TABLE OF CONTENTS
List of tables
List of charts
List of abbrevations/acronyms
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1. !Background of the Study
1.2 Statement of the problem
1.3 Purpose and Significance of the Study
1.4 Objective of the study
1.6 Scope and Limitations of the Study
1.7 Definition of Terms
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITRATLRE
2.1 Television instruction functions, benefits and improvements
2.1.1 Functions of television instruction
2.1.2 What is instructional television?
2.1.3 Problems and solutions
2.2 Ethiopian education system and history of satellite TV instructions
2.2.1 Ethiopian Education system
2.2.2 Education achivements in Ethiopia ans Amhara region
2.2.3 ICT in Ethiopia and Amhara region
2.3 Perception of students, teachers and principals about satellite TV instruction...
2.3.1 Perception of students on satellite TV instruction
2.3.2 Perception of teachers on satellite TV instruction
2.3.3 Perception of principals on satellite TV instruction
2.4 Emperical research findings about satelliite TV instruction
2.5 Theoretical framework
CHAPTER THREE : METHOD OL OG Y
3.1 Research design
3.2 Study Area
3.3 Participants of the Study
3.4 Sampling procedure and sample size
3.6 Instrumentation and Measures
3.7 Data Collaction
3.8 Validity and Reliability
3.9 Ethical considerations
3.10 Data Analysis Method
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Demographic result
4.2 The status of educational TV program in the study area
4.3 Students level of satisfaction on satellite TV lessons
4.4 Teachers and principals level of satisfaction on satellite TV lessons
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY,CONCLUSION,AND RECOMMENDATION
Appendix 1 : Students questionner base on CIPP model
Appendix 2: Teachers questionner
Appendix 3: Principals questionner
In the first place, I gratefully say thank you Gondar Education Media Center staff members Ato Gezahegne Adamu and Ato Setargew Berele for their support during data collection and giving me some comments during write up of the paper.
I would like to express my thanks to the five secondary schools students, teachers and principals who participated in research for their true and kind cooperation to get the necessary information for the study.
LEAST of TABLES
Table 1 The trends of the satellite television utilization in two zone and one city admin (Source from regional six month monitoring meeting healed from 810/6/201 OE.C m Bahir Dar)
Table 2:- The status of Satellite TV Education (STVE) utilization in some of Amhara region Zones in the year 2010 E.c first six month. (Source from regional six month monitoring meeting healed from 8-10/6/2010E. c in Bahir Dar)
Table 3:-Variables related with satisfaction of satellite television instruction based on (ΊΡΡ model
Table 4:- Study participant’s demographic result
Table 5: - Mean and Standard Deviation (SD) for Main Variables Related with Students Satisfaction of Satellite TV program
Table 6:- Chi-square test of Gender and general satisfaction of Satellite TV program...
Table 7:- Chi-square test of Grade and Learning Content of Satellite TV program
Table 8:- Chi-square test of Grade and learning content of Satellite TV program
Table 9:- Chi-square test of Gender and TV teacher satisfaction of Satellite TV program
Table 10:- Chi-square test of Grade and TV teacher satisfaction of Satellite TV program
Table 11 : - ANOVA Table
Table 12:- Results of Multiple Regression
Table 13: - Mean and Standard Deviation (SD) for four Variables of Teachers Satisfaction of Satellite TV program
Table 14:- Chi-square test of Experience/service year and total teachers satisfaction of Satellite TV program
LEAST of CHARTS
Chart 1 : - Dichotomized result of Gender verses general satisfaction
Chart 2:- Dichotomized result of Grade verses general satisfaction
Chart 3: - Dichotomized result of Gender verses Learning content
Chart 4:- Dichotomized result of Gender verses Satisfaction on TV teacher
Chart 5:- Dichotomized result of Grade verses satisfaction on TV teacher
ABBREVATIONs and ACRONYMS
ANRSEB- Amhara National Regional State Education Bureau CD- Compact Disc
CEICT- Center for Education Information Communication Technology CIPP- Content, Input, Process & Product CSA- Central Statistical Agency
D0FED- Department of Finance & Economic Development
ESDP- Education Sector Development Program
ETV- Educational Television
GTP- Growth and Transformation Plan
ICT- Information Communication Technology
ITV- Instructional Television
LAN- Local Area Network
NER- Net Enrollment Ratio
PDP- Plasma Display Panel
PTR- Pupil Teacher Ratio
TEG- Ethiopia Education Policy
TVET- Technical & Vocational Education Training
UNESCO- United Nations Education Science & Culture Organization
VCR- Video Cassette Recorder
VSAT- Very Small Aperture Terminal
Several research documents in the past 10 years shows there is a problem in the status, perception, and satisfaction of satellite television program. Majority of their time spend on listening, without any interaction and they are passive, students could not understand, unable to listen the TV teacher's pronunciation of English language, fast speed of presentations and lack of class time for discussion are some of the identified problems during implementation of satellite TV programs. Moreover day to day observations show the presence of researchers identified other constraints of satellite TV program like lack of electricity power, lack of maintenance and accessories, and lack of collaboration among stakeholders.
The main purpose of this mixed method study is to explore the satisfaction of Students, Teachers and Principals on satellite TV educational program and also look the status, perception as well as factors affecting satellite program teaching learning process and find solutions with CIPP (Content, Input, Process, and Product) evaluation scale and open questions. In this research questionnaire for quantitative data collection; open ended questions and observation for qualitative data collection implemented.
