Linguistic Communication Challenges Encountered by Tourists Visiting Musanze District

Research Paper (undergraduate), 2014

86 Pages, Grade: 16











1.0 Introduction
1.1 Background to the study
1.2 Motivation
1.3 Statement of the problem
1.4 Significance of the study
1.5 Objective of the study
1.6 Research questions
1.7 Hypotheses
1.8 Scope of the study
1.9 Methodology
1.10 Organization of the study

2.0 Introduction
2.1 Definitions of key concepts
2.1.1 Language
2.1.2 Dialect
2.1.3 National language
2.1.4 International Language
2.1.5 Communication Oral communication Nonverbal communication
2.1.5 .3 Process of communication
2.1.5 .4 Interpersonal communication Intrapersonal communication
2.1.6 Tourism and tourists
2.1.7 Cultural tourism
2.1.8 Hospitality
2.1.9 Challenges
2.2 Aspects of a language in use
2.2.1 Micro linguistics
2.2.2 Macro linguistics and/or Applied Linguistics
2.3 Barriers to effective communication in business
2.4 Bilingualism and multilingualism
2.5 Bilingual Lexicon
2.6 English Language
2.6.1 Principal varieties of English usage
2.6.2 Good English
2.7 The importance of Language
2.8 Philosophy of Language
2.9 The uses and functions of Language
2.10 The Language of hospitality and tourism
2.10.1 English for hotel management
2.10.2 Moment of truth
2.11 Language communication challenges
2.11.1 Borrowings and loanwords
2.11.2 Linguistic Interference
2.11.3 Causes of interference Lexico-morphology dissimilarity A system of grammatical genders A list of common hypothetical roots Invariable roots of the type -CV- A well-balanced vowel system
2.11.4 Consequences of negative transfer “Kinyafranglais” Listening problems Speaking problems Epenthesis
2.11.5 Cross-socio-cultural communication problems Industrial revolution and neologism irregularity Cultural differences in nonverbal communication Gestures Touch Eye contact/gaze

3.0 Introduction
3.1 Area of the study
3.2 Population of the study
3.3 Sample size and sampling techniques
3.3.1 Sampling techniques Quota and stratified sampling Purposive sampling
3.4 Data collection techniques
3.4.1 Documentation
3.4.2 Observation and field visits
3.4.3 Interview
3.4.4 Recording technique
3.5 Methods of data analysis
3.5.1 Analytical Method
3.5.2 Qualitative method
3.5.3 Statistical method
3.5.4 Descriptive method
3.5.5 Historical method

4.0 Introduction
4.1 Identification of informants
4.1.1 Identification of service providers Service providers’ level of education Tourism service providers professional experience
4.1.2 Identification of tourists
4.1.3 Languages spoken by tourists
4.2 Language use in tourism and hospitality
4.2.1 Tourists service language satisfaction
4.2.2 Challenges related to the Rwandan accent
4.2.3 Challenges related to Culture and wildlife
4.2.4 Impact of linguistic communication challenges Tourists Service providers
4.3 Individual effort for the improvement of communication skills by service providers
4.4 Advice from tourists on language use
4.5 Partial conclusion

5.0 Introduction
5.1 Discussion of the findings
5.2 Summary of the findings
5.3 Recommendations




Figure 1: Map of Volcanoes National Park

Figures 2: Visits to the field

Figure 3: Photograph of three Volcanoes from VNP e


Table 1: Service providers

Table 2: Level of education of service providers

Table 3: Professional experience of tourism service providers

Table 4: Tourists purposes of the visit

Table 5: Tourists’ gender and nationality

Table 6: Multilingualism in Tourism and hospitality

Table 7: Linguistic problems in service at different stages of tourism

Table 8: Tourism services and their level of lack of service language Knowledge

Table 9 : Language related types of challenges encountered by tourists

Table 10: The level of tourists’ satisfaction

Table 11: Service providers’ level of communication skills as rated by tourists

Table 12: Limitations in understanding Rwandan accent

Table 13: Service providers’ challenges in understanding foreign languages accent

Table 14: The information that need to be more available

Table 15: Examples of Kinyarwanda wildlife equivalences in international languages

Table 16 : The number of tourists who are not satisfied by language use

Table 17: Negative impact of language substandard on tourists

Table 18: Impact of language communication challenges on service providers

Table 19: Service providers’ individual efforts

Table 20: Linguistic communication ways of improvement as suggested by tourists


Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten


My wholehearted appreciations go to all the people who profoundly contributed to the successful completion of this work.

