1 Introduction of Packaging
2 Food Packaging- A Overview
3 Advances in Food Packaging
4 Packaging Innovation in Dairy Industry
5 Packaging of Fishery Products
6 Advances in Packaging of Meat and Poultry Products
7 Logistics in Packaging
8 Consumer Reaction to Package Design and its Applications
9 Testing of Packaging Materials
Chapter 1 Introduction of Packaging
Dr. Tanweer Alam, Dr. A. K. Datta and Dr. Priti Khemariya
Indian Institute of Packaging, Delhi-92
The designing, evaluation and production of container/package for a product to protect from physical damage and to attract customers through its appeal are called as packaging. Packaging is the science, art and technology of enclosing products for transportation, distribution, storage, marketing, sale, and use. Packaging is a coordinated system for transport, warehousing, logistics, sale, and end use of goods. The packaging is effective sales tool capable of influencing consumer to purchase the product. It affects every aspect of its design and performance such as retaining flavour, maintaining integrity, enhancing shelf life, minimizing microbial damage etc . Packaging Sector is now a Global Industry representing about 2% of the Gross National Product (GNP) of developed countries. Care must be taken for packaging to perform all the basic function such as protection, ease of handling and storage, convenience in usage etc. Packaging should not be deceptive and convey any deceptive message as well.
The primary functions of food packaging are:
- Minimization of the transfer of heat and light energy,
- Prevention of gas transfer from outside to inside and vice versa,
- Prevention of the physical damage by external force or pressure and the contamination of dust and foreign elements.
Secondary functions of food packaging are:
- Facilitation of the distribution of the product to the consumer level.
- Facilitation of Communication, Dispersion and Unitization.
Indian Packaging Industry
Indian packaging industry is comprised of a large number of small scale companies and a few large integrated players. According to one estimate, more than 22,000 packaging companies are registered in India amongst more than 85% are MSMEs. The Indian packaging industry shares about 4% at global scale. The per capita packaging consumption in India is 4.3 kgs and it is quite low than countries like Germany (42 kgs) and Taiwan (19 kgs). Organized retail sector and e-commerce has boost up the packaging sector so much. Packaging is growing @ 22-25% per annum and it is now the 5th largest sector of India's economy. The Indian packaging industry has enormous potential in export/import of goods. The exports comprise flattened cans, printed sheets and components, crown cork, lug caps, plastic film laminates, craft paper, paper board and packaging machinery whereas the imports include tinplate, coating and lining compounds and others. In India, laminates and flexible packaging, such as PET and woven sacks are the most used packaging segments.
Function of Packaging
- Protection - The basic function of packaging is protection. It saves the product from physical damage, heat, light, dust, moisture, dirt, leakage, breakage evaporation, watering, microbial contamination etc. from the factory to the target customers.
- Product density- Packaging provides product density. It helps to use the limited space in the best way in storage and usage and increases the grace and poise of arrangement.
- Sale tool- Packaging acts as displaying, publishing and an advertising medium for any product. Good packaging helps to sell the product. Packaging attains the consumers’ buying behaviour with its attractive package, size, design, color combinations and graphics.
- Convenience to consumer- Packaging helps in transportation, storage, and handling easily and without wastage. It helps the consumers so long as the product is in usage.
- Product identification -Packaging serves as product identifier i.e. it facilitates in the identification of the product. By seeing the package the product content could be known.
- Increase in demand- Packaging plays an important role in enhancing product demand by increasing attraction of consumers.
- Transportation- Packaging facilitates easy transportation and better handling of products from one place to another.
- Guidelines to customers- Packaging provides informative literature regarding the quality and use of the product.
- Better storage- Packaging serves as storage of the products.
- Product differentiation- Packaging helps the consumer to differentiate the product of choice easily in the retail, mall or market.
- Economy- Packaging reduces marketing cost of products by reducing losses from damages and thereby attains economy in the cost structure of the producers and marketers.
Types of Packaging
There are various types of packaging:
Primary Packaging or Consumer Packaging or Retail Packaging- Consumer packaging is the package with the required volume of a product for ultimate consumption. In this type of packaging, package remains in direct contact with the product itself. This packaging protects and/or preserve content of the package. For example bottle of cough syrup, the bottle containing the syrup and the label are both is primary packaging.
Secondary Packaging- It is the packaging used to group pre-packed goods together and thus enables to contain large volumes of primary packaged products. This packaging is not remained in direct contact of actual product. Secondary packaging plays a vital role in display and branding. It also helps in safely transportation of the product from factory to retail or consumer level. It also keeps primary packaged product in its original condition in storage. Examples of secondary packaging are cardboard cartons/boxes/plastic crates.
Tertiary Packaging- It is the packaging of secondary packages used to protect manufactured goods. Generally this packaging is for export and retailers remove before products are displayed for the sale. Examples are brown cardboard boxes, shrink wrap, wooden boxes.
