REVIEW OF LITERATURE
PROPOSED RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
CBSE SOCIAL SCIENCE SYLLABUS FOR 12TH LEVEL (OPTIONAL)
Education of the people globally is expected to help solve societal and environmental problems, improve, and manage way of life. However, solid waste management has become a challenge in many countries not excluding India despite intensive education. Solid waste in India has been considered as low priority and is causing unsustainable environment (pollution of air and water bodies, ill health, flood, economic instability etc.). A well designed education curriculum for the people can help best manage solid waste even though it is unavoidable. This study seek to incorporate the lapses of solid waste management skills: handling, collecting, disposing, storage, transporting, recycling, dumping etc. in the Secondary and senior Secondary education curriculum of India as compulsory and suggest to the stakeholders’ most appropriate solid waste management skills to be provided by the Secondary and senior Secondary curriculum of India. At the Secondary level curriculum, these skills are missing from Social Science syllabus and not well detail in the Environmental Science of the Senior Secondary level curriculum. In all the population selected for the eight towns, Forty (40) interviews will be conducted in each of the towns and eight hundred (800) questionnaires will be issued out using random sampling technique. One hundred (100) questionnaires will be administered to the respondents in each of the towns: Goraya and Philour of Jalandhar District, Khaira and Samrala of Ludhiana District, Phagwara and Sultanpru of Kapurthala, and Shahid Bhagat Singh (S.B.S), all in the Punjab State; students, teachers, workers of waste management organizations, and education experts.
Key words: Solid waste management skills, Secondary and Senior Secondary Education Curriculum, Sustainable environment, and Economic effectiveness.
Background of the study
Much is happening internationally to promote environmental education (Donkor, 1996, p.1). The scares resources, vast increasing population, rapid urbanization, and increasing global industrialization have called for protection of the environment through education (Hazra & Goel, 2008). Environmental education can be defined as “process of providing learning experiences to obtain knowledge, understanding, skills, and awareness with desirable attitudinal changes about man’s relationship with his natural and man-made surroundings” (Lakshmi et.al, 2006, p. 10). Protection of public health and environment from bad condition must be responsibility of everyone because it enhances reduction or elimination of adverse negative impacts on the environment and human health, supports economic development and improved quality of life. In the Asian and African continents, several practices are making the environments out of shape for living even though efforts to manage it has been made by some experts (Zhu et.al 2007). Earlier 1990s, were no laws in the books of many Asian countries about waste generation, disposal, and treatment (Carolina & Dewitt, 2003). Nevertheless, some national governments: India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, etc. Have started regulating management and disposal of solid waste (Ray, 2008).
Solid waste management is a major challenge in every human society because daily activities of human beings bring solid waste and pose risks to the environment and the public health due to the way these wastes are handled, stored, collected, and disposed of (Zurbrugg, 2002). Effective solid waste management is very beneficial to allow healthy living conditions for the entire population. The fact to maintain healthy environmental conditions for the people has been accepted by a lot of governments but many municipalities find it so hard to provide services for healthy living. An India activist, Mahatma Gandhi famously said “Sanitation is more important than independence”. Recently, solid waste has been noted as one of the main challenges causing flood, health problems and draining the economy in India (Ray, 2008). Over 90% of the solid waste produced in India is directly disposed on land in unacceptable mode (Das et al., 1998).
Management of solid waste in India has always been considered as low priority area, (Kansal, 2002). All effort to ensure effective management of solid waste in India is being put in place by experts, Patriotic citizens, international organizations’ particularly the Government of India (GOI) through provisions of grants and loans to state governments under the fourth 5-Year plan of 1969-74 (Talyan, et.al, 2008). Volume of solid waste is moving up “as economic growth drives more and more people from the rural hinterland to the urban areas in India, spawning newer consumption patterns and social linkages. The large metropolises of India now generate more than 6,000 tons of solid waste per day, and Delhi alone generates more than 3,500 tons. By the year 2030, India will probably generate more than 125,000 metric tons of waste every year” (Gupta, 2004 cited by Ray, 2008)
In the research of Marcin, et al (1994), the ideal way to help manage the solid waste is source reduction thus promotion of market mechanisms to effect source reduction through fees and tax Incentives, ensuring of mandatory standards and regulation, and the use education and voluntary compliance with policies by business and consumers.
Considering the education sector to help overcome the challenge is the use of environmental education formal or informal. If the problem of solid waste in India is not falling as a result of increasing number of the people in cities then it gives alarm that current curriculum of environmental education is not being helpful to the management of the menace. A study shows increases of 49% population and 67% for Solid Waste same time in India, (UNEP, 2001). The over 1.21 billion population of India representing 17.5% global population according to Census of India, 2011 is contributing to the high rate of urbanization as well as improper planning and poor financial condition has made solid waste control in Indian cities a difficult task (Kaushal et.al, 2012). The Cities population stated by the Census were: Greater Mumbai (18.4 million), Delhi (16.3 million), Kolkata (14.1 million), Chennai (8.7 million), and Bangalore (8.2 million) (Kaushal et.al, 2012). The assessment of Kumar et.al, (2009), provides the population of Indian cities against waste generation rate (Kg) per capital per day as:
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There are so many factors that lead to the generation of waste. According to Sujauddin et al. (2008) the generation of waste is influenced by family size, education level and the monthly income. Ekere et al., (2009) express gender, peer influence, land size, location of household and membership of environmental organization explain household waste utilization, and separation behavior have influence on waste generation.
