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2. Defining the Southern Gothic Literature
3. Historical Backgrounds
a. Political situation in the 19th century
b. Southern nobility
c. Poverty in the South
4. Literature in the Southern States
a. Civil War and Reconstruction
b. Queering in the South
c. Motives and narrative techniques
5. Southern Gothic in chosen novels
a. A Streetcar Named Desire
ii. Typical characteristics referring to Southern Gothic
b. The Sound and the Fury
ii. Typical characteristics referring to Southern Gothic
c. Light in August
ii. Typical characteristics referring to Southern Gothic
d. Bastard out of Carolina
ii. Typical characteristics referring to Southern Gothic
6. Why Southern Gothic is no longer existing in the Southern Literature
a. What do the books’ titles mean?
i. A Streetcar Named Desire
ii. The Sound and the Fury
iii. Light in August
b. Mother issues and desire of the Compson boys
c. Vacation in the Southern States
i. Myrtle Beach, South Carolina
ii. Big Walker Mountain, Wytheville, Viginia
About two years ago, I was looking in a bookstore for new books to read. In the foreign language category, there were books from the past centuries, such as Jane Eyre, Wuthering Heights, The Phantom of the Opera or Northanger Abbey. I had never been interested in books from the past centuries, but since I had a long row of modern day books, I decided to buy some of them and give it a try. I noticed that reading those books was not quite so difficult, though it was hard at first to get into the stories.
One of the books that I bought along with the others was To Kill a Mockingbird  by Harper Lee. Its genre, I concluded, was a bit different from Gothic, the genre that the other books I had bought were written in, though it did contain a lot of gothic elements in it, like Boo Radley, who is said to be a phantom, the Ewell family, people in Maycomb with a strange behavior, or the burning house of Miss Maudie. I was happy about discussing To Kill a Mockingbird in eleventh grade and became even more engrossed with its story. When doing some research on the story’s background, I found the term Southern Gothic and finally understood, why To Kill a Mockingbird was on the gothic shelf among the other books.
In this essay, I will discuss the Southern Gothic Literature, the genre which To Kill a Mockingbird was written in, its historical background and respectively the political and social circumstances that have influenced it. I have bought four books from the Southern Gothic Literature to present in this essay. I chose these books because each two of them represent two important subjects in the literature of the Southern States: A Streetcar named Desire  by Tennessee Williams and The Sound and the Fury  by William Faulkner express the downfall of Southern nobility and the exclusion of their characters from society, Light in August , also by William Faulkner, expresses intimacy and homosexuality in the Southern States and Bastard out of Carolina  from Dorothy Allison is at the same time a coming-of-age novel dealing with a childhood subjected to poverty, violence and sexual abuse. In the attachment, I will explain the backgrounds for the titles of the books.
The Southern Gothic Literature is a subgenre of Gothic fiction in American Literature taking place in the Southern States of the USA, lasting from the time of the American Civil War (1861-1865) until today. The Southern States in the USA are those which used to belong to the Confederacy (I will clarify this later). Typical for Southern Gothic are depressing, disturbing and deranged characters and symbols. Compared to Gothic itself, Southern Gothic focuses on social and cultural issues, such as racial suppression and violence, paying less attention to creating suspense in the stories. It especially centers on the history of slavery and the plantation of the South after the Civil War and deals with the post-war situation in society. Referring to novels written in the era, they often include villains who disguise themselves as being innocent or victims and engage with the decline of the Southern aristocracy. The stories often contain dark humor as well as elements such as dialects and incongruous habits of their characters. Authors of the Southern Gothic literature examine the harm people can do to each other through their characters, which are typically broken in life and are struggling to find a place in the world. Protagonists and heroes of Southern Gothic novels are found to be outsiders; in fact, people who are ‘different’ in some way, whether physically or mentally, very often because of their race, their common language or class. The reason Southern Gothic authors preferably chose outsiders as the heroes of their novels is because they reflect the identity of the South, which back then was an errant society.
