled in some of the schools.
According to the findings, teachersdo not participate in strategic planning in the school. The ultimate outcome of a well-played role by the SMTs is an improved academic performance by pupils, which by extension means better school performance.
The findings reveal that lack of motivation amongst the teachers negatively impacts on their work hence the poor academic performance by pupils in schools. Teachers are able and eager to meet set targets when they are highly motivated in doing their job. The SMT, as the formal leadership structure is tasked with devising of better approaches to inspire teachers who in return will enhance pupil academic performance. When the opposite is the reality situation then academic performance will be undermined.
A number of practices can bring inspirational motivation to the teacher such as; empowering them through up skilling their capabilities by effective development and implementation of training programmes, such as in-service training, workshops, seminars and refreshers courses; and allowing teachers to put to use their creativity in make independent decisions regarding their job. It is further shown in the findings that in some schools there is no effective implementation of career development programmes that empowers teachers to improve their knowledge and skills, and this undermines the academic performance of pupils. McRobbie (200) states that professional development helps practicing teachers improve and become increasingly expert over the course of their careers, which motivates them achieve high academic performance by pupils.
Also revealed by the findings is that some SMTs do not allow for decision space for teachers. This paralyses the performance of the school. Teachers perform better when they participate in decision making. Participation in decision making affects teacher’s performance and their performance eventually affects pupils’ performances (Omobude and Igbudu, 2012).
A motivated teaching force is highly likely to experience job satisfaction and improve their performance. A better performance by teachers will translate into a better performance by pupils.Usop et al. (2013) implies that a teacher who is satisfied with their job is also a productive one. Furthermore, if the teachers are contented with their job, they will develop and maintain high level of performance. As a result, the teaching and learning process becomes more efficient and effective that it could produce high competitive learners.
The findings indicate that low academic performance by schools is a result of poor strategic planning.Strategic planning would give the school, especially the teachers, the direction to follow in order to reach to the desired levels of performance. Without this guidance individual teachers are more likely to develop individual goals that might conflict with ideal practices. Insufficiency of teaching/learning resources in some schools have been supported by the majority of the respondents as one of the contributing factors that hinder academic performance.
It is indicated by the findings that in some schools the communication between SMT and teachers is not effective. As a result, academic performance of pupils is compromised. Cusworth and Franks (1999) points out that bad and ineffective communication results in the creation of barriers and misunderstanding between managers and employees, which tend to become very difficult to deal with as time passes. The school management should be able to avoid such barriers by acting within the principles of effective communication. Cusworth and Franks (1999) continues to emphasize that management must avoid things like ineffective meetings that appear to have no real purpose, complicates issues instead of clarifying them, and last too long, which leads to delayed decision-making and action taking. As a result, pupils’ performance will suffer.
The findings also indicate that parents have a low regard for their children’s learning in schools. This implies that the perceptions that parents have about education of their children are the ones that discourage them from taking keen interest in joining forces with schools to improve pupils’ academic performances. DCSF (2008) emphasizes that parental involvement has a positive effect on children’s achievement, particularly in terms of cognitive development, even when the influence of background factors such as social class and family size have been taken into account.
The other revelation by the findings is thatthere is no effective and regular supervision of teachers, and immediate provision of feedback to the teachers.When teachers are not supervised effectively or provided with immediate response they will lack direction and hold on to unsanctioned practices, hence crippling pupils’ performance. Jabbarifar (2009:1) highlights that “classroom assessment and evaluation are highly concerned with qualitative judgments that are used to improve students' knowledge and learning. Assessment and evaluation also give teachers useful information about how to improve their teaching method.” This implies that feedback from the supervision can allows teacher chance to applycorrective measures on their mistakes, and encourage them appreciate their strengths. Consequently, barriers to learning will be eliminated hence giving way for better performance.
The findings has revealed a number of strategies that can be employed by the SMT to improve pupil academic performance. When a school have motivational programmes in place, such as appraisals and rewards, teachers’ motivational levels would rise. A motivated teacher would be inspired to work beyond the normal nature of their duty to meet the desired targets. According to Mullins (2010:253) motivation is more about“creation of stimuli, incentives and working environments that enable people to perform to the best of their ability.Performance = function (ability × motivation).”
.The findings also reveal that participation of parents in the learning of their children can have a positive effect on academic performance. When parents join forces with schools their collective efforts can replace issues of pupil indiscipline, truancy and other bad habits with commitment and determination, making it easy for the set standards to be reached.The findings also reveal that in some schools parents do not support their children’s learning, which undermines academic performance of the pupils.The SMTs should encourage and engage parents, as stakeholders, in pupil academic performance enhancement programmes
The findings indicate the provision of resources or facilities to complements teaching efforts by teachers can make it easy for pupils to achieve improved performance. Slack and Lewis (2011) state that the availability of operations resources is central to long-term strategic success. The findings show that some schools are faced with lack of teaching resources which cripples performance of learners. The school management should ensure provision of resources that will support teachers in performing their jobs.