The participants of the study are from five secondary schools the available 504 Students (i.e., Male 276, Female 228); 86 Teachers (i.e., Male 46, Female 40); 8 principals (i.e., all are male) where satellite television instruction is functional. The result shows only 12% of teachers have got some training which indicates large number of untrained teachers. Amhara region satellite TV program utilization is from a total of 514 secondary and preparatory schools only 332 have functional satellite television setups which mean 64.62% coverage. CIPP model questionnaire 16 questions that used to evaluate the student satisfaction on the effectiveness of satellite TV program mean range from 3.17 to 4.31 which is significantly greater than the midpoint 3 and with t-test result where t-obtained ranging from 32.81 to 3.01 shows significantly greater than t-critical value 1.96. Observation result shows committed principals in schools where satellite TV education is functional have done extra effort to motivate and persuade the school communities. Regarding the result shows interaction of TV teacher-student (with 3.17 mean, SD 1.299) and student-learning content of the TV program (with 3.96 SD 1.088) the participant student. The multiple regression result shows all the five independent variables (i.e., learning demand, class management, human resource, learning environments from highest to lowest contribution in order) accounting for 29.1% significantly predicts students satisfaction of satellite TV program. The identified problems of satellite TV program are: plasma TV trouble, lack of electricity, no attention of teachers, plasma TV teacher's pronunciation, fast speed, shortage of time for classroom discussion, unnecessary repetitions, out of portion information, and mismatch of classroom teacher lesson with plasma TV lesson.
The general conclusion is Satellite TV education program satisfy the participating five secondary school students, teachers and principals. As a recommendation the important strategies to improve the existing problems of satellite TV program utilization in classroom are broadcast without interruption, provide power source, training to improve skill and attitude of all stakeholders, proper monitoring as well as follow up are suggested.
1.1. Background of the study
From time to time educational needs continue to shift from teaching and learning isolated skills and information within each content area, to teaching skills that enable students to solve complex problems across many areas. Rampersad (2011) citing UNESCO (2002) said ICT is now regarded as “one of the building blocks of modern society” and it is considered as one of the indices that should be used to assess a society’s development. Because of this Rampersad (2011) added, many countries now regard the acquisition of ICT skills as part of their core education together with reading, writing and numeracy. According to Gilbers (2010), educators must prepare for a technology- rich future and keep up with change by adopting effective strategies that infuse lessons with appropriate technologies. This fusion of technology and educational content has an important bearing in instructional methodology. This has enabled the teacher to present his/her educational content in a multimedia format and multi-sensory manner rather than in the traditional single media i.e., text format enables the student to learn in a more productive way (Neo, T-К and Neo, M. 2004).
Educational technology has grown tremendously and has permeated all areas of our lives (Valdez, 2010). Educational technology enables the country’s education system align with international development, contributes to the nation demand for trained manpower and create communities that utilize modern system of information communication (Kassahun, Zelalem, Addis, and Akalewold, 2011). The push to provide technology in schools according to Gahala, (2001); has been successful in recent years. Technology can actually assist with some of these expectations and make teachers and their students more successful. Educational technology is now widely valued for its ability to enhance one of the most significant intellectual developments for students: their emerging ability to think abstractly (Jarrett, 1998, p. 4). Because as Neo, T-K and Neo, M. (2004) stated the power of multi-media lies in the fact that it is multi-sensory, stimulating the many sense of the audience, this consequently leads improved attention and retention rate.
Many scholars in education and media technology fields stressed that incorporation of media technology has theoretical base. Chung (2007) said that numerous research papers, articles and books were written on integrating technology into the classroom, and they often couple it with the ‘constructivist’ learning theory. He added that many of these researches concluded that using technology enhance teacher-student communication and to promote collaborative and active learning. Abatihun (2013) citing several researchers mentioned the advantages of instructional satellite television as follows:
- Motivation of students which leads to greater success.
- Immediacy, cost reduction, economizing the use of teaching potential, and increasing the number of students to whom a teacher can access by recording lectures (citing CETO, 1996).
- To reach to a large number of students in different places which are hostile or inaccessible locations (citing UNESCO, 1985).
- It can enlarge the microscopic and reduce the immense.
- It combines text and images, encouraging and understanding through different channels (Abatihun, 2013 citing Blythe-lord, 1991).
Technology stimulates and simplifies complex concepts and coordinates it with motion and picture will facilitate learning as a saying goes “picture speaks more than one thousand word” (Kassahun, 2011). Kassahun et al., (2011) added that the ability of the technology to present distance and other new places (for example moon and other continents) and even microscopic materials; sometimes beyond the reaches of classroom teachers. It also conserves/minimizes time and space to issues that in reality took longer time (for example the process of germination up to flowering and development of fruits). Another advantage of technology is its ability to deliver information to all stakeholders in equitable and speedy way; its ability to minimize the impact of lack educational facilities and laboratory equipments; it enables students to find other sources of information besides the classroom teacher; it provides common and standardized educational experience to all students; it provides support to teachers also (Kassahun et al., 2011).
So that for better achievement of learners and to promote educational quality and expansion, educational planners, curriculum experts and subject specialists design to use instructional media and technology (Abatihun, 2013).
The rapid development of technology created a great demand for education content delivery in many countries including Ethiopia. Ethiopian education policy (TEG, 1994) article 3.7.1 states that “In order to promote the quality relevance and expansion of education, due attention will be given to the supply, distribution and utilization of educational materials, educational technology and facilities”. This shows that Ethiopian education system promotes the integration of educational technologies the educational needs that shift from teaching and learning isolated skills and information within each content area, to teaching skills that enable students to solve complex problems across many areas.