Before the beginning of this chapter, the differences between the Northern (the Union) and the Southern States (the Confederacy) must be observed first. The North was industrialized, whereas the South remained agricultural. Northerners were proud of working in economically developed states. Mostly, their workplace was in offices and factories. The Southerners, in contrast, were proud of their hard work on the plantations and loved nature. Further, their way of living depended on certain values, such as family reputation or remaining chaste (as it was for the women) and slavery in the South was legal. Both, Northerners and Southerners, regarded themselves stronger than the other one. The South might not be as economically developed as the North, but Southerners thought that they were the ones who were down to earth, whereas Northerners were more arrogant in their eyes.
In the 1830s, self-esteem of white people in the South progressed in contrast to the slavery of the black people. Events such as Nat Turner’s execution or the Nullification Crisis in 1832 drove public racial anxiety forward.
In the 1850s, the population in the Southern States voted for a withdrawal from the Union, because of the Northern States’ insulting criticism of slavery in the South. When Abraham Lincoln was elected the 16th president of the United States, most of the Southern States left the Union, because Lincoln supported the ban on slavery throughout the United States which they saw as a violation of their constitutional rights. In February 1861, seven slave states in the South announced their secession and formed the Confederate States with Jefferson Davis as their president in opposition to Lincoln. From 1861 to 1865, the Union, fought against the Confederacy consisting of slave states from the South. This war is known as the American Civil War. As Northern soldiers made their way to the South, having Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation in mind, slaves took their chances of freedom. Most of the freed slaves stayed in the South, while others went up to the North. By the spring of 1865 the armies of the Confederacy capitulated. When Jefferson Davis fled on the 10th of May 1865 and was captured by the soldiers of the Union, the Confederacy gave up. Eventually, the Union won the war at great loss of life. About eight month after the end of the Civil War, the United States passed the 13th Amendment which abolished slavery.
In every battle of the Civil War, the South lost soldiers who could not be replaced whereas the North took any man from their cities to replace fallen comrades. Compared to the North the South lacked of military resources for fighting in the war. It was the South who suffered the greatest loss in the War. The abolition of slavery was a success for the black people. Racial segregation, however, remained in the Southerners’ mind and discrimination against black people did not end. People in the Confederate States could not accept slavery as being the reason for the war. They believed that the war was caused by the North’s inability to accept a different culture in the South.
Not only did slavery divide the Union and the Confederacy, but the South’s aristocracy as well. Southern culture was focusing on an old-fashioned ideology of the European 18th and 19th century. Maintaining family honor towards society was the most important philosophy of noble families in the South. Southern wealth increased when cotton plantations became popular in the first half of the 19th century. Money that was earned by these plantations made the families rich, so that many of their heads became plantation owners. The eventual defeat in the Civil War caused the South’s aristocracy to collapse and many large estates vanished. As slavery was abolished, Southern nobilities lost their slaves, hence the key to their success disappeared. Many plantations were either sold or simply given up.
Even before the Great Depression, poverty in the South was a widespread problem. The Great Migration shortly after the Civil War for instance, was one important cause. The high percentage of people living beneath the poverty line was a central theme in the Southern States of the US. Apart from the long history of slavery and racial segregation, 89% of the black population in the U.S.A lived in the South in the beginning of 1910. Segregation became more radical during the Great Depression, since the welfare of the white people decreased. Sarah Robertson states, that the blacks had difficulties in bringing “[…] an end to the region’s racial segregation laws [...]” (Robertson 2003, 104). Even poor white people were labeled as white trash, redneck and dirt-eater. Authors used such terms in their novels to describe “[…] laziness, drunkness, and violence […]” (Robertson 2003, 106) of Southerners. The Great Depression affected Southerners the most: In the Northern States, the income decreased to one-third, whereas in the South the income decreased to two-third. The economical progress in the Southern States is still disabled by racism and poverty. According to the 2010 US census, the South had the highest poverty rate. The term white trash is still a permitted term in the US.
