The Challenges Posed By Rural-Urban Migration On Both Migrants and Their Immediate Famillies. A Case of Ha-Lebamang


Project Report, 2012
58 Pages, Grade: B

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TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGES

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

ABSTRACT

ACRONYMS

LIST OF TABLES

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND INFORMATION
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
MAIN OBJECTIVE
SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES
1.4 JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.6 DEFINITIONS AND MEASUREMENT OF TERMS

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE
2.1 INTRODUCTION
2.2 EMPIRICAL LITERATURE
2.2.1 OVERVIEW OF RURAL-URBAN MIGRATION
2.2.2 FACTORS THAT FACILITATE RURAL-URBAN MIGRATION
2.2.3 CHALLENGES FACED BY MIGRANTS AT THE PLACE OF DESTINATIONS
2.2.4 HOW MIGRANTS DEAL WITH THE CHALLENGES
2.2.5 CONSEQUENCES OF RURAL-URBAN MIGRATION
2.3 THEORETICAL LITERATURE
2.4 GAPS IN LITERATURE

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.1 INTRODUCTION
3.2 RESEARCH DESIGN
3.3 THE STUDY SITE
3.4 POPULATION
3.5 SAMPLE AND SELECTION PROCEDURES
3.6 DATA COLLECTION
3.7 DATA ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS/ FINDINGS
4.1 INTRODUCTION
4.2 SUB-TOPICS BASE ON STUDY PROBLEM AND OBJECTIVES

CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
5.1 INTRODUCTION
5.2 CONCLUSION
5.3 RECOMMENDATIONS

APPENDICES

APPENDIX A: NON-MIGRANTS (interview guide)

APPENDIX B: MIGRANTS (interviewguide)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Our sincere gratitude to all people who contributed in making this project a success. Above all, thanks to our supervisor Dr Phokojoe for patiently guiding US throughout this project. She assisted US with a remarkable guidance and was always eager to help US in problems that we encountered. Our special thanks to chief of Ha־Lebamang Mr. Shoaepane Maama and also the respondents’ cooperation in making this project possible. Finally, we want to thank National Manpower Development Secretariat with its sponsorship that has enabled this project to be accomplished.

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted by a group of six students at the National University of Lesotho as part of their academic requirement to investigate the challenges and consequences of rural-urban migration on migrants and their immediate families. The study was undertaken using semi structured interviews as a data collection method. Both migrants and their immediate families from Ha-Lebamang village in Roma were sellected using snowball sampling. Among twenty interviewees, ten were migrants while the other ten were members of immediate families.

The study examined the factors that facilitated rural-urban migration where most of the respondents said that they migrated to seek employment and a few respondents migrated because of hunger. Moreover, the study investigated challenges faced by migrants at their place of destination. Based on the findings it was found that most of the migrants were oppressed at work, others indicated that they faced challenges such as language barrier, not being paid well and incurring injuries at work.

The study also investigated how the migrants dealt with those challenges and the findings revealed that most of the migrants joined trade unions to overcome the challenges. Some migrants adapted to the working environment while others changed jobs. Furthermore, the study explored the consequences of rural-urban migration on immediate families of the migrants. Some migrants experienced positive and negative consequences of rural-urban migration. Positively, they were able to pay for school related issues and from the negative side they experienced burglary by thieves back home.

The data was analysed using content analysis as it is highly suitable for qualitative data. Both the migrants and their immediate families made recommendations pertaining to challenges and consequences of rural-urban migration on migrants and their immediate families. The researchers made their conclusions on the study findings. The .־־esearchers’ recommended that the government and the NGOs should help improve the rural areas.

ACRONYMS

Abbildung in dieser leseprobe nicht enthalten

LIST OF TABLES

APPENDIX A: NON-MIGRANTS

Table 4.1: distribution frequency of number of respondents by age and gender

Table 4.2: does the migrant send any remittance

Table 4.3: ways on how remittances help the respondents

Table 4.4: how rural-urban migration affected respondents' family

Table 4.5: respondent’s opinion on problems associated with rural-urban migration...

Table 4.6: respondent’s suggestions or comments on rural-urban migration

APPENDIX B: MIGRANTS

Table 4.7: distribution of respondents by age

Table 4.8: distribution of respondents by gender

Table 4.9: distribution of respondents by marital status

Table 4.10: migrants’ occupation

Table 4.11 distribution of respondents’ reasons to migrate

Table 4.12: distribution of respondents’ family members being taken care of back at home

Table 4.13: distribution of the respondents on whether they sent remittances or not

Table 4.14: challenges that confronted respondents

Table 4.15: how the respondents dealt with the challenges

Table 4.16: respondents’ comments concerning rural-urban migration

Table 4.17: respondents’ recommendations concerning rural-urban migration

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

In this chapter, there is background information of rural-urban migration, statement of the problem, objectives, justification of the study, research questions, definitions and measurement of terms.

1.1 BACKGROUND INFORMATION

Ha-Lebamang is a rural area found in Maseru in the constituency of Ha-Maama and it is under the rule of Mr. Shoaepane Maama. In the past years, most men at Ha-Lebamang used to migrate to South Africa to work in the mines but the situation lately has changed due to the closure of some of the mines. Some migrate to work as contractors while some work in the factories in the urban areas of Maseru. However, of late women at Ha- Lebamang migrate in a large number to work in the factories of Maseru in the urban areas while some of them migrate to South Africa to work as domestic workers.

Rural-urban migration is the movement of people from the country side to the city (Aday and Miles, 1992). Lesotho’s total population is estimated at around two million with annual growth rate of 2.0% during the decade 1986-1996. This figure of total population increased from 970 000 in 1996 to 1.2 million in 1976 and to 1.6 million in 1986. The annual growth rates during these inter-census decades were 2.3%, 2.6% and 2.0% respectively (Lesotho Bureau of Statistics, 2005).

The population living in urban areas has been small but it is increasing lately. This shows that like many developing countries Lesotho’s population is largely rural with livelihoods mostly based on subsistence agriculture which is lately affected by rural­urban migration. This is because when the able-bodied migrate, they leave children and elders behind who cannot undertake agricultural production as those who migrate reduce the labour force hence agricultural production decreases in the rural areas (Abellanosa and Pava, 1987).

Migrants are usually concerned with the benefits they hope to gain by moving and usually give less thought to the problems that may be generated as a result of rural­urban migration. These problems impact on both migrants and their immediate families. Rural-urban migration poses more challenges than the opportunities it seems to create for migrants and their families. These problems are of greater dimension and more severe in the African countries where the provision of public infrastructural facilities lags a thousand times behind the growth of the population.