Technology integration in education is a continuous process that always in change and reform Gilbert (2010) citing Glennan & Melmed (1995) mentioned that ‘Technology without reform is likely to have little value; widespread reform without technology is probably impossible’. Because of this fact in Ethiopia ICT integration is a step by step reform process since its inception. Berehanu (2013) citing Demissew (2006) said that ICT in Ethiopia has gradually been introduced starting with instructional TV (plasma TV) followed by computer based instruction, ultimately, multi-modal or all ICTs that contribute to the achievement of educational goals and target schools. It also needs continuous evaluation for improvement.
1.2. Problem Statement
At present time the use of different modern technologies in the classroom at all levels has become very common. When the educational technology adoption rises the effect in teaching learning achievement improves. According to Kim and Gebeyehu (2014), research on secondary and preparatory student’s Likert scale evaluation the effectiveness of satellite television program range from 3.11 to 4.12 mean indicating that most students are satisfied. In addition to this their research reviled that learning demands, learning content, and classroom management were factors affecting satisfaction in satellite television program (Kim and Gebeyehu, 2014).
However, several research documents in the past 10 years shows there is a problem in the status, perception, and satisfaction of satellite television program. In his research Getnet (2008), found out that students mentioned that majority of their time spend on listening to satellite television program without any interaction and they are passive as well as dissatisfied. In another research Bantihun (2012), identified that 71.6% of teachers and 90.6% of students could not understand mathematics lesson taught with satellite television. In addition to this Bantihun (2012) research shows that students taught with satellite television scored lower than that of taught face-to-face and also 71.9% of teachers responded that student’s classroom participation is low during satellite television mathematics teaching sessions. The reasons for these according to Getnet (2008) and Bantihun (2012), are high level of English language skills assumed by television teacher, the speed of presentations, and lack of class time for discussion with their class room teachers.
Despite these research shows opposing findings that indicate several factors are affecting the satellite program teaching learning process. This problem has negatively impacted student’s performance and achievement in both rural as well as urban areas because of several problems. Therefore, it is important to evaluate whether the problem persisted or it is showing improvement in different parts of the country. The use of mixed method with CIPP (Content, Input, Process, and Product) evaluation scale and open questions used to explore the status, perception as well as factors affecting satellite program teaching learning process and find solutions. Stakeholders (i.e., students, teachers and principals) in Central Gondar Northern Ethiopia particularly from Dabat, Wogera, Debark, Dembiya and Chilga woreda are enrolled in this study.
1.3. Purpose and Significance of the study
The main purpose of this mixed method study is to explore the satisfaction of Students, Teachers and Principals on satellite TV educational program and also look the status, perception as well as factors affecting satellite program teaching learning process and find solutions with СГРР (Content, Input, Process, and Product) evaluation scale and open questions. Stakeholders (i.e., students, teachers and principals) in Northern Ethiopia particularly from Debark, Dabat and Gondar town are enrolled in this study. According to Kim and Gebeyehu (2014), work the constraints of satellite TV program are lack of electricity power, lack of maintenance and accessories, lack of collaboration among stakeholders, and lack of two way communication between teachers-students and student-student interaction.
Results from the current this mixed method study with CIPP (Content, Input, Process, and Product) evaluation and open ended questionnaire data collected from students, teachers, and principals shed light on obstacles they overcame to achieve success in the overall objective of teaching learning process.
This research is in significance of utilization of ICT media technology can be a learning paradigm in the secondary level schools to enhance the students’ knowledge and skills as well. This is but a small contribution with the Dakar Framework for Action (2000) that not only basic education be learned by today’s students but acquisition of learning skills and knowledge for gainful employment and full participation in the present day technology full society.
The study is assumed relevance to improve the system of educational satellite TV broadcasting implementation in providing the feedbacks for the strengths and weakness of the program to the relevant stakeholders so that they can take measures to alleviate the identified challenges. The findings may create conducive environment for the teaching and learning process by satellite plasma television. The study will offer invaluable information to the school’s administration as well as to policy makers in education as to the nature of the contribution of ICT to the teachinglearning process. This goal can be achieved through the proper utilization of ICT media technology that can enhance the motivation and achievement of the students. In addition to these the study may be basis for another researcher to conduct similar study.
1.4. Objectives of the study
The aim of this study is to evaluate the status & satisfaction rate of the needs of stakeholders (i.e., students, teachers and principals) towards educational satellite television programs in Northern Ethiopia. The following specific questions were formulated to guide the study.
What is the present status of educational satellite television program in Central Gondar zone Northern Ethiopia?
What factors are more influential in student’s satisfaction in educational satellite television programs?
What is the perception of principals and teachers towards educational satellite television programs?
In conducting a study on evaluate the status & satisfaction rate of the needs of stakeholders (i.e., students, teachers and principals) towards educational satellite television programs in Central Gondar zone Northern Ethiopia, the following assumptions were made:
1. That all respondents would be cooperative and provide reliable responses,
2. That this sample is representative of the all secondary school students, teachers and principals in Northern Ethiopia.
3. Most measurable attitudes are held strongly enough to direct behavior.
4. Teachers’ professional experience affects the student’s academic performance,
5. The utilization of plasma TV broadcast in classroom affects the students’ academic performance of secondary schools in Northern Ethiopia,
6. The inclusion criteria of the sample are appropriate and therefore, assure that the participants have all experienced the same or similar phenomenon of the study.