First and foremost, my deep gratitude goes to Mrs. MUKAMUSONERA Consolée, Soeur Maria Goretti MUKAMARARA, Mss. Deborah A. Bonner and to the family of Mrs. Kirstin and Mr. Kevin Hungate for their impressive moral and material support during my studies ; I owe many thanks the staff and Lecturers of INES RUHENGERI and above all to Mr. Laurent NIZEYIMANA the supervisor of this work ,I highly appreciate his motivation and devotion ,his advice and commitment of supreme importance to this work.

As always, I am greatly indebted to the staff of VNP, especially ,the park chief warden Mr. Prosper UWINGELI who didn't mind inconveniences that my quest might have caused to his off days, Mr. Anaclet BUDAHERA ,the tourism warden, who assisted me since setting VNP Area as my case study, Mr. J. David SIBOMANA ,the maintenance officer, for his motivation and transportation assistance, many thanks to the entire Team of VNP Tourists Guides and information center officers for unforgettable time we spent together.

Last but not least, many thanks to my respondents/ interviewees among others Mr. Arthur BAHIZI, Mr. Robert TWIBAZE, Mrs Valerie AKUREDUSENGE, Mss. Perouth BUZE, Mss. UMUKUNDWA Jessica, Mr. Jeffrey D. Holdeman and the Team from Indiana University, Mss. Monique Gilbertz, Mr. Raoul Rutten and Mr. Jason Mathieu.

This work was only possible thanks to the contribution of all the above people and non-mentioned many more individuals.

May the Heavenly Father bless you All!

Jean Claude MUSONI


At the end of his languages and applied linguistics studies, the researcher decides to carry out the research about Linguistic communication challenges encountered by tourist visiting Musanze District under the case study of VNP Area, with the aim of making an assessment of linguistic skills and the level of customers’ satisfaction in Tourism and hospitality industry.

This goal was achieved under the following objectives:

To identify linguistic communication challenges encountered by tourists when they are being offered Tourism and hospitality services, To identify the effects of linguistic communication challenges on Tourism and hospitality, To suggest promising solutions to address linguistic communication challenges identified in Tourism and hospitality.

As far as hypotheses are concerned the researcher assumed firstly that since Rwanda, a multili- ngual country with a single and common mother tongue, Tourists are likely to encounter linguistic communication challenges. Secondly, unsatisfied tourists classify Rwanda as a tourists’ nonattractive area and thirdly, training by competent language professionals is one of the strategies to address language problem.

The population of this research is a set of 165 Tourists who were purposively selected from the area of the study and 58 service providers who by quota sampling were segmented into 28VNP tourists guides,15 tours guides/drivers,5 community guides, and 10 hotel ,bar restaurant as staff who necessarily interact with tourists.

According to the findings, 86 tourists (52%) tourists experienced language challenges related to: the lack of knowledge of international languages, cultural identification by 99 tourists or 60% while nature interpretations related problems were questioned by 66 tourists or 40%.

This has negative impact on 91 tourists or 55% to pay unjustified bills, 41 or 25% who lose properties and 33 tourists or 20% experience financial loss; it also inconvenience staff through losing job as said by 20 service providers or (50%), the lack of promotion as said by 15 (30%) and the lack of motivation as it was said by 10 or (20%).

Finally, 111 tourists (67%) suggest training by language specialists while 54 tourists (33%) suggest intensive interaction with native speakers to address language related problem.

Briefly, this research brought victims of language communication challenges altogether on a round table so as to promote language communication improvement for customers satisfaction.


Au terme de ses études en Langues et Linguistique appliquée, L’Etudiant décide de mener une recherche sur les défis liés à la langue de communication rencontrés par les touristes qui visitent le District de Musanze, le cas du Parc National des Volcans et ses environs.

Dans le but de faire une évaluation sur les compétences linguistiques et le niveau de la satisfaction des clients des services du tourisme et accueil, trois objectifs ont été formulés: Identifier les problèmes liés à la langue de communication rencontrés par les touristes en poursuite des services de tourisme et d'accueil, Identifier les effets de difficultés liées à la langue de communication rencontrés par les touristes, sur le secteur du tourisme et accueil, Suggérer des solutions fiables pour relever les défis de la communication linguistique identifiés dans le tourisme et l'accueil.

En ce qui concerne les hypothèses ,on a présupposé que, comme le Rwanda, un pays multilingue avec une seule et unique langue maternelle, les touristes sont susceptibles de rencontrer des problèmes liés à la langue de communication, ensuite les touristes insatisfaits classifient le Rwanda comme zone non-attractive au touristes et enfin que la formation par les professionnels en compétences linguistiques est l'une des stratégies pour régler les problèmes liés à la langue de communication rencontrés par les touristes.

La population de cette recherche est un ensemble de 165 touristes qui ont été choisis à dessein de la zone des prestataires d'études et de 58 employées qui, par la méthode des quotas ont été segmenté en 28 VNP guides,15 chauffeurs, 5 guides en tourisme communautaire, et 10 employés dans les hôtels, bar-restaurants, le personnel qui nécessairement servent les touristes.