The literature in the Southern States, as mentioned before, consists of many features that often appear in Southern Gothic novels, but political and social circumstances have an influence on the writings as well.
The literature in the Southern States, during and after the Civil War, consists of American schism and defeat. While the Civil War took place, many works about Lincoln’s view on civil liberties were produced, whereas many people in the Confederate States did not write such essays. A newspaper editor from Richmond, Virginia, once claimed that he and his colleagues were afraid of their offices being closed down “[…] if they dare[d] to speak the sentiments struggling for utterance […]” (Unidentified Richmond editor, unknown year, 434). Literature written in the Confederacy during the Civil War, kept in diaries or letters, remained unknown for decades. Further more, slave narrative was developing in the earlier War years, appealing to the struggle for a political union between the Union and the Confederacy and for human rights. Referring to the postbellum writing, Nina Silber formed the term romance of reunion, which described the secession as a Lost Cause , and gave the white people “[…] an emotional vehicle that had profound religious, psychological, and social functions – functions that were especially suited for a society that suffered from defeat, humiliation, and internal dissension […]” (Silber 1993, 5).
As Reconstruction advanced as a literal subject, Southerners often claimed that the North may have won the war, but the South won peace, although they neglect the fact, that the North kept their economical power throughout the 19th century. Albion Tourgée stated that “[…] [the] literature has not only become Southern in type, but distinctly Confederate in sympathy […]” (Tourgée 1888, 405). This was insofar agreeable, that newspapers were dominated by Southern stories.
Margaret Mitchell’s novel Gone with the Wind, published 1936, focuses on both the American Civil War, within the downfall of the plantations and slavery, and the chaos of Reconstruction.
To queer is to differ from the norms of society. In contemporary usage queer means being attracted to a member of the same sex. This is insofar a deviation from usual conventions that these sexual relationships differ from the common heterosexual relationship. Queering became a politically defiant term in the 1990s for the expression of sex and gender, including bisexuality, transsexualism and sadomasochism. According to Michael P. Bibler, the “[…] queer theory […] [explores] the uncanny and grotesque dimensions of what is familiarly called “Southern gothic, [sic!]” […]” (Bibler 2013, 188-189). For writers, queerness was the criticism of the South’s racial and sexual conservatism. Queering in literature was to bring out alternative sexualities in opposite to the nation that was anxious about sexual and gender difference, especially homosexuality. Truman Capote’s novel Other Voices, Other Rooms, published 1948, was noted for its gothic portrayals of homosexuality. Capote had distinct views on equality of all kinds of people. Dill Harris, a character in To Kill a Mockingbird is based on Capote’s views.  Some of Tennessee Williams’ plays demand sympathy and understanding for homosexuals during the Cold War. His plays “[…] use mythical and psychological symbols and cross-gender identifications […]” (Bibler 2013, 197) to explore the connections between desire, otherness, tenderness, violence and queerness in society. More than any other writer of his time, Williams brought discussions about homosexuality into public. In his works, William Faulkner made examples of homoeroticism. He linked politics in his novels to “liberal ideas about sexual and racial politics […] [and to] wider use of perversation [sic!], violence and degeneracy” (Bibler 2013, 195) to demonstrate the grotesque sides of the people. Many works from Williams and Faulkner (as I will describe later in Light in August) show that queerness will always be a part of the Southern culture. Southern writers, even today, will always include queer elements, as long as homophobia and violence maintain problems in the South.
The tradition of the literature in the Southern States was story-telling. Authors like Dorothy Allison use counter-narratives to enable poor characters to have a voice, describing the poor white stereotypes in the Southern States. Referring to Bastard out of Carolina, her male characters are violent and abusive drinkers, whereas her female characters are broken. The protagonist, Ruth Anne “Bone” Boatwright, grows up in an atmosphere of poverty and sexual abuse from her stepfather.