In Lesotho, internal migration attracts people from the rural areas to the urban areas. This is because the rural areas are characterized by their mountainous nature, with harsh winters. The rural areas are less developed and as such offer very little opportunities for individual development. Internal migration is age and sex selective. Majority of internal migrants are the groups aged between 15-29 and mostly are men (Cameroon, 2002). Around the same time that men were being retrenched from the South African mines, there was also a dramatic growth in local female employment opportunities in Lesotho’s textile industry. Today, over 90% of Basotho employed in textile factories are young women most of who are internal migrants. The numbers of women migrants have risen as the number of male mineworkers has fallen, leading some to characterise Basotho female textile workers as the ‘new miners’ (Chaka, 2011).

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Most people who migrate are young adults. According to Lesotho Bureau of Statistics (2005), there were 52 450 migrants to South Africa. There are various factors that force people to migrate and such factors include; famine, drought, natural disasters, poor living conditions, poor education standard as well as unemployment among others. On the other hand, there are pull factors which include higher income, better health care and education.

At Ha-Lebamang, in the past years men used to migrate to South Africa to work in the mines. Lately, the situation has changed because both men and women migrate. Some men migrate to South Africa to work at the construction works while a proportion of them migrate to Maseru and Maputsoe to work in the factories. Large numbers of women migrate to Maseru and Maputsoe to work in the factories while a few numbers of them migrate to South Africa to work as domestic workers. Even though they migrate in large numbers, most of them find it difficult to find employment hence end up working in the informal sector. In addition, rural-urban migration has been found to be a problem because it affects the family structures of such families as they play very important roles like reproduction, production and community work. Their absence means that the three roles are likely to be negatively affected.

Rural-urban migration also affects agricultural practices negatively within the areas because both young and the elderly people are not fit for physical labour. People who migrate are men and women and this consequently results in a decline of protection within the community but if men do not migrate, a decline of protection within the community can be avoided. Also in the case where women have migrated, children are likely to become victims of rape. This study looked at the textile workers at Thetsane industrial area and contractors who migrated to urban areas of Maseru.

1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

MAIN OBJECTIVE

To investigate the challenges posed by rural-urban migration on both migrants and their immediate families.

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

To examine the factors that facilitated rural-urban migration.

To investigate the challenges faced by migrants at their place of destination.

To investigate how the migrants dealt with those challenges.

To explore the consequences of rural-urban migration on immediate families of the migrants.

1.4 JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY

This study was important in that it was a requirement for the researchers to obtain a degree. The study was also significant in that it helped the researchers to understand the challenges posed by rural-urban migration on both migrants and their immediate families. Again, the study helped the researchers to learn about the challenges of undertaking research and how to overcome them.

As a result of this study, the policy makers might include rural areas in development policies and programmes as they would know about the challenges posed by rural­urban migration. This implies that the government would probably develop both urban and rural areas. Copies of the study would be handed to national libraries so that the policy makers would know about it. It also helped migrants not to focus only on the pull factors to migrate but also considered on developing their own communities especially because some of them possess skills. This study would help returning migrants with new skills to develop their communities as well as how to tackle new challenges.

1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

What were the challenges posed by rural-urban migration on both migrants and their immediate families?

What were the factors that facilitated rural-urban migration?

What were the challenges faced by migrants at their place of destination?

How did migrants deal with those challenges?

What were the consequences of rural-urban migration on immediate families of the migrants?

1.6 DEFINITIONS AND MEASUREMENT OF TERMS CHALLENGES

A challenge is a general term referring to things that are imbued with a sense of difficulty and victory (Microsoft® student 2009). In this study, a challenge referred to an unfamiliar experience that eventually leads to a particular outcome.

CONSEQUENCES

A consequence is an act or instance of following something as an effect, result, or outcome (Microsoft® student 2009). For purposes of this study, a consequence meant both positive and the negative outcomes as a result of rural-urban migration.

MIGRATION

Migration is the movement of people from one place to another. It can be international (movement between countries) or internal (movement within a country often from rural to urban areas) (Dennis, 2009). The term migration was measured using rural and urban areas. In this case, migration referred to the movement of people from Ha- Lebamang to the urban areas of Maseru and Maputsoe.

RURAL AREAS

They are settled places outside towns and cities. Such areas are distinct from intensively settled urban and suburban areas and also from unsettled lands (Conburn, 2003). In this study, rural area referred to Ha-Lebamang which is found outside the city of Maseru and appears to lack economic development.

URBAN AREAS

They are featured by high population density and vast human features and continuous development (Raven and Berg, 2004). In this case an urban area referred to Maseru city and Maputsoe other cities.

RURAL-URBAN MIGRATION

Rural-urban migration is the movement of people from the country side to the city. Rural-urban migration was measured in terms of socio-economic status, gender and age (Aday and Miles, 1992). In this study, rural-urban migration meant movement of people from Ha-Lebamang to urban areas.

FAMILY

A group of people related to one another by bonds of blood, marriage or adoption and who live together for an economic unit and bear and raise children (Nijola, 2002). Family was measured in terms of nuclear and extended families. In this study, family referred to extended family which consists of wife, husband, children and other relatives of migrants.

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE

2.1 INTRODUCTION

The purpose of this chapter was to present the empirical literature which touched more on what other scholars have written about rural-urban migration. It has also presented a theory of migration that was related to this research.

2.2 EMPIRICAL LITERATURE

In this section, there is an overview of rural-urban migration, challenges, consequences that are faced by migrants and their immediate families. There are also factors that facilitate rural-urban migration.

2.2.1 OVERVIEW OF RURAL-URBAN MIGRATION

Like the rest of the Southern African region, Lesotho has a long history of internal and external migration. Traditionally, migrant labour has been a male preserve with males constituting the majority of migrant workers largely geared for the South African mines. However, anecdotal evidence shows that Basotho women also have a long history of external migration despite the harsh immigration laws of the apartheid system. Female labour migration has been on the rise in recent years with increasing numbers of women participating in both internal and cross border migration. Internal female migrants who are often very young (15-29) migrate from the rural areas towards the cities and industrial zones in the country in search of employment (International Organization for Migration, 2005).

To support this, Baylies and Wright (1993) did a study titled ‘Female Labour in the Textile and Clothing Industry of Lesotho’. These authors have shown that in Lesotho, textile and garment industries hire more women workers than men. This study has shown that 9.5 percent of labour force falls under manufacturing and textile while male counterparts make up only 3.1 percent. Turning a cloth into a finished garment is women related work such as sewing and ironing. There are no much physical activities for unskilled men. The dependence on female labour in the manufacturing industry leads to high level of female migration to the urban areas within the country. Lesotho would then appear to have an extra-ordinary high level of female involvement in these industries and this is a challenging issue simply because the concentration of these females is in sectors; where both skills and wages are low.