Selon les résultats, 86 touristes (52%) sont victimes des problèmes liés au : manque de pré requis des langues internationales, l’usage de langue dans la diversité des cultures par 99 touristes 60% et les défis liés à l’interprétation de la nature par 66 touristes càd 40%.

Cela a un impact négatif sur les 91 touristes càd (55%) qui risquent de payer les factures injustifiées, 41 càd 25% qui perdent leur propriétés ainsi que 33 touristes, soient 20% de perte financière ; le personnel du secteur risquent également à perdre son emploi comme l'a dit 20 employés ou (50%), le manque de promotion aux 15 (30%) et le manque de motivation comme il a été dit par 10 ou (20%).

Enfin, 111 touristes (67%) suggèrent la formation par les spécialistes de la langue alors que 54 touristes (33%) suggèrent un entretien actif avec des locuteurs internationaux en vue de régler le problème liés à la langue de communication rencontrés par les touristes.

En bref, cet étude amènent les victimes de problèmes de langue de communication linguistique tout autour d’une même table ronde afin de promouvoir l'amélioration de la langue de communication pour la satisfaction des clients.


Mu gusoza amasomo ye mu bumenyi bw'indimi, umunyeshuri yahisemo gukora inyigo ku Bibazo bishingiye ku mikoresherezwe y'indimi mpuzamahanga ba Mukerarugendo bagenderera icyanya cy'ibirunga n'inkengero zacyo bahura na byo, agambiriye ahanini kureba uburyo banyurwa na servisi bahabwa n'ababakira.

Iyi nyigo yashingiye ku ntego eshatu:

Gusesengura ibibazo bishingiye ku mikoresherezwe y'indimi mpuzamahanga ba Mukerarugendo bahura na byo,Gusesengura ingaruka z'ibyo bibazo ku bukerarugendo,Gutanga inama ku mikemurirwe y'ibibazo by’imikoresherezwe y’indimi mpuzamahanga mu bukerarugendo.

Umunyeshuri yakekaga ko: kuba abanyarwanda bumvikana mu rurimi rumwe gakondo mu gihug u gikoresha indimi mpuzamahanga nyinshi, bikaba byagira ingaruka ku ikoreshwa ry’izo ndimi m u itangwa rya serivisi z’ubukerarugendo;ibibazo bishingiye ku ikoreshwa nabi ry’indimi mpuzam ahanga bitera ba mukerarugendo gufataUrwanda nk’igihugu kitabashishikaza;guhabwa ubumenyi n’inzobere mu ikoreshwa ry’indimi mpuzamahanga bikaba umwe mu miti yakemura ibyo bibazo.

Abibanzweho muri iyi nyigo ni ba mukerarugendo 165 bakekwagaho amakuru ajyanye n’uko bak iriwe mu karere k’ibirunga, abakozi 58 bagabanyijwe mu matsinde hagendewe ku kazi bahagarari ye:28 baherekeza ba mukerarugendo mu cyanya cy'ibirunga, abakozi 15 batwara imodoka za ba mukerarugendo,abakozi 5 abayobora ba mukerarugendo mu bukerarugendo bushingiye ku muco no kumuryango n’abakozi10 b'amwe mu mahoteli,amabare na resitora zakira bamukera-rugendo mu karere k’ibirunga.

Iyi nyigo igaragaza ko : bamukerarugendo bahuye n’ibibazo by’ubumenyibuke mu ikoreshwa ry’i ndimi mpuzamahanga ku kigero cya 86 (52%), ikoreshwa ry’indimi mu budasa bw’imico ku kige ro cya 99 cg 60% kimwe no gusesengura ibidukikije byateye bamukerarugendo 66 ni ukuvuga 40.

Ibi bigira ingaruka ku bantu 91 (55%) basabwa ubwishyu badasobanukiwe,ba mukerarugendo 41 cg (25%) babura bimwe mu bikoresho byabo n’abandi 33 (20%) bagaragaza igihombo mu bukungu muri rusange.

Naho abakozi 20 cg (50%), bikabatera kwirukanwa ku mirimo yabo; abandi 15 (30%) ntibazamu- rwe mu ntera mu gihe 10 cg (20%) bibaca intege mu kazi. Ha nyuma,ba mukerarugendo111 cg (67%) batanga inama y’amahugurwa y’inzobere mu ikoreshwa ry’indimi mpuzamahanga naho ab andi 54cg (33%) bagatanga inama yo kuganiriza byimbitse abakoresha izo ndimi ku buryo bw’um wuga.