Also revealed by the finding is the implementation of in-service training programmes in schools as a way of equipping teachers with new skills with which they can devise means to improve pupils’ performances.It is evident that some school do not have in-service training programmes in place or they are not effectively implemented. When teachers are empowered with new skills they will be able to deal with challenges they are faced with which can improve their pupils’ performance.
The results shows that there is effective communication in schools. If the channels of communication between SMT and teachers are clearly stipulated it becomes easy in running the operations of the school. With the right information sent to the right people at the right times can keep everyone in the loop of information necessary for them doing their work.Cusworth and Franks (1999) reiterate that communication gives people in the organization the opportunity to pass and receive information, which is important for establishing healthy and sound relationships, as well as making of sound decisions. The SMT and teachers who communicate effectively will create a conducive learning environment for learners to excel in their school work.
The findings reveal that supervision of teachers in their work can improve pupil academic performance. Teachers get support from their supervisors, which can only be possible when supervision of teachers is diligently done. There is an indication that some schools do not carry out supervision of teacher. The SMT should perform the supervision of teachers because it assists them to learn the challenges faced by teachers, so they can be able to render them assistance. The feedback from supervisors helps teachers to mirror themselves and be able to know their strengths, and improve their weaknesses.
The findings indicates that strategic planning is another better approach that can be employed for the improvement of academic performance. A strategic plan would provide a long-term plan for the school that will drive the efforts of teachers and pupils towards a shared goals. Cusworth and Franks (1999) state that the job of management is to take a long-term view of the nature and functions of an organization and its relationship with the customers so as to establish an overall policy for survival and growth. This implies that school management should put into practice strategic leadership that defines the future state of the school, and putting into consideration the need to improve its academic performance.
This chapter presents the summary of the findings as well as conclusions on each of the four research objectives as given in chapter 4. The chapter further presents implications of the study, and the recommendationsto Tutume North Inspectorate and the other stakeholders in the Ministry of Basic Education as based on the views of the respondents (teachers) on the research findings. It ends with suggestions for further studies.
The following is a summary of the findings of the study as per the research questions:
a. Poor coordination of pupil performance enhancement programmes by the SMT.
The SMTs are poorly coordinating the pupil performance programmes by failing to monitor and evaluate them on regular basis. For instance, statement (2) in table (4.2) indicates that 54.9% of the respondents emphasized that the SMT does not effectively and regularly monitor and evaluate the programmes aimed at improving pupils’ performance. This is more likely to be one of the causes of low academic performance in schools
b. Exclusion of teachersfromparticipating in strategic planning.
Teachers are not involved in the strategic planning of the school, which leaves them with little or no understanding of the school’s long-term goals yet they have to achieve them. Teachers may not buy-in to the strategies due to lack of understanding and reject them instead. This practice amounts to poor strategic planning by the SMT, and thismay lead to decline in academic performance.
c. Lackof motivationby teachers in doing their job.
Teachers are not motivated to perform their jobs with inspiration and enthusiasm hence lack of determination and commitment. The SMT do not employ motivational strategies to inspire teachers which keeps their performance below standard. Teachers’ efforts are not recognized or rewarded.This is one of the factors that lead to poor performance by schools.
d. Ineffective communication between SMT and teachers in some schools.
Although the responses summarized in table 4.5, statement (2) indicated that 64.6% of the respondents are satisfiedthat SMT members have effective communication with the teachers, 35.4% oftherespondentsdisagreed. Effective exchange of important information between seniors and junior staff is crucial in the monitoring and evaluation of pupil academic performance. Lack of effective communication is a barrier to performance improvement.
e. Insufficient teaching/learning resources.
Pupils are taught in under-resourced learning environments, which limits their ability to acquire enough knowledge and skills. Teachers cannot fully impart knowledge and skills to pupils when they are not resourced well to perform their duties. The SMT should find means to acquire resources needed by teachers. Lack of teaching/learning resources contributes to low academic performance.
f. Parents’ low regard for child’s learning.
Parents do not attach value to the learning of their children which hold them back from providing valuable support, guidance and encouragement to their children’s education journey. Not playing the stakeholder role by the parents is unarguably one of the great causes of low performance by pupils.
g. Ineffective and irregular supervision of teachers.
The SMT do not supervise their teachers in an effective and regular manner. Teachers lack direction, support and encouragement in performing their work hence deviating from set targets. Pupils may end up not being properly taught. Lack of supervision of teachers is also a cause of pupil academic performance that is below average.