7. Participants have a sincere interest in participating in the research and do not have any other motives, such as students getting a better grade.
1.6. Scope and limitations of the study
The study conducted on those secondary schools that have functional plasma TV reception facilities during data collection period. The study restricted to students, teachers and principals of the five participating secondary schools in Northern Ethiopia. The generalisability of the results, therefore, will be limited.
1.7. Definition of terms
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) - any technology that allows for the creation, storage and display of information in all its forms or communicate with others over a distance such as computers, computer, networks, television, cell phones, radio, cassette players, DVD and CD players.
Instructional Television (ITV): Programming that has as its primary purpose the achievement of specified instructional objectives by students in school settings. In practice, it has usually referred to programming that is formally incorporated into a particular course of study and presented to intact classes or groups of students or trainees.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURES
This chapter deals on discussions about satellite television instruction benefits, principles and trends in Ethiopia. The first part discusses the concept of television instruction which includes the principles and benefits. In the second part describes the education system and ICT in Ethiopia and Amhara region. The third part discusses about the perception of students, teachers and principals about satellite television instruction. The fourth part presents empirical research findings from literatures. In the last part contains mainly theoretical framework which is central concept for conducting the study. The literatures also include points that are hoped to shade some light to the discussion.
2.1. Television instruction functions, benefits and improvements
2.1.1. Functions of television instruction
Chung (2007) citing Reiser & Dempsey (2007) said that a meaningful integration of technology in classroom can be traced back to the early part of the 20th century when visual aids such as films, pictures, and lantern slides were commonly used in public schools. Chung (2007) added that, and then came motion picture projectors, sound motion pictures, the radio, the television, video cassette recorder (VCR), computers and the internet in chronological order.
Television when it appears in the first time presenting vision and audio together used for different functions. Regarding the functional characteristics of film and television Seels, Fullerton, Berry & Horn (2008), says that;
primarily realism or fidelity, mass access, referability, and in some cases immediacy. Film and television technologies make persons, places, objects, or events more realistic to the viewer or listener so that they are presented as accurate as possible. Television has immediacy characteristic creating the notion of ‘being there’ and so it can be recorded for replaying again for study and analysis. Each of these characteristics has driven or directed the use of film or television for instructional purpose (Seels, et al., 2008).
The most important factor to affect the audiovisual movement in the 1950’s & 1960’s was increased interest in television as a medium for delivering instruction. Whether it is television, radio or other technology integration in education according to Gilbert (2010), means using many technologies to enhance teaching, learning, and multi-sensory experience providing as Ficklen & Muscara (2001) mentioned ‘a range of pathways for students at varying levels’. This creates interactivity among students eventually improves their learning achievements. In confirming this Neo, T-K & Neo, M (2004), said citing Lindström (1994), that interactivity enhances relation in learning: 20 % retention rate from seeing; 40 % retention rate from seeing and hear; 75 % retention rate from see, hear and do. Regarding the effectiveness of film for retention of information and learning Seels et al, (2008) citing Bowie (1986) stated that;
- Films are effective in teaching inquiry learning and problem solving.
- Unstructured films are more effective for teaching problem solving
- Films are effective in teaching observation skills and attention to detail.
- Low aptitude students tend to benefit more from films.
- Films tend to be more effective for field-independent students.
- Films can positively influence self-concept (Seels, et al., 2008).
Multimedia-based instruction can be efficient and effective for three reasons (Issa, Cox & Killingsworth, 1999):
- it is self-paced learning: the individualized pace of the learning allows students to break down the group instructional setting, which often inhibits some people's natural progression (West & Crook, 1992);
- it includes video/audio production, enhancing a learner's interaction with the course material through less bridging effort between the learner and the information being processed, and
- it provides autonomy in the learning process: self-regulated instruction shifts the sense of responsibility from the instructor to the student.
Bartlett and Strough (2003) in his study state that, besides potential advantages to students, multimedia formats may offer benefits to instructors teaching multi-section courses because this type of format ensures uniformity in the lecture content across the sections. The advantage of multimedia as a technology-based constructivist learning environment enables students to solve problems by means of self-exploration, collaboration and active participation. Simulations, models and media-rich study materials (still and animated graphics, video and audio) integrated in a structured manner can facilitate the learning of new knowledge. Multimedia learning encourages and enhances peer learning, individual creativity and innovation (Malik & Agarwal, 2012:468).
The media like TV, film, video etc targets either the eye or the ear. Of the five human senses, vision is recognized as the most powerful data-acquisiti on device for the brain. Tufte (1990:31), explains why the most effective presentation methodologies attempt to convey information visually, rather than verbally alone. “Visual displays of information encourage a diversity of individual viewer styles and rates of editing, personalizing, reasoning, and understanding. Unlike speech, visual displays are simultaneously a wideband and a perceiver-controllable channel”.
2.1.2. What is instructional television?
The term related to communication function of film and television include educational television, instructional television, mass media, incidental learning, and intentional learning. The distinction between mass media and educational television is frequently difficult to make since most educational television programming is distributed via broadcast television, the primary massmedia mode (Seels et al., 2008). With educational television (ETV) differs from mass media in that with ETV intentional effects are achieved through purposeful intervention to achieve educational objectives. Incidental effects, on other hand, typically result from mass media or entertainment oriented programming. There is further distinction between educational television (ETV) and instructional television (ITV). According to Berehanu (2012b) citing Behera (1995) said that;
Educational television (ETV) is generally denotes any television, which is used for imparting education and that constitute a broader learning experience in order to add significant knowledge or cultural experience of individual depending on their interests, background knowledge and learning capacities. Which is for entertainment and information purpose and it may not result intentional to achieve certain instructional outcomes. If the program is not interesting the viewer may change the channel. It is not part of a specific course of study and may be directed to large and diverse groups of individuals desiring general information or informal instruction.