2.2.2 FACTORS THAT FACILITATE RURAL-URBAN MIGRATION

Where home employment opportunities are limited, women may be more apt than males to migrate for employment in order to support other household members. This migration affords women to escape from social and family constraints and provide them with greater independence. On the other hand, young men with limited access to family land and waged work also are driven to migrate. Between 1997 and 2000, the proportion of females among temporary migrants increased from 5% to 15% for adult women and from 15% to 25% for young adult women (Crush, Frayne and Grant, 2006). They further indicate that there is rise of gendered nature of migration lately. This is called féminisation of migration which refers to shifts in the character of women’s movements. In Southern African countries, there is a change in internal migration. The absolute number of female migrants has been increasing rapidly. In addition, they assert that gender and generation are significant in decision-making and selectivity.

Rural-urban migration has long been associated with economic development and growth in the economic literature. In particular, Todaro and Harris-Todaro-type probabilistic models that examine migration have concentrated on the expected wage disparities between rural and urban (formal) labour markets as a driving force behind migration decision. According Harris and Todaro (1970), the rapid movement of rural­urban migration reflects the desire of rural inhabitants to improve their economic situation: rural-urban migration results when the individual’s expected urban wage exceeds that for the rural sector (Saraçoğlu and Roe, 2004).

Moreover, Braun van (2004) states that people tend to be pulled to the areas of prosperity and pushed from areas of decline. Migrants are usually concerned with the benefits they hope to gain by moving and usually give less thought to the problems that may be generated as a result of this process. Some of these problems may impact more on the non-migrants left behind in the rural areas. Yet, this category of stakeholders in the rural-urban migration process is often not the focus in most policy debates influencing the process.

Lack of availability of sufficiently productive land is the most common cause of rural­urban migration. Environmental changes put stress on rural livelihoods but it is not sufficient to focus simply on the degree to which environmental change is likely to have an impact on household incomes and thus lead to migration (Morrissey, 2007).

2.2.3 CHALLENGES FACED BY MIGRANTS AT THE PLACE OF DESTINATION

On arrival at the urban centers, the migrants with little or no formal education or skills find that life is not as anticipated. There are no readily available jobs, majority find themselves in the informal sector with low incomes and lacking basic urban services and therefore not being able to improve their dwellings and living standards (Sida and Swedesurvey, 1998). In addition, migrants who are not educated often get exploited at work. Because of the unregulated nature of domestic work, many of the migrants have to face harsh working conditions and excessively long working hours.

Besides, language barriers are a fundamental hurdle for immigrants and appear to stop them from making vital connections in their communities. Even daily tasks like taking a bus or grocery shopping can be overwhelming. One Arab immigrant from New Jersey described being unable to ask a simple question to one employee in a local grocery store and ended his story with: “So I cried, not for the food, but because I was unable to express myself in English.” In addition to this, immigrants who do not speak English have to take jobs that don't pay as much money. This makes it very difficult for them to afford many of the things in this country that they hoped to have (Martin, 2002).

Stalker (1999) emphasises that immigrants also face discrimination including their children at school from classmates and teachers alike. Their children feel like they do not belong, and language barriers and academic struggles also add to the problem. ฯ think the education is good, but there is some discrimination,” said a Mexican immigrant in Schuyler, Neb. Another participant in that focus group added her own perceptions: ฯ think the same thing. There is a big difference between Americans and Hispanics. They pay more attention to Americans than Hispanics.” One of the underlying causes of the critical migrant worker situation in Japan is that officially the Japanese government does not accept foreign workers in their domestic market.

Crush, Frayne and Grant (2006) further emphasise that racism is a key feature of South Africa's immigration legislation and practice, both historically and despite the country's transition to democracy and equality. For example, the discriminatory and exploitative 'two gates policy', which differentiated between black migrants and white immigrants during the apartheid era, effectively remains legislated in contemporary immigration policy. Beyond the legislation, racism leads on xenophobic practices, with black African foreigners bearing the brunt of xenophobic discrimination, both at the hands of the public and at an institutional level. In certain cases, South African citizens have also fallen victim to xenophobia because they are perceived in racist terms as ‘too dark to be South Africans’.

Moreover, this discrimination of migrants leads to trauma. The innumerable losses that migrants experience when they migrate and resettle are often exacerbated by their experiences related to war, or to the violation of their rights as individuals or as a group, based on their race, religion, gender, nationality, political viewpoint, sexual orientation, or membership in a particular social group. In many cases, migrants coming to Canada have endured several years of trauma in their country of origin. Their families may have been separated or totally broken. Women and children may have faced torture, harassment, rape, or sexual and emotional abuse in the hands of government officials or of groups that are in a position of power over them (Conroy and Brennan, 2003).

Castles, Stephen, and Miller (1998) indicate that migrants experience culture shock at the place of destination. The culture shock may be greater in areas where cultural diversity is less apparent and fewer ethnic clubs are available to support entrants when they arrive. Culture shock is the name given to the physical and emotional distress that comes from being away from one’s familiar environment and having one's boundaries greatly changed. It affects almost everyone who becomes involved with a new culture.

This includes facing challenges to one's beliefs, values and practices and often feeling the need to change one's practices as a result. In addition, culture shock results in emotional distress and reinforces feelings of not belonging. In some cases, it may imply rejection which results in a tendency of migrants to isolate themselves and diminishing their ability to overcome their difficulties.

On the other hand, migrants often lose their identity when they arrive at urban areas. In order to adapt and be accepted migrants throw off all their customs and cultures. They want to associate themselves with urban people as they feel ashamed about their own identity. For some immigrants this struggle to defining themselves can lead to shame at where they come from, guilt at feeling bad about being ashamed and a feeling of incompleteness and disloyalty to those they left behind (Joshi,1999). The migrants lose their identity through the process of acculturation and adaptation.

Acculturation is the process by which members of one group adopt the cultural traits of another group with whom they are in contact. Acculturation, which is a significant part of the experience of resettling into a new country, involves the process of letting go of certain beliefs, values, and practices, from one's country of origin and adopting different beliefs, values, and practices that one is exposed to in the new country. The process of acculturation becomes a life-long challenge for every member of a family that migrates to other countries. Parents struggle to keep what is really valued to them and to their cultural community, while at the same time trying to facilitate their children's integration into where they have migrated.

2.2.4 HOW MIGRANTS DEAL WITH THE CHALLENGES

Ponter, (1974) claims that some migrants believed that lack of documentation is the main impediment keeping them from realizing their goals therefore they opt to apply for required documents and even go an extra mile to buy those if legal ways fail. They seek help so that they can have citizenship and therefore be able to own their own homes and businesses, scale back their work hours and spend more time with family and yet they feel they cannot do any of these things until they are legal.

There has been an increase in the number of migrants returning home due to the fact that some of them are unable to have legal documents which will enable them to find jobs. A large number of urban migrants in China have also returned home to rural areas. Also, Gulf state and Indonesian workers in Malaysia are two examples (Ponter, 1974).