Industrial Packaging- An industrial packaging is the package for durable consumer goods.
Dual Use Packaging- A dual packaging is the packaging where it is used for secondary usefulness after its contents have been consumed such as drinking bottles, jewelry boxes.
Features of Good Packaging
The features of good packaging are as follows:
- It should provide convenience.
- The package should neither be heavy in weight nor large in size.
- It should ensure the preservation of the quality and quantity of the products.
- It should increase status and prestige of the products.
- The packaging should have a handsome design.
Types of Packaging Materials
The right selection of packaging material is an important aspect in packaging industry. It is performed by considering some factors such as the strength, value and weight of the item being and whether the package will be subjected to moisture or other adverse conditions. Some types of packaging materials are as follows:
Paper and Paperboard
Paper is widely used packaging material. Commercially-available paper is predominantly made up of cellulose fibre of pulped wood. It is also made up of recyclable cotton fibre, straw, sisal and hemp. The material which has the weight of less than 250 grams per square meter (gsm) is referred to as paper and the material of about 250 gsm is referred to as paperboard. Lamination using foil or plastic can also be done to increase strength and to provide barrier properties. Examples of packages of paper and paperboard are cartons, tubes, corrugated cases, rigid boxes and pulp packs.
Glass Glass is a popular and useful packaging material. Commercially-available glass is made up of silica, sodium carbonate and calcium carbonate. Other compounds can be added to give colour, sparkle or heat shock resistance. Glass has following properties:
3. Barrier to moisture and gas
4. Pressure resistant to a degree
5. Can be molded into a variety of shapes
6. Transparent making the product visible
7. Glass is also highly recyclable
The most obvious drawback is fragility and the danger of broken glass. The transparency of glass can be a problem where the product is degraded by light. Glass can be directly decorated but is most commonly labeled.
Metals Metal is widely used packaging material. It possesses several properties such as strong, rigid, pressure resistant, temperature resistant, gas and moisture resistant, corrosion resistant, sterilizable etc. The metals such as tin-plate (tin plated steel) or aluminium are used to make recyclable cans, aerosol cans, tubes, tubs, closures, trays, drums and slip or hinged lid Drums Drumsboxes for packaging of food and drink.
Plastic is the most common packaging material. It is light weight, heat sealable strong cheap to manufacture. It is malleable thus can be pressed in a variety of sizes and shapes, allowing companies to make convenient packages for different items. Plastics can produce rigid containers or flexible films. Plastics have excellent thermal and electrical insulation properties; therefore applicable in electricity. They are corrosion resistant hence are durable and suitable for use in harsh environments. Furthermore, its physical properties can be modified with the addition of reinforcing fillers, colors, foaming agents, flame retardants, plasticizers, etc., to meet the demands of the specific application. As a result of these attractive properties, plastics are being used in versatile fields like Packaging, Agriculture, Building Construction, Transport, Electronics, Healthcare and Sports.
Common Plastic Polymers Used in Packaging
Low Density (LDPE): LDPE has a low melting point and relatively poor oxygen and moisture barrier. It is used for manufacturing flexible tubes, film bottles etc. High Density (HDPE): HDPE has higher melting point, wide chemical resistance and sufficient gas barrier for carbonated drinks. It is widely used for bottles and tubs.
Linear Low Density (LLDPE): Predominantly it is used as a film or sealing layer for bottle seals, sachets, pouches, bags etc.
PP has higher melting point and wide chemical resistance as well. It is widely used for hot fill products, closures for its ability to form crack resistant hinge, dispensers, bottles, jars, cartons, trays crisp bags tubs, trays etc.
Polyethylene terephthalate (PET)
PET has best gas and moisture barrier, excellent heat resistance and clarity. It is ovenable and widely used for carbonated beverages, stretch blown bottles for drinks, toiletries and food, jars, tubes and trays.
Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)
PVC is synthetic plastic polymer found in two forms: rigid and flexible. It has excellent stretch and cling properties. It is used in making bottles, non-food packaging, and cards i.e. bank or membership cards.
Polystyrene is one of the most widely used plastics. It is chemical resistant and naturally transparent but can be colored using colourants. It is used for protective packaging such as CD and DVD cases, cosmetics containers container lids, bottles, trays, tumblers, jars, cups, disposable cutlery etc.
Laminates and Co-extrusions
Laminates and co-extrusions are designed to get benefits from two or more different types of packaging materials altogether. Laminates are made up of two materials bonded together and co-extrusions are multiple polymers extruded together from molten from separate extruder to form a single piece packaging material. For example Tetrapaks
Paper (or board) / Polythene (PE)
Paper or board is rigid and strong packaging material which has the decorated surface however polythene heat sealable and gives liquid containment without gas or moisture barrier properties.