Instructional television (ITV) is programs specifically designed for classroom use; that requires learner’s engagement to analyze and reflect on their experience; they are broadcasted for learners in Schools, colleges, and Universities that support the curriculum; they cover instructional content systematically to achieve intentional educational objectives through purposeful learning (Berehanu, 2012b).
Again Berehanu (2012b) citing Fakomogbon (1999:28); Evaans (2005) and Mohanti (1984) described instructional television as basically a program which has been deliberately developed for purpose of learning, a more formal learning experience where the course content is predetermined by the syllabus of some formal (academic) training institution; that it is used regardless of age or grade level and for school instruction in part of courses for direct teaching or for facilitating lecture- demonstrations (Berehanu, 2012b).
Similar to that of Ethiopia situation ITV programming as Seels et al, (2008) mentioned, is often transmitted by satellite to a school where it is either recorded for use when convenient or used immediately and interactively through a combination of computers and telecommunications. Since television offers information in multiple forms: not just images, but motion, sounds and text so that complex or abstract concepts can be illustrated through visual stimulation in a better way to students (Wondifraw 2017, citing Getachew 2003). There are two major approaches to using media and technology in schools: students can learn ‘from’ media and technology which refers to the use of instructional (satellite) television, computer based instruction, or integrated learning systems; and they can learn ‘with’ media and technology which refers to the use of cognitive tools and constructive learning environment (Abatihun 2013 citing Reeves, 1996 and Mohanty, 1984).
Instructional television has at least three categories base on their functions namely distance learning programs, classroom use of broadcast programs, and programming designed for the classroom. Hendry (2001) described these three categories of instructional television programs as follows:
1. Distance learning: video or real-time TV used to conduct ‘live’ instruction. Local classroom teachers are largely uninvolved in teaching, apart from student attendance and discussing content afterwards. No matter how engaging the content, such programs routinely fail to hold student’s interest.
2. Classroom use of broadcast program: is using the existing, originally produced for home viewing, television programs in classroom instruction. This mode of ITV did not fit always for an educational setting because they often failed to hold classroom attention for long period of time and it takes a lot of teachers’ time to find the appropriate segment.
3. Programming designed for the classroom: program produced specifically for the classroom that focuses on specific curriculum topics. After a long time test and feedback the shorter a 15- minute episodes format enabled teachers to use a context for instruction and motivate student interest at the beginning of a lesson period while still allowing time to cover a curriculum topic. Shorter and more tailored programs of ITV become more effective, and they become most useful when used to support, rather than replace, the teacher (Hendry, 2001).
The effectiveness and efficiency of ITV improved not only by making them short and tailored but also when exist a cooperation and integration between the four actors (TV teacher, Classroom teacher, Students, and technician/engineering person) of the instruction. Because as Abatihun (2013) citing Inlow (1963) states;
Television teacher, who prepares television lesson; Classroom teacher, who monitors in the respective receiving rooms, keeps order, collects and distributes materials and equipment, and answers questions, evaluates and records progress; Students, for home the whole process is conceived and who must know their respected roles; technician engineering person, who advise on mechanical matters, maintain equipment and make needed repairs (Abatihun, 2013) citing Inlow, 1963).
2.1.3. Problems and solutions of ITV integration
Some generic reasons for the failure of educational change and reform efforts are important to note, reasons which may certainly apply to efforts to create effective technology use. Fullan and Stiegelbauer (1991) indicate the following reasons:
- The purpose is not made clear.
- The participants are not involved in the planning process.
- The appeal is based on personal reasons.
- The habit patterns of the work group are ignored.
- Communication regarding change is poor.
- There is fear of failure.
- Excessive work pressure is involved.
- The cost is too high, or the reward for making the change is seen as inadequate.
- The present situation seems satisfactory.
- There is a lack of respect and trust in the change initiator (Fullan and Stiegelbauer, 1991).
Likewise, there are many factors that affect technology implementation, especially in urban schools (Means, Penuel, & Padilla, 2001, p. 197), including the following:
- Lack of technology infrastructure.
- Lack of technical support.
- Teacher discomfort with technology.
- Lack of highly quality digital content.
- Lack of instructional vision for technology use.
- The constraints of academic schedules and departmental structures.
- Lack of student technology skills.
- Low expectation of students.
- Accountability pressures (Means, Penuel, & Padilla, 2001).
As a solution for the above mentioned technology integration problems Gilbert (2010) and Chung (2007) recommended the following points;
- Use technology to help students to visualize, stimulate, solve real-world problems, collaborate, research, and design whenever possible.
- Identify and incorporate technology skill trainings at all levels of education curriculum or develop the courses that teach them.
- Set up a reward program to recognize innovative use of technology in classroom and pedagogical improvement to motivate the teachers to include technology in the lesson plan.
- Provide sufficient available technology support and maintenance, as well as appropriate technology.
- The uses of technology have linkages to important educational learning expectations.
- Teachers have the necessary skills and knowledge to effectively model and each exemplary use of technology (Gilbert, 2010 & Chung, 2007).