Apart from that, Katherine (2006) argues that coming from a highly religious background where religious leaders are greatly respected, many new immigrants and refugees turn to churches and mosques for spiritual support upon arrival. Religious organizations also provide practical help such as food, shelter and clothing. Many offer English as a Second Language (ESL) classes and other educational programs. Their church tends to be the main and often first, meeting place for migrants. It is clear that religious organizations are able to provide a source of comfort.

When people move from the rural to the urban areas, they have in mind that they are coming to work and feed their relatives at home. It becomes a new story when their quest for employment becomes an illusion as there is no job to absorb them. To make ends meet, most people who migrate to the urban areas resort to stealing, armed robbery, prostitution, drug pushing and as they cannot afford a decent house to buy, they settle in a particular place and build houses made of wood, aluminum slate among others (Sabot, 1972).

2.2.5 CONSEQUENCES OF RURAL-URBAN MIGRATION

2.2.5.1 AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY

Rural-urban migration has some consequences on members in the places of origin. The people left behind at the rural areas lose valuable human resources such as agricultural labour and entrepreneurs as well as important family members and thereby slow down rural development (Richard, 1996).

The movement of people from rural to urban areas is a common occurrence in Nigeria and this movement poses some problems in the rural as well as in the urban center even though there are benefits derivable from it. In most rural areas, the impact of rural­urban migration was a rapid deterioration of the rural economy leading to chronic poverty and food insecurity (Mini, 2000). These arise mainly due to excessive drain of youth from the rural populace thus leaving only the younger and elderly members to constitute the labour force of the rural area.

Over the years, there has been a serious shortage of labour in the agricultural sector within the rural areas. Sierra Leone, like most other African countries is endowed with very fertile land capable of producing cereals as well as tubers in abundance. There is plenty of sunshine and rainfall; unfortunately the country is unable to feed itself simply because there is no labour to till the land. It is through that when a country is developing there is always the need to decrease the labour force in the agricultural sector and deplore the surplus labour in the industries (as in the case of Britain during the Industrial Revolution). Sierra Leone’s economy is still at its rudimentary stage and requires more labour to develop the agricultural sector (Nehme, 2004).

2.2.5.2 HEALTH

Migration and health keep complex relationships and interactions which operate both ways from migration to health and from health to migration and can be either positive or negative from beneficial to deleterious effects on health and from push to pull factors on migration. A most visible effect of population movements is that migrants may carry communicable diseases with them and propagate these diseases in host populations, from country to country and from region to region (Garenne, 2003).

According to Cherry (1988) the emerging HIV and AIDS epidemic in the 1980’s provoked the screening for HIV and restrictions to migration in countries as diverse as the USA, China, Russia and South Africa, though most of these controls were later lifted for protecting individual human rights. The screening for tuberculosis is still routine for migrant workers in many countries, though with the aim of appropriate treatment to stop the re-emergence of the disease.

In addition, Wilson (1995) indicates that migrants and travellers also contribute to the spread of certain communicable diseases within national populations, in particular from urban to rural areas. A classic example is provided by the sexually transmitted diseases (STD’s), which are transmitted primarily in cities within core groups often involving prostitution and other forms of multiple partnerships and are spread to the rural areas by returning migrant workers, merchants and travellers. Syphilis was spread this way throughout Europe, especially in the 19th century at the time of industrialisation and urbanisation.

Furthermore, new job opportunities attracted young single men and women from the rural areas, who were particularly susceptible to multiple partnerships, and STD’s. The dynamics of the HIV and AIDS epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa bears many similarities with the earlier syphilis epidemic in Europe, and is also closely linked to rapid urbanisation, (Shorter, 1992).

It is further stated that migration has clearly facilitated the rapid spread of HIV in the Southern African region over the last two decades. For a number of reasons, migrants and other mobile people are especially vulnerable to HIV/AIDS. The epidemic, in turn, is leading to new forms of migration, including children’s migration and return migration of People Living with HIV and AIDS to rural areas. Not only does this lead to a decline in remittances but it also places a greater burden on rural households. Rural food production for urban household members may also be negatively affected by the impact of HIV/AIDS on rural producers. In the context of HIV/AIDS, migrants may be unable to pursue other food security avenues including urban agriculture.

2.2.5.3 EDUCATION

When looking at the impact of migration and remittances on educational attainment, the underlying hypothesis is that remittances increase educational opportunities. The logic is that the remittances relax the household’s budget constraint, which previously limited educational investment, thereby enabling households in developing countries to invest in the human capital of children. Such an outcome is key in terms of country growth and development (Acosta, 2006).

Remittances significantly reduce the drop-out rate of individuals aged 6 to 24. Remittances also contribute positively to school attendance. Hanson and Woodruff (2003) explicitly recognize the complex interaction between migration and remittances and find that in Mexico, children in migrant households complete significantly more grades of school at a given age than do other children.

In addition, Rossi (2008) maintains that school enrolment or dropout may be limited proxies in measuring the impact of migration and remittances on the education of children left behind. The impact could simply be the result of a higher demand for institutionalized child care in families where one of the parents is migrating. Children of migrants fared better than the children of non-migrants, not only in terms of school attendance, but also in terms of results and achievement. The economic benefits of migration somehow translate into better outcomes for the children of migrants.

Migration only affects educational outcomes through remittances and not through any other channel. In addition, migration of a family member may have a number of other effects on child schooling. For example, parental absence as a result of migration may translate into less parental inputs into education acquisition and may also require remaining children to undertake housework or work to help meeting short-term labor and cash shortages (World Bank, 2005).

The positive effect on children’s academic performance may reflect specific patterns of investments migrant parents channel into children’s education. Bryant (2005) argues that in the Philippines, remittances were used to send children to private schools, which were considered better than public schools. He suggests that children in left behind households have a higher probability of attending private schools, and that on average they got better grades than non-migrant children.

Finally the extra income a household gains from remittances may allow children to delay entering the workforce in order to further their studies, increasing the final level of education (Hanson and Woodruff, 2003). Most of the lower income groups in the urban areas are engaged in low paid unskilled occupation. Such people normally have a lower level of formal education and their participation in the larger society is also limited hence why their awareness about developments around them and self expression skills are seldom heard and thus depriving them of opportunities from both social and economic grounds (Aier and Kithan, 2011 ).

2.3 THEORETICAL LITERATURE

This section consists of theoretical framework and Neo-classical economic theory was chosen as it was found to be relevant to this study as it showed that through rural-urban migration, rural areas supply the work force for the urban economy.

Neo-classical economic theory views rural-urban migration as a constituent part of the whole development process by which surplus labour in the rural areas supplies the workforce for the urban economy. By postulating that, it is a well-known fact of economic history that material progress usually has been associated with the gradual but continuous transfer of economic agents from rural based traditional agriculture to urban oriented modern industry (Todaro, 1976). Neo-classical migration theory is firmly entrenched in developmentalist modernization theory based on teleological views, interpreting and seeing development as a linear universal process consisting of successive stages.