Muri make,iyi nyigo yahuje impande zombi zigirwaho ingaruka z’imikoresherezwe idahwitse y’u rurimi hagamijwe guteza imbere itangwa rya servisi nziza mu bukerarugendo.


1.0 Introduction

The Population for a given society lives on products and services (selling -buying). International Tourism is one of those services and it necessitates language use in communication. The coexistence of natives with foreigners’ languages creates a linguistic phenomenon that has impact on quality service delivery.

This chapter attempts to give a background to the study, motivation to the study, statement of the problem, significance of the study, objectives of the study, research questions, hypothesis, and scope of the study, methodology and organization of the study.

1.1 Background to the study

Language constitutes a legacy to the Society. By its contribution to the connection of people to people and even people to ideal situation openness, it acts out social roles which is an instrumental motivation to becoming a user of another language according to Gardner and Lambert in Wilga M .Rivers (1994:149). Mainly for the ability of purposively talking to individuals of other communities (idem: 51).

Chomsky (1959) emphasizes that the exclusively human ability and quality to use language for an active communicative and informative interaction, may have resulted from a favorable mutation or from an adaptation of skills evolved for other purposes (Anderson, 1998). This view is supported by the theory that language, being an outgrowth of hundreds of thousands of years of increasing intelligence, serves group needs. More cohesion, cooperation, and potential, is created for human survival through better linguistic expressions.

The knowledge of various foreign languages for tourism mobility industry, play a significant role while intercultural contacts contribute to the development of intercultural dialogue (Sindik et Al, 2013).

It is also important to state that in today's world of globalization, tourism and mobility have a significant and important role, where intercultural contacts contribute to the development of intercultural verbal and non-verbal dialogue at the same as Vukovic (2006) attributes the key role

to knowledge of foreign languages in the development of tourism, which has a multiple role and is viewed as economic, social and cultural activity.

Moreover, the Rwanda Skills Survey (2012) reports that linguistic communication remains the top desired skill as shown by research and experience from countries that are famous in tourism and hospitality domain like Mauritius, South Africa and United Emirates of Arabia in Hotel qualitative, in restaurant, in travel agency, in tour operations, in creative arts and entertainment, in museums and in sports facilities Many countries in Africa including Rwanda, profitably, fall into a multi-linguist bloc and psycholinguistic studies have found that speaking two or more languages is a great asset to the cognitive process. The brains of bilingual people are sharper than single language speakers (Kimenyi, 2009; Chomsky, 1959).

As far as Rwanda is concerned, the Rwanda Skills Survey (2012:11) stresses the need for furthering proficiency in international languages: English, French, Spanish, German and Chinese supplemental to Kinyarwanda called the “Majority language” by NIZEYIMANA L, (2009:22). LECLERIC J, (2013) states that Kinyarwanda kept its integrity and persistence when colonials entered Rwanda in 1858.

Gradually, the fundamental law of 18th June 1996 as well as the 4th June 2003 articles №5 of the National Constitution approved English, French and Kinyarwanda as official languages .This is for national continuation of global public relations rhetoric advantages “Languages of the World" as it was noted by Mandela (Personal communication) that by talking to a man in a language he understands, that goes to his head, but if talked to in his language, that goes to his heart”.

Besides, Rwanda is regionally located among countries speakers of various foreign languages and it uses the multilingualism in international Business and Tourism, Justice, media, Church services. Rwanda hosts international NGOs, and holds international Summit and conferences. Rwanda is a member of International communities speakers of worlds languages.

Thus, NIZEYIMANA L. (2009) gives the same value of linguistic communication to gold, silver and to any other treasure. Theo Michelson (2009:17) in Sandra IDOSSOU (2009) adds that People don't want to communicate with an organization or a computer rather to real, live, responsible person who listen and help them get satisfied Tourists visiting the Northern Province, the Volcanoes National Park and its surrounding attractions in Musanze District are a third of total tourism arrivals speakers of international languages. The maximum profits from tourism can increase according to BUDAHERA A. and NSABIMANA G. (Personal Communication, 2014) who both argue that effective use of foreign languages in the sector can contribute to maximizing the revenues from tourists. The latter would decide to buy more, and enlarge the lengths of their stay if all possible explanations about products and services are persuasively provided.

1.2 Motivation

The researcher was lucky to early have multilingual based Education: He was taught French and English as secondary Language since primary school, He learnt Latin in secondary school, an extent language, that George Y. (2004:215) considers great grandmother that gave birth to some modern languages in the Proto-Indo European family, the Researcher had, in addition, an Ondistance course in English communication.