2.2. Ethiopian education system and history of satellite television instruction in Ethiopia
2.2.1. Ethiopian Education System
In Ethiopia, an Education and Training Policy was put in place in April 1994 to achieve the national economic and social development goals of the country (TGE, 1994). In line with the policy, Education Sector Development Programs (ESDP I, II, III & IV) were launched. Specifically, ESDP III and ESDP IV (the Ethiopian national action plans on education), emphasize the integration of ICT infrastructures to support the country’s education system with ICT.
״This involves installation of satellite receiving devices known as Plasma Display Panels (PDPs) in every classroom at secondary level, providing personal computers to schools to set-up internet laboratories, organizing training for teachers, digitization of existing video-based educational contents for web access and eventually facilitating community access to ICT.
״In view of this, the process has started to make use of the School Net service for secondary schools since September 2004 (M0E, 2005).
Ethiopia Growth and Transformation plan (GTP) has goals to achieve in education media by using every media & digital secondary education to improve education access, quality and equity (Kim & Gebeyehu, 2014). Ethiopian education which consists of preschool, primary education, secondary education, TVET, and higher education, has sharply developed. High school education has been split into two years of general education in two streams, namely, science and social science, which are offered in Grades 9 and 10. Before joining higher education institutes, students in Grades 11 and 12 are streamed into preparatory and vocational classes (also known as technical and vocational education and training activities, TVET). Students in the science and social science courses will be prepared to join the academic streams of the Universities, while those in the TVET course will join the work force of the country. Students in Grades 9 and 10 and those of the preparatory streams are offered lessons entirely through a new approach that is carried out through the use of plasma televisions.
2.2.2. Education Achievements in Ethiopia and Amhara region Education Achievements in Ethiopia
According to Kim & Gebeyehu (2010), in Ethiopia primary and secondary education shows improvement for instance net enrollment ratio (NER) of primary education (Grade 1 to 8) rapidly increased from 24.9% in 1996/07 to 85.9% in 2012/13 (Grade 1-4 : 95.5%; Grade 5-8 : 47.3%).
And also five year (2008/09 -2012/13) trend of Pupil-Teacher ratio (PTR) for grade 9-12 shows that PTR has been continually reduced from 41 to 28.7. The percentage of qualified teachers is higher in secondary education. Nationally, of all the secondary teachers, 91.5% are qualified for their level of secondary teachers. In all cases there is a considerable variation by region (Kim & Gebeyehu, 2010).
Education Achievements in Amhara region
In Amhara region regarding access of primary school there is in the year 2008/09 is 94.12% where as in year 2015/16 it becomes 92.2% with a total of 4,282,627 student’s enrolment (ANRSEB, 2015). The document ANRSEB (2015) also mentioned that access of secondary school Grade 9 and 10 in the year 2008/09 is 35.8% where as in year 2015/16 it becomes 36.09%. Access of preparatory school Grade 11 and 12 the number of students in the year 2008/09 is 67,595 where as in year 2015/16 it becomes 122,605 (ANRSEB,2015). Preparatory schools increase from 119 to 178 and teachers from 2,797 to 5,225 within the 5 years of the first GTP period (ANRSEB, 2015).
The Amhara region education bureau is working on educational equity. According to ANRSEB (2015), rural-urban education equity for primary school increased from 0.68 in the year 2008/09 to 0.78 in the year 2013/14 which indicates the average distance between rural and urban school is less than 3 km. In the case of special need education ANRSEB (2015), students in primary schools in the year 2008/09 was 10,900 which increased to 11,573 (male 6,543 and female 5030) in the year 2015/16. And also Secondary school special need student participation it reaches to 1,663 (male 844 and female 819) in the year 2015/16.
Another parameter to measure educational achievement is efficiency of schooling. In this regard as ANRSEB (2015), mentioned it Amhara region Primary school dropout rate decreased from 13.8% in year 2008/09 to 2.4% in the year 2015/16; which means in the year 2015/16 from the registered 4,282,627 students 102,830 (male 54,372 and female 48,428 i.e., 2.9% male and 2.3% female). The regional dropout rate in secondary (Grade 9 and 10) schools in the year 2015/16 is from registered 402, 168 students 21,381 which is 5.32% (male 50.41% and 49.59% female) (ANRSEB, 2015). In addition to these as ANRSEB (2015) stated, preparatory school (Grade 1112) in 2015/16 from the registered 4,420 (male 2,324 and female 2,096) students dropout which means 3.61% (male 3.64% and female 3.56%) dropout rate.
The achievement of students can be seen from regional and national examination results. The internal assessment result in the year 2016/17 of Grade 1-8 shows those how achieve 50% and above average mark are 95.5% (ANRSEB, 2015). In the year 2015/16 the grade 8 regional examination result shows in Amhara region as stated in ANRSEB (2015), those who have got 50 and above point are 75% of those who took the exam. Similarly in the year 2016/17 those who took the exam are 308,620 students 88.66% of them passed the exam and from the total those who got 50 and above average point are 74.85% of them. Regarding the national grade 10 examination passage rates in Amhara region there is increment from the year 2008/09 it is 34.94% (where 14.67% are female) to 46.63% (where 23.87% are female) in the year 2015/16 (ANRSEB, 2015). The document added in the case of Grade 12 national examination the Amhara region it shows 60.48% (where 21.62% female) passage rate in the year 2015/16.