This theory utilises micro-level, macro-level and explanations of migration. At the micro­level, neo-classical economic theory views migrants as individual and rational actors who decide to move on the basis of a cost-benefit calculation. Assuming free choice and full access to information, they are expected to go where they can be most productive, that is where they are able to earn the highest wages. This depends on the specific skills a person possesses and specific structure of labour markets (Haas, 2008).

It is further indicated that on the macro-level, this theory explains migration by geographical differences in the supply and demand for labour. It asserts that the resulting differentials in wages cause workers to move from low-wage, labour-surplus regions to high wage, labour-scarce regions. Migration causes labour to become scarce at the destination and scarcer at the sending areas. In addition, capital is expected to move in the opposite direction. According to this theory, this results in growing convergence between wages at the sending and receiving areas.

Haas (2008) further points out that many of the later refinements of neo-classical migration theory relate to the selectivity of migration. Without denying the importance of expected wage differentials, the likelihood of particular individuals and groups emigrating is also supposed to depend on both the costs and risks of migration and individual human capital characteristics. This makes migration selectivity also dependent on the specific structure and segmentation of labour markets determining chances to find employment as well as immigration policies. The combination of such factors may explain the heterogeneity and dynamism that characterize real-life migration systems.

In this study, Neo-classical economy theory is applicable because rural areas supplies urban areas with labour for the economic improvement. The theory further states that migrants are rational as they leave their rural areas for the betterment of their lives. Therefore the migrants’ immediate families enjoy the remittances and their standard of living improves.

2.4 GAPS IN LITERATURE

Rural-urban migration has long been associated with economic development and growth in the economic literature. In particular, Todaro and Harris-Todaro-type probabilistic models that examine migration have concentrated on the expected wage disparities between rural and urban (formal) labor markets as a driving force behind migration decision. According to Harris and Todaro (1970), the rapid movement of rural­urban migration reflects the desire of rural inhabitants to improve their economic situation: rural-urban migration results when the individual’s expected urban wage exceeds that for the rural sector (Saraçoğlu and Roe, 2004).

In addition, Wilson (1995) indicates that migrants and travelers also contribute to the spread of certain communicable diseases within national populations, in particular from urban to rural areas. A classic example is provided by the sexually transmitted diseases (STD’s), which are transmitted primarily in cities within core groups often involving prostitution and other forms of multiple partnerships, and are spread to the rural areas by returning migrant workers, merchants and travelers. Syphilis was spread this way throughout Europe, especially in the 19th century at the time of industrialization and urbanization.

Rural-urban migration contributes to language barriers that are a fundamental hurdle for immigrants and appear to stop them from making vital connections in their communities. Even daily tasks like taking a bus or grocery shopping can be overwhelming (Martin, 2002).

The literature portrays language as one of the challenges for migrants but it does not specifically talk about the countries which use monolingual such as Lesotho. The literature also portrays challenges and consequences of rural-urban migration in general but not specifically migrants from Ha-Lebamang. It emphasises that rural-urban migration has long been associated with economic development and growth in general but it does not specifically say anything about the economic development and growth in Lesotho. The literature further shows that people who have migrated to the urban areas return to the rural areas sick suffering from diseases such as sexually transmitted diseases. In this study the main focus was to investigate the general challenges posed by rural-urban migration on both migrants and their immediate families from Ha- Lebamang.

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY

3.1 INTRODUCTION

This chapter consists of methodology which is composed of the study site, population, sample and selection procedures, methods of data collection, data collection, data analysis techniques as well as ethical considerations.

3.2 RESEARCH DESIGN

This study adopted qualitative research design. Denzin and Lincoln (2000) claim that qualitative research involves an interpretive and naturalistic approach. Qualitative researchers study things in their natural settings, attempting to make sense of or to interpret phenomena in terms of the meanings people bring to them. In addition to that, Conger (1998) states that qualitative research is important because of its flexibility to follow unexpected ideas during research and explore processes effectively and increased opportunities to develop empirically supported new ideas and theories for in­depth and longitudinal explorations of social phenomena.

3.3 THE STUDY SITE

The research was conducted at Ha-Lebamang which falls within Maama constituency. Ha־Maama is found in outskirts of Maseru district. It is approximately 30 km from Maseru. This study site was chosen because it is a typical rural area which is characterised by migration.

3.4 POPULATION

Population is a group of potential participants to whom a researcher generalises the results of the study. According to Jegede (1998:114), population is the totality of all the observations that an investigator is concerned with. The population was people of Ha- Lebamang which consists of approximately two thousands according to the village chief.

3.5 SAMPLE AND SELECTION PROCEDURES

A sample is group of units chosen to be included in the study. The sample size was twenty families of which ten were migrants and the other ten were their immediate families. The sampling technique which was used to conduct this study was snowball because the researcher chose few respondents and asked them to recommend other people who met the criteria of the research and who were willing to participate in the project. This process is continued with new respondents until no more substantial information can be acquired through additional respondents or until no more respondents are available (Sarantakos, 2005).

This sampling technique was appropriate for this study when the members of a special population were difficult to locate. It was also appropriate in that it could find a sample of non-migrants and migrant workers.

3.6 DATA COLLECTION

The tool used was an interview guide. An interview is a purposeful discussion between two or more people that can help you gather valid and reliable data that is relevant to your research objectives (Creswell, 1998). Face-to-face interviews allowed personal communication and made it possible to gather more information for this study as the interviewer was able to see respondents' body language which could guide the interviewer and helped interpret comments. Furthermore, Babbie (1998:264) says, “the presence of the interviewer generally decreases the number of the ,don't knows’ or even no answers to other questions since the interviewer can probe”.

3.7 DATA ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

The researcher analysed data using qualitative method known as conceptual analysis which is another form of content analysis. Content analysis is a technique for making inferences by objectively and systematically identifying specified characteristics of messages (Babbie, 2001). According to Palmquist (1993) cited in Babbie (2001), the process of conceptual analysis compresses eight steps namely: deciding on the level of analysis, deciding how many concepts to code for, deciding whether to code the existence of frequency of a concept, deciding how to distinguish among concepts, developing rules for the coding of texts, deciding what to do with the irrelevant information, coding texts and analysing results.

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS/ FINDINGS

4.1 INTRODUCTION

This chapter deals with sub-topics based on study problems and objectives. This study was undertaken to investigate the challenges posed by rural-urban migration on both migrants and their immediate families. There were twenty people interviewed from Ha- Lebamang and interview questions were written in English although questions were asked in Sesotho. Qualitative data was analysed and presented through the use of tables. Each table would be followed by interpretation of the data.