Authors like Ralph Emerson and Henry Thoreau represented the Civil Disobedience in various essays. Civil Disobedience is a movement which refused to observe laws of the government. Besides queering, it was also a criticism against the conservative South.
William Faulkner is declared one of the most important writers of American modernism. He is the most influencing writer of the American literature in the 20th century, irrespectively of North and South. His narrative techniques, such as the stream of consciousness, were a new experience to readers in the US. Most of Faulkner’s characters lead complicated love lives. Their problem is, that they materialize love, which “[…] becomes a matter of instrumentalization […]” (Matthews 2013, 126). Thus, his representation of community is seen in the relationships between his characters and society. It reflects his role in society either as an outsider or someone who conforms to the norms. The Sound and the Fury expresses the struggle Faulkner had with his past (as I will clarify later in a short essay in the attachment). The first section of the novel is told by a mentally retarded 33-year old man whose thoughts are disjointed. There is no structure in the first section and the action of the story moves erratically between the past and the present which makes it hard for the reader to follow the storyline. Carolyn Porter states that suspense is created in this part of the novel “[…] by the reader’s ability to see the gaps and fill them in when it becomes possible […]” (Porter 2007, 45), meaning that Faulkner succeeds in urging the reader to read on until these gaps are filled. The plot in the second chapter of the novel, told by a depressed young student at Harvard, is interrupted by the stream of consciousness, a method to depict the flow of thought exactly, where Faulkner writes grammatically incorrectly, illustrating the storyteller’s psyche. In his writings, sexuality becomes an important subject which makes Faulkner significant as being an author who presents queer studies. His novels show examples of homoeroticism and preposterous desires of his characters, for instance, the way Quentin Compson, a character in The Sound and the Fury, loves his sister, or the seduction of Joe Christmas, the protagonist in Light in August, by an older woman. There is a hint of homoerotic desire as well in the mentioned characters: Quentin to his roommate Shreve, Joe Christmas to Joe Brown and Reverend Gail Hightower, since their relationships with women always fail. Michael P. Bibler commented on criticism that mistook Faulkner’s depiction of homosexuality:
Instead of mislabeling Faulkner as a “gay” writer […], we should recognize how [he and other writers] offer unique possibilities for expanding queer studies precisely because their works resist common expectations about (homo)sexual identities and sexual politics. (Bibler 2013, 195)
Light in August is Faulkner’s most recognized novel of race, which describes racial violence in the South during the 1920s. Many characters, like Joe Christmas, Lena Grove, Gail Hightower, Byron Bunch and Joanna Burden, are of great importance. While multiple plots for all the different characters get mixed up, another narrative strategy is used that not only moves away from the formal terms, but also the dramatic. Faulkner creates tension at the end of a character’s story and interrupts this by beginning a new chapter of another character, while it is not clear at first that each story actually necessitates another.
Both presented novels, as many other stories of Faulkner, have their settings in the fictional Yoknapatawpha County, a place with its own geography, history and interrelated narratives, as Quentin Compson also appears in Absalom, Absalom!, published 1936, created from his own imagination.
A Streetcar named Desire, a drama written by Tennessee Williams, one of the most important playwrights in the 20th century, was published in 1947. The first play opened on December 3rd in 1947 on the Broadway theatre.