My findings from the analysis respond to the study’s research questions and help to achieve its objectives, which are to find out the role of senior management teams (SMTs) in enhancing school academic performance; the extent to which motivation of teachers affect their performance; the factors that hinder the SMTs in improving learner academic performance, and the strategies the SMT can employ to improve pupil academic performance. These findings have several significant implications for the improvement of pupil academic performance in primary schools.
Participation of teachers in the strategic planning exercise can make them own the strategies and motivated to implement them to achieve school’s long-term goals. Their inclusion assist the SMT to come up with sound and healthy decisions as management’s experience and expertise of teachers complements to bring quality output.
Teachers that are motivated are inspired and result-driven. It becomes easy and interesting to achieve set targets when there is a great willingness to win amongst teachers. Pupils taught by motivated teachers tend to improve in their performances.
Parental involvement provides support, encouragement and guidance to the pupils’ learning. Parents who hold high regard of the principles of child’s education are more likely to raise children with great motivation to learn to achieve higher. A combination of efforts by teachers, parents, pupils, and other stakeholders of education, will enhance excellent performance by pupils.
Communication between SMT and teachers has to be effective in order for the smooth exchange of information to benefit the coordination of operations in the school. It is effective communication that can promote the monitoring and evaluation of pupil academic performance. School cannot perform well unless there are communication channels that are clearly defined and used.
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence the SMTs on pupil academic performance. The findings of the study indicated that pupil academic performance is affected by poor coordination of pupil performance enhancement programmes by the SMT; exclusion of teachers from participating in strategic planning; lack of motivation by teachers in doing their job; ineffective communication between SMT and teachers in some schools; insufficient teaching/learning resources; parents’ low regard for children’s learning; and ineffective and irregular supervision of teachers. However, the findings further reveals the strategies that can be employed by the SMT in order to improve pupil academic performance in their schools. Establishment of motivational programmes for teachers can drive teachers towards improving the performance of pupils. Other strategies include participation of parents in the education journeys of their children, provision of teacher support resources, implementation of in-service training programme to up-skill the teachers, fostering effective communication between SMT and teachers, monitoring and evaluating the supervision of teachers to measure and improve their output, and the designing of strategic plans that define the future state of the school.
Based on the research findings, the following recommendations were made:
This study recommends that the Department of Primary Education should monitor the facilitation of teacher workshops or any form of in-service trainingthat will empower teachers to be able to deal with academic performance related challenges. The Department of Primary Education should also provide schools with teachers and necessary resources such as textbooks timeously. Management and leadership specialists and advisers could be enlisted to make regular visits to schools to assist SMTson leadership and management strategies.
The SMT should ensure that teachers who are knowledgeable in teaching pupils of a particular level or stream/standard should be appointed to it. This will apply expertise in teaching pupils because specializing in what one knows better can bring out best performance. This will not only improve performance of pupils but also help teachers to derive a feeling of fulfilment or enjoyment from their jobs.
The teachers should ensure that they attended in-service training programmes such as workshops as organized by the SMTs and various stakeholders. Such training will improve their knowledge and skills on the job, which will improve their teaching ability to help low performing pupils to do better.
Pupils should be made aware of regional target for schools and the implications thereof. This could be achieved by utilizing their morning assembly or motivational talk sessions with their respective teachers.
There is a need for a follow-up research to be conducted focusing on:
a. Strategies or remedies that can be applied to improve pupil attitude towards learning.
b. Establishing whether the design of School Management Teams (SMTs) structures and the duties of its members have bearingonpupil performance in schools.
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BOTSWANA COLLEGE OF DISTANCE AND OPEN LEARNING (BOCODOL)
My name is, Nick Mudongo, a student of Botswana College of Distance and Open Learning (BOCODOL) pursuing a Bachelor of Business Administration – Leadership and Change Management (BBA-LCM). I am carrying out research on the influence of School Management Teams (SMTs) on Pupil Academic Performance (PAP) in Tutume North primary schools. I kindly request you to provide me with information. Honesty in your response is very essential. Any information given would be treated as strictly confidential, and used for academic purposes only.
SECTION A – BIO DATA OF PARTICIPANTS
1. Gender (a) Male (b) Female 2. What department do you work in?
(a) Infant (b) Middle Primary (c) Upper Primary
SECTION B-INFLUENCE OF SMTs ON PUPIL ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE
For each of the following statements in section B, please indicate (by ticking) the extent to which you agree or disagree with them, using the following scale: SD – For Strongly Disagree, D – For Disagree, A – For Agree, SA – For Strongly Agree.
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1. What strategies do you think can improve academic performance in your school? Name as many as you want.
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2. Would you say the strategies mentioned above (at 1.) will be effective? Give reasons.
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Thank you for your responses ☺
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