4.2 SUB-TOPICS BASED ON STUDY PROBLEM AND OBJECTIVES NON-MIGRANTS

TABLE 4.1: DISTRIBUTION FREQUENCY OF NUMBER OF RESPONDENTS BY AGE AND GENDER

Abbildung in dieser leseprobe nicht enthalten

The table above shows gender and age distribution of respondents of the non-migrants at Ha-Lebamang. There were ten respondents who were interviewed of which 70% were women and 30% of them were men. The interval between the age groups to analyse this data was 10. The age groups ranged from 25-35 and the last age group was 58-68. Looking at the frequency of men non-migrants two of them were of age group 25-35 and there was only one person who was between the age of 58 and 68 years. For both men and women, the age group which had the highest percentage was 58-68 with 40% of all the non-migrants while the lowest percentage 10% made by both men and women was of the age group 36-46. 20% was the number of both men and women who were in the age group 47-57. With regard to this observation, this illustrates that the elderly were found in greater numbers at home than other age groups. Women were the ones who occupied all of the age groups and this shows that they were the ones who were still staying at home while men had migrated to urban areas to seek employment while others had probably died.

TABLE 4.2: DOES THE MIGRANT SEND ANY REMITTANCES

Abbildung in dieser leseprobe nicht enthalten

In table 4.2 the respondents were asked if the migrants sent any remittances; and 80% of them said yes while 20% said no.

TABLE 4.3: WAYS ON HOW REMITTANCES HELP THE RESPONDENTS

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Table 4.3 shows ways on how remittances help the respondent’s families. Among the interviewed respondents, 40% of the respondents said the remittance helped them with groceries. 20% of the respondents said that the migrants did not send any remittances. There were also 10% of respondents who said they used the remittances to build a tuck shop. Another 10% of the respondents mentioned that they used the remittances to pay the children’s bus fare to school. In addition, 10% of the respondents said they used the remittances to buy uniforms and lunch for children. Lastly, 10% of the respondents mentioned that they used the remittances to pay school fees and buy school uniforms. The respondents with higher percentage mentioned that they bought groceries with the remittance send to them. The reason behind this might be that food is necessary for their survival. Moreover, 30% of the respondents indicated that they used the remittances for school related issues and this might be because they still have young children to take to school.

Respondent number two:רnormally use the remittances to pay transport and lunch box for my sister’s children because they travel a long distance to school”.

Respondent number three: “I am able to buy myself groceries and clothes as well as paying the society schemes so I do not have any debts”.

Respondent number four: “with the remittances, I am able to meet my family’s needs such as buying uniforms and lunch for my kids. My kids always wear proper uniform.’’

Respondent number seven: lithe remittances help me in paying school fees and buying the uniform of our child. The government does not help me to pay school fees for child who is at secondary school”.

Respondent number nine: “we buy food and other necessary things in the household like 50 kg of meal, oil and other important things for herdboys who stay at the cattle post”.

TABLE 4.4: HOW RURAL-URBAN MIGRATION AFFECTED FAMILIES

Abbildung in dieser leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 4.4 shows responses pertaining to how rural-urban migration had affected the immediate families of migrants. 20% of the respondents showed that they were taking care of children that were not theirs. One 10% of the respondents said that rural-urban migration had caused lack of security in the family because when men had migrated there would be nobody to protect the family and even criminals would have no fear of attacking such families.

In addition, 20% indicated that agricultural productivity had decreased and this could be because the active labour had migrated and only children and the elderly were left in the rural areas. Besides that, 10% emphasised that the migrants had abandoned the family and this could be due to the fact that some migrants had abandoned their families and created other new families at their place of destination, 20% indicated that they were affected emotionally and psychologically and that they missed the migrants. The other T0% claimed that rural-urban migration had worsened poverty in the family. The reason could be that the money the migrants earned was insufficient and could not accommodate both the migrant and the family back home. Instead, the family themselves sent money to the migrant.

However, 10% indicated that they were not affected by rural-urban migration. The reason might be that, the migrant’s family members did not see any difference when one had migrated or had not migrated because for instance, the family would suffer yet the migrants were still there.

Respondent number two: “it has caused burden because I am now taking care of her children and she does not help me to see to it that those children have their daily bread".

Respondent number four: “it has affected me in that there are activities that I am not able to do by myself such as ploughing the fields because I am very old".

Respondent number ten: “causes me stress because I keep worrying about how my children are where they have gone as they are still young”.

Respondent number three; “there are problems when it comes to agriculture because I have to pay people who plough my fields. I do not have enough strength to go to the fields myself’.

TABLE 4.5: RESPONDENTS’ OPINION ON PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH RURAL-URBAN MIGRATION

Abbildung in dieser leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 4.5 above illustrates respondents’ opinion on problems associated with rural­urban migration. 30% showed that rural-urban migration caused diseases while 30% did not have any opinion regarding rural-urban migration. 20% suggested that migrants neglected their own family, 10% of the respondents showed that children of migrants became burden on neighbours while the other 10% indicated that children were likely to lose morals when staying alone.

Respondent number three: “some people leave their families and when they get to urban areas they get married and come back when they are sick’.

Respondent number nine: “people who have migrated come home sick, for example those who work as contractors may have tuberculosis due to unsatisfying conditions at work’.

Respondent number four:״children who are staying alone misbehave. This is because they dé not have anybody controlling them. They have more freedom”.

Respondent number five: “it causes some migrants to abandon their families and children by not coming back home". They often establish new families by marrying other people when arriving at the urban areas".

TABLE 4.6: RESPONDENTS’ SUGGESTIONS OR COMMENTS ON RURAL-URBAN MIGRATION

Abbildung in dieser leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 4.6 shows the respondents’ suggestions or comments on rural-urban migration. 50% indicated that the government should create jobs in the rural areas and 20% of the respondents said that the government should provide fertilisers to improve agriculture in the rural areas. In addition 10% suggested that the government should also improve infrastructure in the rural areas. Moreover, 10% claimed that the rural people should be helped to start small projects. On top of that 10% suggested that all of the above mentioned activities should be initiated in the rural areas.

Respondent number one: “the government should help US with fertilisers and other agricultural equipment so that we can produce crops in large quantities for commercial purposes".

Respondent number two: / think government should create jobs so that people will not stay far away from home so that they can spend more of their income on their families’’.

Respondents number six: “government should create jobs in rural areas so that they can travel from home to work every day. This will save money”.

Respondent number ten: “there should be creation of small projects in the rural areas such as rearing of pigs and chickens as a source of income”.

MIGRANTS

4.7: DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS’ BY AGE

Abbildung in dieser leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 4.7 shows the tabulation of respondents by age. The ages were for both men and women who migrated to the urban areas. The total number of people who were interviewed was 10. 40% ranged between 36-46, 20% ranged between 47-57 and 30% of the respondents ranged between 2535־. The last 10% ranged between 58-68. The age group which had the highest frequency was 36-46. The observation was that young adults were the ones who migrated more. This was because at this age people were eager to improve their standard of living. In contrast, the age group 58-68 had the lowest frequency. The reason behind this was that at this age people were not physically fit and active to participate in economic market. In addition, at this age most people were being taken care of by their children, or at most taking care of those children.