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Source: Alonso & Themelis (2011)
Larijani & Yeshodhara (2008), ague that, awareness, skills, Values, Knowledge, and attitudes learnt through education must assist people to lead a desired quality of life. Currently, environmental education in India through the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) provides idea about the environment but not enough as far as solid waste management issues are concern. It is expected to provide solid waste management skills such as handling, collecting, disposing, storage, transporting, recycling, dumping etc.
The above revelations of the improper management of solid waste in India have called for the need to manage the problem by inclusion of solid waste management skills in the Secondary and senior Secondary education curriculum by equipping each subject teacher at the level to impart the skills in his classroom teachings.
20th and early 21st century events indicate that waste in whatever form or classification- solid, liquid or toxic have become a major consequence of modernization and economic development (Tsiboe & Marbell, 2004) According to Pervez & Kafeel (2013) effective solid waste management have to be undertaken to ensure that it does not affect the environment and not cause health hazards to the people living in a community.
It is quite unfortunate that research works on solid waste management have concentrated on public awareness, the use of technologies, types of solid waste, and other possible eliminating factors and not provision of managerial skills through classroom education. Everyone needs managerial skills and interest in waste related occupations to help manage the menace. Kironde (1999) pointed out that, the recent upsurge in waste disposal problems stems from the fact that “attitudes and perceptions towards wastes and the rating of waste disposal issues in people’s minds and in the scheme of official development plans have not been adequately considered”. India’s Secondary and Senior Secondary education curriculum on Environmental Science is really doing its best however, meeting it goal regarding solid waste management is a problem due to:
1. Its omission in the Social Science syllabus at the Secondary education level is provided.
2. Its Optional and unspecific in the Environmental Science at Senior Secondary School level on the matters relating to solid waste managerial skills for effective management of the menace.
3. Its inability to provide solid waste management skills to every classroom teacher, no matter his specialization through a seminar to enable the teacher do impartation during classroom teaching.
Basically, this study seeks the best way to manage solid waste through incorporation of solid waste management skills in the CBSE’s Social Science subject at the Secondary education curriculum and suggesting solid waste management skills in Environmental Science as compulsory subject at the Senior Secondary education curriculum of India for a sustainable environment and economic effectiveness. Here, every teacher regardless of his or her subject area is expected also to go through training to become knowledgeable (skillful) in solid waste management to gradually impart these skills into learners during teaching. This does not mean that solid waste management skills should be a separate subject at the various levels of Secondary and Senior Secondary education. “We cannot always build the future for our youth, but we can build our youth for the future,” former US President, Franklin D. Roosevelt. Sizeable number of the youth are into education and are pillars of this country, and must be prepared from this level for skills and interest in solid waste management to help manage the problem.
According to the former Franklin D. Roosevelt again, ‘a nation’s future depends on its youth since they (youth) will be the future decision makers and stakeholders of the developmental process. One of the daunting tasks is to devise ways to enable our future generations to cope with the perils of environmental catastrophe’. Acquisition of solid waste management skills through Secondary and Senior Secondary education must be right tool for managing the menace of solid waste (Desa, et. al, 2012). The Kothari commission (1964-66) proposed that “basic education had to offer Environmental Education and relate it to the life needs and aspirations of the people and the nation”. The report recommended that " the aims of teaching science in the Secondary schools should be to develop proper understanding of the main facts, concepts, principles and processes in physical and biological environment” Environmental education at the Secondary and Senior Secondary levels according the report was treated in a different way. Environmental education is an essential part of every student’s learning. It helps to encourage awareness of the environment, leading to informed concern for active participation in resolving environmental problems”.
Statement of the Problem
The sight and smell of inadequately managed solid waste in India create a major discomfort to residents and visitors. Pollution of water resources increases the technical difficulty and cost of providing water supplies and the environmental health situation also has serious health impact, with attendant social and economic costs. Flooding with its associated damage to public infrastructure and private property increases with improper solid waste management.
Economic activities, large increase in urbanization and population in India have made the impact of the society’s solid waste very noticeable (Agarwal et.al, 2005). Gupta et.al (1998), View the collection, transportation and disposal of solid waste in India as unscientific and chaotic leading to overflowing landfills, serious environmental implications in terms of ground water pollution, and contribution to global warming. About 80% of the total budget of all municipal corporations is accounted for by the salaries of sanitation workers engaged in road sweeping and related activities in India (Gupta et.al 1998),
In view of this, the statement of the problem of this study: incorporation or integration of solid waste management skills in the Secondary and Senior Secondary education curriculum of India has led to less management of solid waste in India and could effectively be resolved with instilled solid waste management skills in the Indian youth. The uncared environment according to Hazra & Goel (2008), is posing the problem of parasites, cholera, diarrhea and malaria’s prevalence of parts of India have been as a result of unsanitary conditions in and around us. “Common infectious diseases like malaria, intestinal worms, and upper respiratory infections are among the most common health problems reported at the out-patient facilities in most states in India, and majority of these cases are residents in and around the slums”.
Purpose of the study
The study purposely assesses current solid waste management challenges on the environment of India, evaluates efforts being made by Secondary and Senior Secondary education curriculum in the area of solid waste management skills, provides incorporation of solid waste management skills in Secondary and Senior Secondary curriculum on the environment for sustainable environment and economic effectiveness of India, and techniques for incorporating the skills of solid waste management in Secondary and Senior Secondary curriculum, and finally gives suggestions and recommendations on waste management on the environment.
- Quote paper
- M.Tech.Ed (Construction Technology) Philip Mensah (Author), 2018, Incorporation of Solid Waste Management Skills in the Education Curriculum of India for a sustainable Environment and Economic Effectiveness, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/440897