Furthermore, in 2007, the researcher had the privilege of working first, for a Hotel in Kigali, this was an opportunity to get informed about Tourism and hospitality industry; experience from tourists described Musanze the first destination that Philip Briggs and Janice Booth (2006:117) tribute for its strategic importance as a tourists hub. Secondly in 2009, the researcher, working for Volcanoes Safaris Ltd in the Northern Province, this Company took him for a six month Hospitality training in South Western Uganda, the experience that was similar to Tourists’.

Both work and educational background in the field of Language and Tourism incited the researcher, to profound his aspirations about the scope at which Tourists who visit Rwanda in general and the Northern Province, Volcanoes National Park in particular, are satisfied by service providers in linguistic communication.

1.3 Statement of the problem

As it was said earlier, linguistic communication is a skill of priority inclusive to Tourism and hospitality as a progressively growing industry that Rwanda has to sustain if to broaden the product range of Tourism and hospitality.

However, language communication is determines in accordance with the community and environment and the nature is dissected along lines laid down by native languages. For better linguistic communication economic benefits, Rwanda effectively speaking English is hindered since Kinyarwanda and world languages contact lead to mutual influence.

The monopoly of Kinyarwanda in early Education, in occasionally communication uses and its natural aspects, differently from world languages result in a substandard linguistic communication As matter of facts, a policy of using three languages was implemented since 2009, Kinyarwanda as the bedrock of initial literacy and learning, English as the new medium of instruction and French as an additional language with 66% teachers of the category of beginners in English language, there was also a shortage of authentic material in English (MINEDUC, 2010:22).

Consequently, this has specific risks in hospitality that guests or visitors who are struggling to communicate what they want or find it hard to hear or comprehend what is being communicated to them, a task of service providers to successively handle customers and clients regardless of their substandard means of language communication otherwise the overall service delivery is ranked poor since visitors may interpret imperfection in language as rudeness and incompetence or either aggressively against them.

Briefly, tourism and hospitality are the domains that are mainly possible thanks to language effective uses.With unsatisfied Tourists,this hinders socio economic development of local people, who offer their tourist product andconsequently the national economy will be negatively affected (AKUREDUSENGE, 2008).

The limitations of tourism and hospitality benefits, in a naturally gifted country ,due to ineffective -ness of international languages uses ,pushes the researcher to look for ways of improvement.

1.4 Significance of the study

Having observed the need of language and lack of language specialists in Tourism and hospitality, the researcher's commitment lies at carrying out this research with the view first ,to enlighten language communication benefits to different Tourism and hospitality stakeholders.

This study will ,secondly, market linguist professionals to Tourism and hospitality stakeholders because in end, language specialists contribution can be adopted for remediation; it will also serve as a language based diagnostic test between service providers and customers satisfaction in Tourism and hospitality areas, that is a feedback about communication skills situation and suggested solutions if needed.

Thirdly, Future researchers in the same domain will consult this study to enrich their documentations and INES RUHENGERI will find this, a motivation to train more professionals in Languages and Applied Linguistics.

1.5 Objective of the study

General Objective

The main objective of this study is to make an assessment about linguistic communication skills and the level of customers’ satisfaction in Tourism and hospitality.

Specific objectives

This study will focus on the following specific objectives:

1. To identify linguistic communication challenges encountered by tourists when they are being offered Tourism and hospitality services,
2. To identify the effects of linguistic communication challenges on Tourism and hospitality,
3. To suggest promising solutions to address linguistic communication challenges identified in Tourism and hospitality.

1.6 Research questions

This work intends to answer the following key questions:

1. What are the main Linguistic communication challenges encountered by tourists customers visiting the Musanze District?
2. What is the impact of linguistic communication challenges on Tourism and hospitality?
3. How can linguistic communication challenges encountered by tourists visiting Musanze District be addressed?

1.7 Hypotheses

This study stands up on the following hypotheses:

1. Since Rwanda is a multilingual country and the majority of Rwandans speak Kinyarwanda, Tourists are likely to encounter linguistic communication challenges.
2. Linguistic communication challenges hinder Tourists to achieve their goals and classify Rwanda as a tourists’ non-attractive area.
3. Training by competent language professionals is one of the strategies that can improve services in Tourism and hospitality domain.

1.8 Scope of the study

The present study was conducted in Rwanda, Northern Province, Musanze District, the Volcanoes National Park area, in 2013-2014.

1.9 Methodology

During this research, a tape recorder was used during field visits to enable the analysis of Tourism customers and Tourism services providers’ Linguistic communication.

A guide interview questions was designed in English for tourists at their Hotel and to tourism sites, and another one for Tourism and hospitality services providers at their work places. In addition, a number of documents like books, reports, dissertations and online sources were consulted.