TABLE 4.8: DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY GENDER

Abbildung in dieser leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 4.8 indicates the distribution of respondents by gender. There were 10 respondents who were interviewed of which both men and women constituted 50% each. This implies that both men and women were likely to migrate at a similar rate. Unlike in the past where men were more migratory than women, the situation is now different as women are now also involved in the labour market. This could also be due to the recent mine retrenchments.

TABLE 4.9: DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY MARITAL STATUS

Abbildung in dieser leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 4.9 above illustrates the marital status of the ten respondents of which 40% were married while 20% were single and the other 20% were divorced. Furthermore, 10% were separated and other 10% were widowed. Looking at the table above, one can conclude that married people constituted a large number of migrants while the lower percentage was of both separated and widowed. The reason might be that they had migrated to look for employment so that they could support their families.

TABLE 4.10: MIGRANTS’ OCCUPATION

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Table 4.10 illustrates the non-migrants’ responses about migrant’s occupation. Among all the respondents, 80Ω/ο worked at the factories and 20% as contractors in the urban areas of Maseru. Out of 80% of men and women working in the factories, 70% were women while 10% were men. The table shows that women are more likely to find employment in factories than men. This could be that women are, in recent years, no more dependent on men but also because men have been retrenched from the mines. Women therefore had to take responsibility of providing for their families. There were no women who were working as contractors while there were 20% of men.

TABLE 4.11 DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS’ REASONS TO MIGRATE

Abbildung in dieser leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 4.11 above shows the distribution of migrant’s reasons to migrate. 70% of the migrants said that they had migrated to the urban areas in order to seek for employment. 10% pointed out that hunger forced them to migrate while 10% claimed that they migrated because they wanted a better life. The other 10% went further to say that both hunger and employment were the push factors towards their migration.

Respondent number one: “to look for a job because there was no food in the family and I needed clothes so that I can be presentable to other people".

Respondent number six: ‘7 wanted a job to boost my self esteem. You know when you’re a man you need to work so that people can respect you”.

Respondent number seven: “to look for a job, there was no food in the family because I could not produce enough in the fields to feed my family".

Respondent number three: “hunger forced me to leave my family and look for a job. I remember one day when we went to bed without eating”.

Respondent number four: ‘7 wanted to live a better life and stop begging other people to help me. I wanted to do things for myself’.

Respondent number nine:״after my husband and I divorced, we had nothing to eat because he took all the fields that we used to plant so I had to seek for an employment”.

TABLE 4.12: DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS’ FAMILY MEMBERS BEING TAKEN CARE OF BACK AT HOME

Abbildung in dieser leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 4.12 shows the distribution of respondents’ family members being taken care of back home. Of the 10 migrants who were interviewed, 70% of the respondents were taking care of the family members while 30% did not have any family member to take care of.

TABLE 4.13: DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONDENTS ON WHETHER THEY SENT REMITTANCES OR NOT

Abbildung in dieser leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 4.13 shows the distribution of the migrants on whether they sent remittances back home or not. 70% of the migrants indicated that they sent remittances back home. The reason behind this might be that migrants had people to take care of back home. However, 30% did not send any remittances. It could be concluded that this was because they did not have any family members which they were taking care of back home.

TABLE 4.14: CHALLENGES CONFRONTING RESPONDENTS

Abbildung in dieser leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 4.14 demonstrates the responses concerning challenges confronted by migrants at the place of destination. All the ten respondents claimed that they faced some problems at place of destination even though their challenges were not the same. 40% claimed that they were oppressed, 10% were prone to injuries at work, violence between workers as well as language difficulty and 30% had problems associated with payments. Furthermore, 10% had problems with language and the remaining 10% were underemployed.

Respondent number ten: ‘7 had the problem of the manager. At first he wanted me to work unpaid overtime. I did not have the problem to work but I needed money for overtime”.

Respondent number seven: “working too much and working under pressure has been a great challenge because I was expected to perform several tasks even though I was not paid for that.

Respondent number six; 7 as a worker, did not have a say in decision-making, the employer is the boss and therefore I have to obey everything regardless of the conditions”.

Respondent number five: ‘7 did not face a lot of challenges like I expected but one of the challenges was the language of my manager as he is a foreigner’.

TABLE 4.15: HOW THE RESPONDENTS DEALT WITH THE CHALLENGES

Abbildung in dieser leseprobe nicht enthalten

The illustration from the table above shows how the respondents dealt with the challenges at their work place. 40% of them collectively joined the trade unions so that they could get help to resolve their conflicts, 30% decided to adapt to the working environment and the other 10% had to learn the language so that they could easily communicate with the manager. In this very situation, other 20% decided to change their jobs.

Respondent number five: 7 learned the language and now I am able to communicate with my manager. I attended classes which helped me to learn the language”.

Respondent number nine: 7 had to adapt because there was no other way, what could you have done if you were me? Money only mattered to me”.

Respondent number three: ‘7 quit my first job and looked for another job where I am treated like a human being. In this current job I am paid much better than the previous one”.

Respondent number two: “as employees, we came together and stated our problems and appointed one person to represent US and act as union representative”.

Respondent number six: “we formed a union so that our complaints would be heard. Unions are very helpful because they negotiate better working environment and better salary on our behalf1.

Respondent number ten: “my workers' scheme was always there for me in times of troubles. The scheme provides medical assistance forus when we incurred injuries”.

TABLE 4.16: RESPONDENTS’ COMMENTS CONCERNING RURAL-URBAN

MIGRATION

Abbildung in dieser leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 4.16 shows respondents’ comments concerning rural-urban migration. 20% suggested that rural-urban migration is likely to improve access to information and standard of living, 10% of the respondents suggested that rural-urban migration would develop urban areas at the expense of the rural areas and the other 10% claimed that rural-urban migration caused marriage break ups while 20% said that it caused loss of morals. There was also 10% of migrants which showed that people migrated because there were no jobs at Ha־Lebamang. Furthermore, 10% also claimed that the government should create jobs in the rural areas in order to reduce rural-urban migration. The other 20% did not have any comment concerning rural-urban migration.

Respondents number five: “through rural-urban migration people can know many things and can also improve their standard of living by using technology”.

Respondent number two: “I dislike rural-urban migration because it develops other areas instead of developing our own area. The rural areas are in this situation because the government develops urban areas with the hope that migrants can send remittances back home”.

Respondent number seven: “rural-urban migration causes a lot of marriage break ups because the spouses are separated”. Most of migrants say that they become bored when are at the urban areas hence have sexual relationship with other people. This leads to marriage break ups”.