The play centers in New Orleans in the 1940s in the flat of a young couple, Stella and Stanley Kowalski, who have a complicated marriage, where Stella is inferior and sexually submissive towards the wild and rough Stanley. As soon as Stella’s older, kittenish and moony sister, Blanche DuBois, from Laurel, Mississippi, who teaches English at a high school, comes to stay, their relationship is turned upside down. During the play, it is revealed that Stella and Blanche are the last members of an aristocratic family, who has recently lost its large plantation and family home called Belle Rêve (correctly: beau rêve) which led the family to bankruptcy. Blanche claims that after the death of all the family members, she has had a breakdown and is now taking time off her teaching in school. Getting to know the neighborhood, Blanche soon gets very shocked about Stella’s ordinary way of life and tries to remind her sister of their heritage and complains about the poorness of the flat she is living in. On the first evening of Blanche’s stay, Stanley invites his rowdy friends for a poker game at the house. Among them is Mitch, who is more sensitive than the others and in whom Blanche takes a great interest which he returns. Later on, Stanley, who in a drunken rage, gets angry at the women for chattering and interrupting the poker night and beats Stella, who afterwards escapes to her neighbor’s flat upstairs, but returns to Stanley after just a short time. Tension arises between Blanche and Stanley. Blanche who is shocked at Stella for returning to him tries to make her sister see that she married an animal and calls Stanley a “Pollack”. Stanley, who has overheard the conversation the whole time, interrupted them by coming in, not mentioning a thing. Blanche and Mitch start dating. Due to her age, she is afraid to show her wrinkles and they only see each other in the night when it is dark. She reveals a story to Mitch from her past, when her first husband, who turned out to be gay, committed suicide after she assaulted him when she saw him with another man. Having a mother suffering from cancer, Mitch tells her that they need each other. Meanwhile, Stanley has set out rumors about Blanche, that she was misbehaving in Laurel so that she had to leave the town, that she was a prostitute and seduced a male student of hers. Stanley just wants to make her life worse and get rid of her. As Mitch is informed about the false stories, he confronts Blanche who is drunken at the moment. Blanche denies the stories but now has to confess that since her first husband died, she was struggling by having affairs with different men. Eventually, Blanche and Mitch split up. That night, Stanley returns from the hospital where the pregnant Stella stays. Blanche, who is afraid to be alone with him, thinks she should not spend the night in an apartment with a man like Stanley. Being amused by Blanche’s fear, Stanley rapes her. Three weeks later, Stella is packing Blanche’s things for the doctor to pick her up. Blanche is unaware of that she is about to be taken to a psychiatric clinic. Instead, she thinks that an old college friend is picking her up to go on vacation (Stanley faked a letter to this effect). Nobody believed her story about Stanley and she is found to be mentally ill. When the doctor and his assistants arrive, she does not recognize her friend in him and tries to run away but gets trapped by Stanley and an assistant. Now, she finds herself willing to go with the doctor, having always been dependent on the kindness of other people.,,
 Lee, Harper (1960). To Kill a Mockingbird. New York, USA: Grand Central Publishing.
 Williams, Tennessee (1947). A Streetcar Named Desire. New York, USA: New Directions.
 Faulkner, William (1929). The Sound and the Fury. London Borough of Croydon, London, Great Britain: Vintage Classics.
 Faulkner, William (1932). Light in August. Great Britain: Vintage Classics.
 Allison, Dorothy (1992). Bastard out of Carolina. London, England, Great Britain: Penguin Modern Classics.
 Surber, Katie (n.d.). “Southern Gothic Literature: Definition, Characteristics & Authors”.
 Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (n.d.). “Southern Gothic”. <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Southern_Gothic> (20.03.2017).
 Shmoop Editorial Team (n.d.). “Outsiders”.
 McKee, Kathryn B. (2011). “Region, Genre and the Nineteenth-Century South”. In: Monteith, Sharon (ed.) (2013). The Cambridge Companion to The Literature of the American South. New York, USA: Cambridge University Press. 13.
 Nathaniel “Nat” Turner was a black slave who led a slave rebellion in 1831.: Egerton, Douglas R. (2008). “Turner, Nat”. <http://www.encyclopedia.com/people/social-sciences-and-law/social-reformers/nat-turner> (21.03.2017).
 Conflict that centered the question of removing the Act of Congress: Jones, Steven R.(2003). “Nullification Crisis”. <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nullification_Crisis> (21.03.2017).