Wood Wood is natural composite of cellulose fibers is mostly used for heavy duty products such as pallets and crates. Wood packaging is used to pack, transport, handle, preserve, present and give and added value to several food products such as Fruits, vegetables, fish, seafood, oils, dairy products, meat products, bread, bakery, dried fruits, beverages etc.
Bubble Wrap or Paper
Bubble wrap is transparent plastic material which is used to protect fragile items without adding significant weight or cost. It gives additional protection by giving several layers of cushioning. Some types of mailing envelopes are used by bubble wrap.
Shrink Wrap or Film
Shrink wrap is polymer plastic film and applied over or around the products by automated machine followed by heated by a heat gun to make the wrap shrink to fit. Shrink wrap is widely used in diverse fields. It is used to wrap buildings, books, software’s (CDs or DVDs), cartons, boxes, beverage cans, pallet loads, electric wiring etc.
Tissue paper is lightweight paper made up of recycled paper pulp. It is used inside package to fill empty space to prevent shifting of packed items in transit. It is also used to wrap fragile contents like glass or porcelain in shipping.
Koirala, Dr. Kundan Dutta. Elementary Marketing. Kathmandu: Buddha Academic Publishers and Distributors Pvt. Ltd, 2014.
Thapa, Gopal, Dipendra K. Neupane and Dilli Raj Mishra. Introduction to Marketing. Kathmandu: Asmita Books Publishers and Distributors (P) Ltd., 2014.
Chapter 2 Food Packaging- An Overview
Dr. Tanweer Alam and Dr. Priti Khemariya
Indian Institute of Packaging, Delhi-92
Packaging is an attractive, safe and convenient way to protect and preserve food. Packaging and storage of food has been now integral to our survival. Glass, wood and earthenware pots have been used as packaging materials for thousands of years and over the last two hundred years, steel and tin coated steel have been used . Only over the last century plastics have become more popular as packaging material in food industry to protect and preserve foods. A range of packaging materials are available nowadays which has enabled food manufacturers to fulfill the packaging requirements. The choice of packaging material however is dependent on the required shelf life and chemical composition of the product.
Food Composition and Deterioration
Food is made up of complex carbohydrates (starches and fibre), fats, sugars, protein, minerals and vitamins water and other organic chemicals. Fruits are composed of sugars, water, fibre, protein, vitamins and minerals. Meats are composed largely of proteins, with fat, water, minerals, vitamins and less carbohydrate. The composition of food determines its deterioration. Foods deterioration takes place by i) normal life processes such as respiration and ripening Green to yellow to black color of banana is an example of natural life processes leads to deterioration. ii) microbial (Bacteria, Fungi, Viruses) attack. Most foods are susceptible to microbial attack. As microorganisms attack foods they produce metabolites that make unpleasant taste of food and cause illness as well. Growth of microorganisms on foods depends on: a) temperature b) acidity c) water activity d) nutrients content of food e) natural (sugar, salt) and chemical preservatives. On the basis of microbial attack foods are of following types:
High Risk Foods
High risk foods are the nutritious foods having high moisture content and low acidity such as fish, eggs, dairy products and meat. These foods are more susceptible to microbial attack Sausages and hamburgers are particularly high risk food because the meat chopping process releases extra moisture from the muscle tissue and make it vulnerable to microbial attack.
Lower Risk Foods
Lower risk foods are not that much susceptible to microbial attack as having protective skins around such as fruits and vegetables. These foods contain higher acids as well therefore deteriorate slowly by pathogens. These foods often deteriorate either by wilting due to moisture loss or continuing life processes and moisture loss to the surrounding air.
Low Risk Foods
The low risk foods are cereals and nuts having naturally long shelf lives provided they are kept cool and dry places.
For preserving foods the natural life processes and microbial growth must be stopped. These can be done either by i) altering the food environment ii) packaging of food in containers Alteration of the food environment can be done by:
- Drying or dehydration
- Adding salt/sugar/acid
- Adding a chemical preservative
- Or by altering a combination of all of these factors (e.g. bacon and jam)
The choice of packaging depends upon:
- The chemical composition of food;
- Food environment
- The barrier properties of the packages
Types of Packaging Materials
They are made up of, plastic, metal or card-board in the form of crates, barrels, drums and sacks. These containers help in shipping and protect the contents from physical damage during transport and distribution.
Textiles and Wood
Textile containers have poor gas and moisture barrier properties and not suitable for high speed filling. Woven jute sacks are non-slip, have a high tear resistance and are frequently used several times. These are chemically treated to prevent rotting and reduce flammability and good durability.
Plastic crates are strong and high impact resistant container used during crop harvest such as root crops, fruits and vegetables. They prevent bruising to retain product quality because pathogens attack bruised products first.