1.10 Organization of the study

The dissertation is divided into five parts: Chapter one ,The General Introduction comprises a background of the study, motivation for the study, statement of the problem, significance of the study, objectives, research questions, hypotheses, scope of the study and a brief description of methodology. Chapter two has to do with Literature Review; this chapter contains various definitions of the main concepts and discusses some issues related to Tourism/hospitality and language. Chapter three deals with research methodology and chapter four is a presentation, analysis and interpretation of data. Chapter five consists of the general conclusion and recommen dations.

This study, critically analyzes the effectiveness and efficiency of foreign languages use, for which imperfection results in both economic and civic serious loss, in the Northern Province, Musanze District Tourism and hospitality industry, for later on looking for promising Solutions


2.0 Introduction

This chapter discusses all literature related to the research topic. The same literature shows how Tourism and hospitality involves linguistic profession. Such literature is to provide a suitable understanding about the tackled subject.

2.1 Definitions of key concepts

Key concepts and terms definitions used in this study are given as follow:

2.1.1 Language

Many definitions are given to language by different authors whose common unison is it being a mankind property and the most complicated part of human organism.

According to John Lyons (1995:19), in non-technical French, ‘langue' is one of a dual word with 'langage' that can be taken together to have close range meanings to the word 'language 'meanings though different as far as their semantic and grammatical categories are concerned.

Moreover, in structuralism, Ferdinand de Saussure (1916) opposes parole as a product of rules or specific utterances of speech to Langue an abstract phenomenon that theoretically defines the principles and system of rules that govern interplay of sound and meaning.

This position is respectively equivalent to Chomsky’s performance and Competence, suggesting that an individual, intentional or internal language may be itself viewed as either a set of rules and principles in the minds of speakers that are actually regulated by linguistics in opposition to external language a set of possible utterances. Hymes (1972) simply wraps up language to be a diversity organization ( Coïaniz A,2001:53; Trask R.L.,2007).

The Encyclopedia Britannica (2005:22Vols.) defines language as the expression of ideas by means of speech-sound combined into words and Wikipedia the free encyclopedia(2014), adds that when used as a general concept, "language" may refer to the cognitive ability to learn and use systems of complex communication both phonological and syntactic , or to describe the set of rules that makes up these systems, or the set of utterances that can be produced from those rules.

In broader sense the term language can be used metaphorically because no symbol system other than language has the same potential of infinite productivity, extension and precision by human beings.

Derivatively, bits of languages are used to control machinery by programming languages when buttons and switches of a machine represent functional words (The Encyclopedia Britannica, 2005:22 vols.).

2.1.2 Dialect

People of the same community speak differently one language because of its vocal symbols arbitrariness but it is not easy to quantify or to lay down a cutoff between a language and its forms considered as its dialects.

According to Trask, R.L. (2007:272), language which is used in education has a recognized standard form case French, German, Finnish, Basque, Arabic etc, and fewer of them have two standards.

As for Janet Holmes (2013), a standard variety is written and used for high functions alongside a diversity of low varieties, it has undergone a certain degree of certification and regularization for example in grammar and a dictionary; English has therefore numeral dialects among others: Southern British, Northern British, Scottish, Midwest American ,New England American, Australian and so many more sub dialects, more nativised varieties-dialects-of local identity and aspirations, that semantics ,stress patterns and vocabulary are from mother tongues within those very general categories.

2.1.3 National language

It is a system of several forms of a language: the literary language (oral and written), popular conversational varieties of the language, and dialects. The language of a nation in the historical sense evolves from the language of a nationality during the process of that nationality’s development into a nation.

According to Kouega, J. P. (2003), national language develops side to side with ancestral languages. In its course of formation, the relationship between literary language and dialect undergoes a substantial change.

The national literary language is the most important developing form of a language; it gradually supplants the dialects that dominated the earlier stages of language development, especially in oral communication (GUKHMAN M. M., 1960 in The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 2010).

2.1.4 International Language

Trask, R.L. (2007:121) defines this, a language that is widely used by people and to people whom it is not a mother tongue, in different countries. He stresses that for a variety of reasons such as diplomacy, international business that interact with foreign affairs sector, people of different mother tongues decide to extensively use one single language.

The same author recalls that the medieval Europe used Latin as a language of global interest until it was taken over by French; Chinese and Arabic likewise gained oratory mostly in East Asia and Muslim world respectively.

Today however, English is beyond dispute the premier international language throughout the world. It is everywhere the first language in such domains as business, science, technology, communication and popular culture. The estimates show that nearly one quarter of the earth's population -approaching 1.5 billion people -are now competent in English, the number that grows all the time (Trask R.L, 2007).

2.1.5 Communication

Madhukar R.K (2008:2) defines Communication as the modus operandi for social intercourses ,to give expression to what the mind generates people to people or people to environment ,from Latin "communis "that means process, technique, network or literature, sociology ,psychology and statistics .It is an interchange, dynamic expression transmission, a connecting link ,a mean to power and life support.