 Emancipation Proclamation : On the 1st of January 1863, Lincoln declared that all slave states “[sic!] shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free.” (Lincoln, 1863). His proclamation did not free any slaves though, but became an important turning point for fighting for of human freedom. History.com (2009). “Emancipation Proclamation”. <http://www.history.com/topics/american-civil-war/emancipation-proclamation> (23.04.2017).
 Guelzo, Allen C. (2000). “Civil War (1861-65)”. <http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/united-states-and-canada/us-history/american-civil-war > (04.04.2017).
 McPherson, James (n.d.). “A Brief Overview of the American Civil War”. <http://www.civilwar.org/education/history/civil-war-overview/overview.html> (03.04.2017).
 McMahon, Michelle (n.d.). “Slavery in the United States”. <http://www.civilwar.org/education/history/civil-war-overview/slavery.html> (04.04.2017).
 Christensen, Troy (2012). “The War on Southern Nobility”. <https://teaspoonofhistory.wordpress.com/2012/06/26/the-war-on-southern-nobility/ > (07.04.2017).
 A Classification of American Wealth (n.d.). “Virginia plantation owners and aristocrats”.
 Great Depression (1929-1932): After the Wall Street Crash in New York, many businesses went bankrupt. As a result, employers were unable to pay their employees and they lost their jobs. Since New York was one of the most important economical centers, the Crash affected the whole world.
 Great Migration (1916-1970): Many black people of the South went up to the North (one important destination was Harlem, New York). Further, black people from Texas went to the Western States of the US. History.com (2010). “Great Migration”. <http://www.history.com/topics/black-history/great-migration> (01.05.2017).
 Robertson, Sarah (2013). “Poverty and Progress”. In: Monteith, Sharon (ed.) (2013). The Cambridge Companion to The Literature of the American South. New York, USA: Cambridge University Press. 104.
 ibid. 107.
 ibid. 106.
 ibid. 113.
 Kaufman, Will (2013). “Literature and the Civil War”. In: Monteith, Sharon (ed.) (2013). The Cambridge Companion to The Literature of the American South. New York, USA: Cambridge University Press. 39.
 McPherson, James M. (1988). Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era. Oxford, New York, USA: Oxford University Press. 434. In: ibid. 41.
 Simpson, Lewis P. (n.d.). “Civil War in Literature”. <http://docsouth.unc.edu/southlit/civilwar.html> (06.04.2017).
 Kaufman, Will (2013). “Literature and the Civil War”. In: Monteith, Sharon (ed.) (2013) The Cambridge Companion to The Literature of the American South. New York, USA: Cambridge University Press. 41-42.
 A lost cause: A memorization of the South’s defeat in the Civil War: Poe, Cynthia R. (2003). “Lost Cause”. <http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/lost-cause> (08.04.2017).
 Silber, Nina (1993). The Romance of Reunion: Northerners and the South. Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA: University of North Carolina Press. 5. In: Kaufman, Will (2013). “Literature and the Civil War”. In: Monteith, Sharon (ed.) (2013). The Cambridge Companion to The Literature of the American South. New York, USA: Cambridge University Press. 42.
 Reconstruction: The era after the American Civil War where the seceded states (the Confederates) were restored and freedmen integrated into the society of the US: Trefousse, Hans L. “Reconstruction”. <http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/united-states-and-canada/us-history/reconstruction> (30.04.2017).
 Romine, Scott (2013). “Literature and Reconstruction”. In: Monteith, Sharon (ed.) (2013). The Cambridge Companion to The Literature of the American South. New York, USA: Cambridge University Press. 57.
 Tourgée, Albion W. (1888). The South as a Field for Fiction. The Forum 6. 405. In: ibid.
 Taylor, Helen (2002). “The South and the Britain”. In: Jones, Suzanne W./Monteith, Sharon (eds.) (2002). South to a New Place. Region, Literature, Culture. USA: Louisiana State University Press. 348.
 Merriam Webster (n.d.). “Definition of Queer by Merriam-Webster”. <https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/queer> (10.04.2017).