These are rigid, heavy and bulky containers which provide total protection to the contents and are convenient for ambient storage. They are tamper-proof but the technology required for canning is expensive. Tin is relatively expensive so a coating on cans is done but this is very thin and susceptible to scratching and ultimately rusting. Tin-free steel for example chromium-steel alloy cans are durable and corrosion resistant. The shelf life of foods in cans is commonly set at two years. Food remains preserved for several years in cans as cans are completely impervious to oxygen, carbon dioxide, moisture and aroma compounds. Canned foods deteriorate during storage. If cans are stored improper, they can rust and eventually deteriorate to the point that pinholes occur which allow microbial entry.
Some modern cans have only two components (body and lid) with a ring-pull opening device and without seam at the bottom of the can. Such cans are used for fish, soft drinks and beer. The traditional can contains three pieces (lid, base and cylinder). They are heated usually in a pressure vessel known as a retort so that the coldest part of can must reach a temperature of 121oC for 2.54 min to reduce Clostridium botulinum spores by a factor of 1012. This heat treatment damages the can content and not suitable for all kinds of goods.
Plastic Retort Pouches
These are slim pouches that can withstand the heat treatment without any damage to content. These pouches are cheap and can be imported easily as trans-shipped collapsed.
These films are extracted from the distillation of mineral oil followed by sheets are chemically prepared by cross linking of different long chains. Several types of cross linked chains are prepared by extracting different chemicals from mineral oils. If sheet is prepared from just one component they are known as single component polymers. If more than one component are used to make sheets are called multi component polymer. For the past 50 years, around 13 single polymeric films have been used for packaging either as single sheets or in combination. Each type of sheets has unique protective properties.
The single polymeric films are:
- Polypropylene (PP)
- Polyester (PES)
- Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET)
- Polyethylene (PE)
- Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE)
- High Density Polyethylene (HDPE)
- Polyvinylidine Chloride (PVDC)
- Polyvinyl Chloride-vinylidine Chloride (PVCC)
- Polystyrene (PS)
- Aluminium foil
Coated films are the packaging film coated with the polymers. Coating enhances barrier properties or imparts heat stability. Nitrocellulose is used as coating material over one side of cellulose film. Nitrocellulose provides a moisture barrier to film but maintains oxygen permeability as such. PVDC is often applied to cellulose films. It provides tough, stretchable property to film and is less permeable to air and moisture. Coated films are used for those products having condensation property inside package for example packed meats, bacon and sausages. Metallization by Aluminium can be done for making coated films. Metallization of cellulose, PP and PE form excellent barriers property for water vapor, oxygen, light and carbon dioxide.
Lamination is the way to improve the barrier properties for oxygen, moisture, carbon dioxide, light, appearance and mechanical strength of flexible films. It is the additional film added to single films. Adhesive laminated films are most versatile method of lamination in which an adhesive is applied to one surface of one film and then dried. The two films are bonded by passing them through rollers. Two part adhesives are commonly used. All polymer films are not suitable for laminating – the two films must have similar characteristics and the film tension, adhesive application and drying conditions must be accurately controlled to prevent peeling (delaminating).
Co-extruded films are extremely high barrier films prepared by the simultaneous extrusion of two or more than two thermoplastic films with the favorable properties through a single die and separate extruder. By making these films it is possible to combine different films. Co-extruded films are more efficient as chemically, mechanically and optically. These films are thinner in compared to laminates. These are similar to monolayer films and hence suitable for machine that folds the laminate roll into a tube, fills and seals the top and bottom along. By forming these types of films various functions like rigidity, flexibility, heat/cold resistance, heat sealing property and easy peel off capability could be achieved. A three layer co-extrusion films are used for confectionery, snack foods and grocery goods. These films possess an outside glossy and printable presentation layer, a bulk middle layer which provides stiffness, strength and split resistance.
Printing inks are used for consumer information and marketing. Printing inks for films and papers is made up of dyes which are dispersed in a blend of solvents and resin to form varnish. It also possesses extenders, plasticizers and slip agents. Solvents must be carefully removed to prevent odor-contamination of the food. Printing inks used on polymer based materials are regulated under regulation EC 1282/2011.
Summary of Labeling Requirements
The requirements for food label must meet in international trade. The summary of general labeling requirements is:
- Food name
- Ingredients list
- Quantitative ingredients declaration (where indicated)
- Net contents and drained weights
- Name and address
- The country of origin
- Lot identification
- Date marking and storage instructions
- Instructions for use and special storage requirement
- General script
- Nutrition labeling
Codex also guides the presentation of labeling information including the use of language. Additional labeling issues for which codex guidance exists include:
- Quote paper
- Tanweer Alam (Author)Priti Khemariya (Author)Sahar Masud (Author), 2018, Recent Packaging and Logistics of Fresh and Processed Foods, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/438920