In the case of education quality standards (i.e., section-student ratios and teacher-student) Amhara region shows improvements from time to time. For instance according to ANRSEB (2015), the national as well as regional standard of teacher- student ratio for primary schools is 1 to 50. In Amhara region the session-student ratio in the year 2008/09 it was 1:50 where as in the year 2015/16 it reaches to 1:46 (ANRSEB, 2015). The document added for secondary schools the standard of session-student ratio is 1:40 but in Amhara region in the year 2015/16 from 362 secondary schools 92.81% of them are below the standard having more than 40 students per session; 25 schools have less than 40 students per session and only school have 1:40 ratio. By increasing the number of teaches which have diploma and above qualification recruited in the past years in Amhara region the teacher-student ratio is improving (ANRSEB, 2015). Which means teacher-student ratio improve from 1:45 primary school and 1:51 in secondary school in year 2008/09 to 1:3 5 in primary school and 1:35 in secondary schools in the year 2015/16.
According to ANRSEB PR Directorate face book page (2018), in 2018 the numbers of Primary schools are 8,900 and the numbers of primary school teachers are 131,365. The same document indicates the numbers of Secondary schools are 514 with 22,527 teachers and preparatory schools are 240 with 14,234 teachers. In 2018 in Amhara region schools the number of plasma panels are 7,434, number of computers 18,804, number of radio sets 19,851, schools that have internet facility are 267(52%) (ANRSEB PR Directorate face book page, 2018)
2.2.3. ICT in Ethiopia and Amhara region
ICT in Ethiopia
The first experimental educational television program went on air for schools around the capital from 1965 to 1968 (Abatihun, 2013 citing Teshome 1998). The first broadcast 6 subjects in black and white screen to grade 7 and 8 students for schools in Addis Ababa and surrounding areas then increase the coverage with the expansion of Ethiopian Television. As ANRSEB (2007) stated due to problems namely less broadcast coverage area; shortage of television sets and accessories; lack of access to electric power; high demand for educational media technology for secondary schools and because of the former junior high school grades (i.e., Grade 7 & 8) categorized in primary school it becomes impossible to continue the broadcast using normal television system.
After Education and Training policy (TGE, 1994) the Education Sector Development Program (ESDP LII,III & IV) launched and particularly ESDP III & rv emphasizes the integration of ICT infrastructures to support the education system. And Dzidou (2006) mentioned the nationwide Ethiopia school net project arises from the need to integrate ICTs into education system using internet as an educational development and delivery platform to support the teaching and learning process that also supports school administration and other non teaching functions of the school system. It provides video conferencing, internet-based education, web-enhanced education, internet broadcast (radio & video) and teleconferencing. This involves as Berhanu (2012a) mentioned the installation of satellite receiving devices known as plasma display panels (PDP) in every classroom at secondary level, providing personal computer and internet laboratories, training to teachers, digitalization and community access to ICT.
Starting from 2003, in Ethiopia a new instructional satellite television program called “plasma” has been broadcasted in secondary school which is a uniform lesson complimentary basis for total teaching process (Brook, 2006). The program broadcasted by Center for Education ICT (CEICT) under Ethiopia Ministry of Education. The satellite education TV received through VSAT (Very Small Aperture Terminal) in each school via satellite dish. CEICT is the key implementing organization responsible for designing, preparing, and transmitting televised programs throughout the country (Berehanu, 2013). Other organizations like regional, zonal and woreda education experts participate in the process by developing, supervising and monitoring the implementation of the programs. Classroom teachers, students, and school principals are responsible for utilizing the programs.
Even though there have been a lot of educational efforts Kim & Gebeyehu (2014), said many problems still have happen in the Ethiopian educational sector like lack of qualified teachers, lack of good teaching models, and remote rural regions separated from educational benefits are some of them. They added the solution for the mentioned problems Ethiopia utilized satellite TV programs. The aim of plasma instruction in Ethiopia according to Berehanu (2012b) is;
- Transmitting uniform education to many students to have access to model and competent teachers;
- To show laboratory experiments in classroom;
- Providing standardized education to all high schools;
- Presenting abstract concepts in a simplified manner;
- Overcoming the problems of qualified teachers;
- Helping to offer quality and equitable education for children (Berehanu, 2012b)
Berehanu (2013) citing Club South Africa (2009) said that in the beginning when Ethiopia Ministry of Education requested two South African Companies namely Kagiso and Sasani to produce the instructional TV programs the two companies create one factory called ‘Memar TV’ which means ‘to learn in Amharic’. And in the binging in the production 60 teachers, script writers and subject experts and 80 full-time technical staff participated (Berehanu, 2013).
According to Kim & Gebeyehu (2014) and Wondifraw (2017) at present over 2,978 television programs of 12 subjects (i.e., Amharic, English, Mathematics, Chemistry, Biology, Physics, Geography, Civics, Economics, Technical drawing, and General business) for grade 9 to 12.
Instructional TV programs in the classroom presented by a plasma teacher, facilitated/ supported by the classroom teacher then performed by students. Each instructional TV lessons has one none-plasma sessions led by the classroom teacher each week whereas the remaining sessions run by both the plasma and the classroom teacher. According to Wondifraw (2017), the time covered by satellite TV teacher is 25 minutes for Mathematics where both the classroom and TV teachers take the stage turn till the end of the lesson. In other subjects the satellite TV teacher takes 20 minutes and classroom teacher takes 20 minutes (Kim & Gebeyehu, 2014).