Respondent number eight: “rural-urban migration makes people from the rural areas to be wild when they arrive at the urban areas where they are exposed to lot of things”.

TABLE 4.17: RESPONDENTS’ RECOMMENDATIONS CONCERNING RURAL­URBAN MIGRATION

Abbildung in dieser leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 4.18 above shows respondents’ recommendations concerning rural-urban migration. 60% of all the respondents suggested that the government should intervene in order to reduce the chances of people migrating. For instance, 30% said that the government should improve rural areas. 10% suggested that those who had businesses should give jobs to the unemployed; the other 10% suggested that rural people should initiate projects while the last 20% claimed that agricultural cooperatives should be nearer to the rural people.

Respondent number two: “the government should help US to improve agricultural productivity also people should be given training in order for the community to be skilled in sewing, cooking for women and other interested men”.

Respondent number five;״the government should allow people to move from one place to another especially across the boundaries so that Basotho can learn some ways of improving their lives”.

Respondent number eight: '7 would suggest that a lot of improved services should be moved to the rural areas so that rural-urban migration can decrease”.

Respondent number seven; “people in the rural areas can be given an opportunity to use their fields to produce the crops for commercial purposes where they will get money to meet their basic needs”.

Respondent number six: “agricultural cooperatives should be brought near, they should not only be available in the urban areas as it becomes more expensive for people to access fertilisers and seeds”.

CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION

5.1 INTRODUCTION

This chapter is about the conclusions and recommendations made by the respondents regarding rural-urban migration.

5.2 CONCLUSION

After conducting research, the observation was that most of the non-migrants were females ranging from the ages twenty- five to sixty-eight. Most of the females who were found at Ha-Lebamang were of the older age. A large number of female migrants were employed in the factories while most of the men were contractors. The observation was also that, most migrants were working at the factories in the urban areas of Maseru.

The specific objective of the study was to examine the factors that facilitated rural-urban migration at Ha-Lebamang. Based on the findings, most of the migrants migrated because they were looking for employment. Crush, Frayne and Grant (2006) supported the findings that people migrated because they were seeking employment. On the other hand, Morrissey (2007) showed that lack of availability of sufficiently productive land in the rural areas is the most common causes of rural-urban migration. It can therefore be concluded that people from Ha-Lebamang migrated to look for jobs in the urban areas.

Furthermore, the focus of this study was to investigate the challenges faced by migrants at their place of destination. The findings showed that most of the migrants were oppressed at work. On the contrary, stalker (1999) showed that discrimination, culture shock, loss of identity and trauma were some of the challenges confronting migrants. Based on the findings, oppression was the main challenge that migrants faced at the place of destination.

Moreover, the study investigated how migrants dealt with the challenges they confronted and the findings showed that most of the respondents joined trade unions to overcome them. However, Ponter (1974) indicated that migrants sought help at the place of destination so that they could have citizenship, many new migrants turned to churches and mosques for spiritual support upon arrival, some migrants returned home and others resorted to stealing, armed robbery, prostitution, drug pushing and as they could not afford a decent house to buy, they settled in a particular place and built houses made of wood, aluminum slate among others. Based on the findings it can be concluded that trade unions.helped migrants to deal with their everyday challenges they met at the work place.

Also, this study explored the consequences of rural-urban migration on immediate families of the migrants. The findings showed that most people said that rural-urban migration had different consequences on their families. Besides, Richard (1996) showed that the people left behind at the rural areas lost valuable human resources such as agricultural labour and entrepreneurs, migrants were likely to carry communicable diseases with them and propagated these diseases in host populations and that remittances increased educational attainment. From the findings of this study, it can be concluded that rural-urban migration had various consequences on the migrants’ families.

Finally, it can be concluded that rural-urban migration improved the standard of living of migrants’ immediate families.

5.3 RECOMMENDATIONS

> The government should create jobs in the rural areas to decrease rate of rural­urban migration.

> The Non Governmental Organisations (NGOs) should establish small projects to generate income for people in the rural areas.

> The government should deduct certain amount of money from the migrants and give it to their immediate families.

> The government should improve infrastructure in the rural areas.

> The NGOs and Government should help rural people to upgrade their skills.

The National University of Lesotho

Faculty of Social Sciences

Department of Sociology, Anthropology and Social Work

The challenges posed by rural-urban migration on both migrants and their immediate families: A case of Ha-Lebamang

Research Project Interview Guide

The study is aimed at examining the challenges posed by rural-urban migration on both migrants and their immediate families. This is an academic interview schedule for social science research that is aimed at benefiting sociology students.

Appendix A. Non-Migrants

1. Age
2. Gender male female
3. Has anybody migrated in your family?
5. Gender of migrant male female
4. To which place has he/she migrated?
6. What caused her/him to migrate?
7. Does this migrant(s) send any remittances?
8. If yes, how do those remittances help you?
9. How has rural-urban migration affected your family?
10. What ¡ก your opinion are problems associated with rural-urban migration?
11. Do you have any particular comments/suggestions you would like to make?

The National University of Lesotho

Faculty of Social Sciences

Department of Sociology, Anthropology and Social Work

The challenges posed by rural-urban migration on both migrants and their immediate families: A case of Ha-Lebamang

Research Project Interview Guide

The study is aimed at examining the challenges posed by rural-urban migration on both migrants and their immediate families. This is an academic interview schedule for social science research that is aimed at benefiting sociology students.

Appendix B. Migrants

1. Age
2. Gender male female
3. Marital status
A. Single
B. Married
c. Divorced
D. Separated
E. Widowed
4. Have you attended school?
5. If yes, up to which level?
6. What is your occupation?
7. Actually, what caused you to migrate?
8. Do you have any family members you are taking care of back at home?
9. Do you send them any remittances?
10. If yes, how much do you normally send?
11. Do you think they use them as intended? Please explain
12. What are the challenges you confronted since you migrated?
13. How do you deal with those challenges?
14. Do you have any particular comments in so far as rural-urban migration is concerned?
15. What recommendations would you like to make?

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58 of 58 pages

Details

Title
The Challenges Posed By Rural-Urban Migration On Both Migrants and Their Immediate Famillies. A Case of Ha-Lebamang
Course
Research Project
Grade
B
Authors
Year
2012
Pages
58
Catalog Number
V445718
Language
English
Notes
A RESEARCH PROJECT SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF SOCIOLOGY, SOCIAL ANTHROPOLOGY AND SOCIAL WORK IN OARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE BACHELOR OF ARTS
Tags
Migration, Rural-Urban Migration, Lesotho
Quote paper
M. Nkoko (Author)M. Mpobole (Author)M. Mokheti (Author)S. Matsoso (Author)T.T. Rabhoko (Author)L. Mosoeunyane (Author), 2012, The Challenges Posed By Rural-Urban Migration On Both Migrants and Their Immediate Famillies. A Case of Ha-Lebamang, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/445718

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