Likewise, GASENGAYIRE S.(2013) quoting Daniel(2008) defines communication as a two-way process of reaching mutual understanding, in which participants not only exchange (encodedecode) information, news, ideas and feelings but also create and share meaning.

Scherba (1992) adds that Communication requires a sender, a message, a medium and a recipient, although the receiver does not have to be present or aware of the sender's intent to communicate at the time of communication; thus communication can occur across vast distances in time and space.

According to specialist trainers Brad Humphrey and Jeff Stockes (2000) communication skills are identified among the most important skills for modern team cohesion and performance. Oral communication

Oral communication refers to the spoken word, it takes forms of sounds and words: verbal communication readily used, instantaneous, persuasive, cost effective, works very well in small groups/supplemented by nonverbal/person to person exchange: around 10% words+90% non verbal: 50% visual factors (appearance, facial expression, body language, postures and gesture) and 35% voice that is tone, sincerity, modulation (Madhukar, R.K 2008:7). Nonverbal communication

The term Language fundamentally refers to the faculties of speech and writing. Speaking usually involves at least two parties in sight of each other, a great deal of meaning is conveyed by facial expression, tone of voice, and movements and postures of the whole body but especially of the hands: gestures which are determined culturally differently with the regarded communities (Perrin Smith Corder, 1968).

According to Kitty O Locker (2006) nonverbal communication does not use words and takes place all the time, it includes body language and physically interpretive aspects : smiles, frowns, who sit where for how long, the size of the office, all to communicate anger or pleasure, power and status, happiness or distance.

2.1.5 .3 Process of communication

In effective communication a receiving party must understand exactly what the transmitting party intended to be understood, errors, disagreements or disputes rise due to lack of clear understandin g on one or another of the two parties (CIC, 2006:7).

The following is the communication model process:

- message is initiated 1
- sender encodes for proper understanding 2 11
- message transmission through an appropriate medium/channel 3
- receiver decodes 4
- decoded message is acted upon 5
- use/action is sent=feedback 6

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten


Source: Madhukar R.K (2008:7) Interpersonal communication

DeFleur and Dennis (2002) conceptualized interpersonal communication as a process of using word language and non-verbal cues to send and receive messages between two or more individuals that are intended to arouse particular kinds of meaning.

According to Roth Well (2004) interpersonal communication is dyadic communication, a transaction that takes place between two people whereas Tubbs and Moss (2003) see interpersonal communication as encompassing many kinds of relationships from the most casual to the most long-lasting.

Additionally, Kitty O Locker (2006:4) presupposes some possible communications objectives that include:

(1) Creating awareness,
(2) Development of information and imparting knowledge,
(3) Product plan and image projection,
(4) Shaping attitudes,
(5) Stimulating a want or desire by persuasion,
(6) Completing a sale. Intrapersonal communication

Madhukar R.K (2008:71) defines intrapersonal communication as the communication with the self/thinking-feeling /inward looking exercise, the same author goes on saying that Abraham Lincoln before any interaction, was used to spending 1/3 time thinking about himself and what to say while 2/3 times was spent thinking about other people .

This author argues that total personality is brought in the process as meanings are in people rather than in words: in translating the message, in interpreting the words or in evaluating the speakers.

2.1.6 Tourism and tourists

According to Bahar (2005) the first definition of tourism was made by Guyer Feulerin 1905 as “a phenomenon unique to modern time which is dependent on the people's increasing need for a change and relaxing, the wish of recognizing the beauties of nature and art and the belief that nature gives happiness to human beings and which helps nations and communities‟ approaching to each other thanks to the developments in commerce and industry and the communication and transportation tools' becoming excellent.”

Similarly, Theobald William F. (1995) defines tourism as a travel for recreational, leisure, or business purposes, usually of a limited duration; it commonly associates tourism with trans- national travel.

Bahar (2005:2) traces the origin of the term tourism from back to the 17th century on the word 'tour' which is derived from the Hebrew word 'torah' meaning 'learning, examining'. Hebrews called the people whom they sent to see far places and learn the socioeconomic conditions of the people living in those places as 'tourist' and the action as 'touring' while Douglas Harper (2010) defines a tour as a long journey including the visiting of a number of places in sequence, especially with an organized group led by a guide.

Under the same terminology, The World Tourism Organization (2010) defines tourists as people "traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes".

These concepts may also refer to travel to another location within the same country, domestic or international, and international tourism has both incoming and outgoing implications on a country's balance of payments therefore Tourism may change qualification with regards to the locations where it is carried out ,Community based tourism and cultural tourism among forms of tourism (Mckercher and Du Cross,2002:26 cited in AKUREDUSENGE,2008:11)

Both tourism and tourist definitions given above show that tourism as a business activity of movement and stay is not possible out of Language and hospitality.