The integration of satellite TV instruction faces several troubles all over the country. According to Kim & Gebeyehu (2014) some of the constraints of satellite TV program are:
First lack of electricity power the main problem, in addition to these many schools are not equipped with stand by generators. Second, there is a lack of maintenance and accessories for plasma TV’s and VSAT apparatus installed in the schools.
Third, lack of collaboration among CEICT, Ethio-telecom, regional education bureaus and schools. Fourthly, lack of two way communication, that means it is one way not considering the teacher-student and student-student interaction. Fifth, there is a limitation in satisfying a variety of special education needs such as cognitive & physical disability, although the program provides the service of sign language for students with having disabilities (Kim & Gebeyehu,2014).
To solve some of these problems currently the Ethiopia Education Ministry launched Local Area Network (LAN) initiative in 120 secondary schools where each school equipped with computer laboratory having a minimum of 80 thin client computers throughout the country (Kim & Gebeyehu, 2014). They added that these e-learning projects make possible individualized and self- pased learning environments in through by loading the educational videos in computers; allowing a private cloud computing management service, and expand the service online-based for out-of-class learning using mobile devise. In addition to these Kim & Gebeyehu (2014) also mentioned that regional education bureaus provide recorded satellite education programs on CD and distributed them to schools together with program schedule’s and teachers guide of the plasma TV education programs.
ICT in Amhara region
Before the year 2012 in Amhara region all the educational media activities were managed by the four Education Media Centers located in different parts of the region. These media centers each with 29 staffs having a studio and transmitter produce and broadcast educational radio programs for primary schools base on the curriculum. In addition to this the centers broadcast a weekend edutainment programs for general audience. In the present time duties of these media center includes disseminating satellite TV yearly Schedules for schools; give training for primary school teachers and instructional leaders; support the establishment of school public address system; prepare and disseminate print materials like radio teachers guide, manuals, and brochures.
Starting from the year 2012 the Amhara region education ICT has 4 level organizational level. The regional level ICT core process has 8 staff, zonal level has 6 staff, at woreda level one and at high school level one staff. The roles of these technical personnel’s are ICT equipments selection & specification preparation to support the procurement process; installation and maintenance; give trainings; software development and networking; radio transmitter and studio maintenance.
In Amhara region according to ANRSEB (2015) radio education access to schools in the year 2008/09 was 36% with increased effort in using alternative means (i.e., memory and flash records) to reach all primary schools by the year 2015/16 it reach to 100%. In the case of satellite TV instruction access as it was stated on ANRSEB (2015) in the year 2015/16 was 94.8% with 7,684 plasma display panel in 370 secondary & primary schools out of 390. But due to several reasons that hamper the utilization in the year 2017/18 out of 514 secondary and preparatory schools only 332 i.e., 64.62% use satellite TV instruction properly according to the regional report.
The Amhara region school level computer laboratories according to ANRSEB (2015), in the year 2015/16 are 491 and also 117 secondary schools have access to internet which is 31%. But to make computer- student ratio 1:2 additional 733 computer laboratories are needed. To see the three year trend and current status of satellite TV instruction for some of zone and City administrations see Table 1 and Table 2 respectively as follows.
Table 1 The trends of the satellite television utilization in two zone and one city admin (Source from regional six month monitoring meeting healed from 8-10/6/2010E.C in Bahir Dar)
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Table 2:- The status of Satellite TV Education (STVE) utilization in some of Amhara region Zones in the year 2010 E.c first six month. (Source from regional six month monitoring meeting healed from 8-10/6/2010E.C in Bahir Dar)
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NB:- Plasma utilization regional from a total of 514 secondary and preparatory schools on education which means 64,62% coverage
2.3. Perception of students, teachers and principals about satellite television instruction
2.3.1. Perception of students on satellite television instruction
In any level of education Rampersad (2011), said ICT use was associated with enhanced student interest, motivation and increased student engagement. Similarly television based instructions increase the opportunity of students’ learning through creating excitement, motivation, engaging, stimulating creative and critical thinking that leads to better retention, learning and improvement in the students’ academic performance (Wondifraw, 2017). However, according to Gilbert (2010) student perception about the in-school uses of technology may be less positive, depending on such factors as student perception of insufficient teachers knowledge & student disappointment in the lack of quality access. In addition to these Kim (2015) research finding shows that for students, learning demand, learning content, and class management were factors affecting their satisfaction with the satellite education TV programs.
Several researches on different subject’s utilization of television for education shows practically increase students’ achievements. For instance according to Hendry (2001), television when combined with other activities, could both increases the attitudes towards mathematics and improve student performance. Hendry citing the research findings of Advancement in Science and Education (1997) in Los Angeles California said that before the intervention 90% of students interviewed found math “boring”, after watching episodes over a two-month period and completing lessons from the series’ teacher guide, 75% of those students no longer found math boring. Hendry added that the number of students who wanted a career that require math increased by 14% in the second poll; the students were better able to define concepts covered by TV series; they give correct answers to questions, and lists applications of the topics addressed to actual life conditions. Regarding English language class achievement Gilbert (2010) citing others said technology is very important for all students; particularly assertive technologies (i.e., any device that increases, maintains, or improves the functional capability) support students with disabilities.
To achieve the desired goal effective use of video is to engage student interest by introducing a concept that is then covered in detail during class (Hendry, 2001). For instance Hendry (2001) explained his argument by saying “ after the video introduction, which generally last from 5 to 15 minutes, the teacher has enough time to discuss the topic in introduced and work with students individually to ensure comprehension”.