 Bibler, Michael P. (2013). “Queering the Region”. In: Monteith, Sharon (ed.) (2013). The Cambridge Companion to The Literature of the American South. New York, USA: Cambridge University Press. 188.
 ibid. 188-189.
 ibid. 195.
 ibid. 196.
 Dill is a little boy who is down to earth and cares about everyone. He is sympathetic towards Tom Robinson at his trial, for instance. What Bibler means with putting the character of Dill as an example in his essay is that Dill would feel sympathy towards homosexual people as well.
 A war that followed shortly after World War II with tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union.
 Bibler, Michael P. (2013). “Queering the Region”. In: Monteith, Sharon (ed.) (2013). The Cambridge Companion to The Literature of the American South. New York, USA: Cambridge University Press. 197.
 ibid. 195.
 ibid. 202.
 Counter-narrative: a method of writing from one person’s point of view, which is often not told: Negron, Wilneida (2013). “Storytelling”. <https://justpublics365.commons.gc.cuny.edu/06/2013/5-steps-counter-storytelling-storify/> (09.04.2017).
 Robertson, Sarah (2013). “Poverty and Progress”. In: Monteith, Sharon (ed.) (2013). The Cambridge Companion to The Literature of the American South. New York, USA: Cambridge University Press. 111.
 Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (n.d.). “Civil disobedience”. <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Civil_disobedience> (01.05.2017).
 Matthews, John T. (2013). “The Southern Renaissance and the Faulknerian South”. In: Monteith, Sharon (ed.) (2013). The Cambridge Companion to The Literature of the American South. New York, USA: Cambridge University Press. 126.
 Cohn, Deborah (2002). “Of the Same Blood as this America and its History: William Faulkner and Spanish American Literature”. In: Jones, Suzanne W./Monteith, Sharon (eds.) (2002). South to a New Place. Region, Literature, Culture. USA: Louisiana State University Press. 326
 Porter, Carolyn (2007). William Faulkner. Oxford, New York, USA: Oxford University Press. 42.
 ibid. 45.
 Matthews, John T. (2013). “The Southern Renaissance and the Faulknerian South” In: Monteith, Sharon (ed.) (2013). The Cambridge Companion to The Literature of the American South. New York, USA: Cambridge University Press. 124.
 ibid. 127.
 Bibler, Michael P. (2013). “Queering the Region”. In: Monteith, Sharon (ed.) (2013) The Cambridge Companion to The Literature of the American South. New York, USA: Cambridge University Press. 195.
 Matthews, John T. (2013). “The Southern Renaissance and the Faulknerian South” In: Monteith, Sharon (ed.) (2013). The Cambridge Companion to The Literature of the American South. New York, USA: Cambridge University Press. 123.
 Porter, Carolyn (2007). William Faulkner. Oxford, New York, USA: Oxford University Press. 93.
 ibid. 87.
 Shmoop Editorial Team (n.d.). “William Faulkner: Yoknapatawpha County”. <http://www.shmoop.com/william-faulkner/yoknapatawpha-county.html> (12.04.2017).
 Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (n.d.). “A Streetcar Named Desire”. <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_Streetcar_Named_Desire> (21.03.2017).
 Shmoop Editorial Team (n.d.). “A Streetcar Named Desire Summary”. <http://www.shmoop.com/streetcar-named-desire/summary.html> (22.03.2017).
 CliffNotes (n.d.). “Play Summary”. <https://www.cliffsnotes.com/literature/s/a-streetcar-named-desire/play-summary> (24.03.2017).
 Williams named the character of Blanche after his friend Blanche Marvin. “I’ve always been depended on kindness.” is one of the most important lines in the play and is a phrase that she once said to him. Clark, Nick (2014). “Critic claims ‘I was the inspiration for Blanche DuBois’”. <http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/theatre-dance/news/critic-claims-i-was-the-inspiration-for-blanche-dubois-9630885.html> (11.04.2017).
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