2.1.7 Cultural tourism

The World Tourism Organization (1985:6) defines Cultural tourism as "movements of persons essentially for cultural motivations such as a study tours, visit, performing arts and cultural tours, travels to study nature, folklore..."

Similarly, Mckercher and Du Du Cross (2002) quoted by AKUREDUSENGE (2008) argue that Cultural tourism is an activity of people experiencing the different culture from their own.

2.1.8 Hospitality

Hospitality the act of kindness in welcoming and looking after the basic needs of guests or strangers, mainly in relation to food, drink and accommodation; It refers to the relationship process between a guest and a host, the reception and entertainment of guests, visitors, or strangers with liberality and goodwill (Oxford English Dictionary); derived from the Latin word “hospitare ” meaning to “receive as a guest”

The hospitality industry is a broad category of fields within the service industry that includes lodging, restaurants, event planning, theme parks, transportation, cruise line, and additional fields within the tourism industry. In Rwandan context, NSHIMIYIMANA J. (2012:51) translates Hospitality as “Urugwiro “conviviality between two parties.

Hospitality is inclusive to different areas of the tourism industry, from the initial arrival and transport arrangements till food and beverage service and accommodation providing, not be forgetting that hospitality extends to the departure as well and that all your good work can be ruined at the stage of last bad impression.

Briefly, a hospitality unit such as a restaurant, hotel, or even an amusement park consists of multiple groups such as facility maintenance, direct operations (servers, housekeepers, porters, kitchen workers, bartenders, etc.), management, marketing, and human resources.

2.1.9 Challenges

The Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary & Thesaurus gives the definition of challenge as the situation of being faced with something that needs great mental or physical effort in order to be done successfully and tests a person's ability to find the solution .

2.2 Aspects of a language in use

Language is immensely complicated in structure, this realization can be made when one tries to learn a second language, sets of linguistic rules by which a native exploits an infinite communication repertoire.

2.2.1 Micro linguistics

Micro linguistics covers the basic structural components of theoretical linguistics otherwise labeled as Grammar and divided further, into form and meaning.

The New Encyclopedia (2005,22vol:550) defines the speech as the most obvious aspect and the universal material of human language; the study of the speech sounds and of physiology of speaking is called Phonetics .Phonology accounts for sounds positions and their patterns for instance phonemes, stress, intonation and tone are significant sounds that can make a difference in a word.

Another aspect of language structure is Grammar: English Language has more than 44sounds, and words are not to be regarded as merely sequences of syllables; in speech, words are recognized as recurrent units that make up languages differ, in the extent to which word-form variation is used in their grammar that is words relation in a sentence, classes of word or parts of speech (The New Encyclopedia, 2005:22 vols.).

Furthermore, meaning is also a linguistic aspect, language exists to be meaningful, and Semantics embraces the meaningful functions of phonological features, of grammatical structures and the meanings of individual words.

Hymes (1972) in Wilga M.Rivers (1994:15) stresses that if students are really to communicate with speakers of the language, they need to know how to negotiate meaning in various circumstances

2.2.2 Macro linguistics and/or Applied Linguistics

It is defined as theoretical linguistics findings application; it is also called applied linguistics because it combines linguistics to other disciplines: Anthropology, Psychology, Pedagogy, Technology, Business, etc.

2.3 Barriers to effective communication in business

Customers may struggle to communicate what they want or even get necessary information regarding products or services due to hindrance that makes communication complex, difficult and frustrating (UWUMUREMYI, 2013:18).

According to Wittgenstein (1922:149) “The limits of the language” means the limits of a community world as quoted by Ellen Eun Kyoo Kim and Anna S. Mattila A.S.(1999) . They go on saying that increased globalization is forcing a growing number of business managers and employees to interact across linguistic boundaries, bearing in mind that language affects almost all aspects of everyday life. They assert that researchers and practitioners who are engaged in international business and management needs more to focus on communication barriers.

For instance, international customers may find it difficult to communicate or even get necessary information regarding products or services from people who use a different Mother Tongue or Second Language.


Excerpt out of 86 pages


Linguistic Communication Challenges Encountered by Tourists Visiting Musanze District
INES Ruhengeri Institute of Applied Science  (INSTITUTE OF APPLIED LINGUISTICS)
Languages and applied linguistics
Catalog Number
ISBN (eBook)
ISBN (Book)
English, French, Communication, Tourism, Musanze, Rwanda, Volcanoes National Park
Quote paper
Jean Claude Musoni (Author), 2014, Linguistic Communication Challenges Encountered by Tourists Visiting Musanze District, Munich, GRIN Verlag,


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