Sustainable Urban Development. Drawing Lessons for Lagos City

A Comparative Analysis of Freiburg (Germany), Ahmedabad (India) and Durban (South Africa)


Master's Thesis, 2018
107 Pages, Grade: 3.52

Excerpt

TABLE OF CONTENT

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I

ABSTRACT II

TABLE OF CONTENT III

TABLES VI

FIGURES VII

ABBREVIATIONS VIII

CHAPTER 1- INTRODUCTION
1.1 PROBLEM STATEMENT
1.2 AIM, OBJECTIVE AND RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.3 IMPORTANCE OF THE RESEARCH
1.4 LIMITATIONS OF THE RESEARCH
1.5 METHODOLOGY OF THE RESEARCH
1.6 SCOPE OF THE THESIS

CHAPTER 2 - LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 HISTORY OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
2.2 AN OVERVIEW OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
2.2.1 Pillars of sustainable development
2.3 SUSTAINABLE URBAN DEVELOPMENT
2.3.1 The Concept of a Sustainable City
2.3.2 The Concept of Urban Sustainability
2.4 GOAL 11 OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS (SDGs)

CHAPTER 3 – COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS: SAMPLE CITIES STUDY
3.1 SAMPLE STUDY SELECTION CRITERIA
3.2 SAMPLE STUDY 1- FREIBURG (GERMANY)
3.2.1 Built Environment in Freiburg
3.2.2 Transportation in Freiburg
3.2.3 Urbanization in Freiburg
3.2.4 Land Conservation in Freiburg
3.2.5 Energy in Freiburg
3.2.6 Waste Management in Freiburg
3.3 SAMPLE STUDY 2- AHMEDABAD (INDIA)
3.3.1 Built Environment in Ahmedabad
3.3.2 Transportation in Ahmedabad
3.3.3 Urbanization in Ahmedabad
3.3.4 Land Conservation in Ahmedabad
3.3.5 Energy in Ahmedabad
3.3.6 Waste Management in Ahmedabad
3.4 SAMPLE STUDY 3- DURBAN (SOUTH AFRICA)
3.4.1 Built Environment in Durban
3.4.2 Transportation in Durban
3.4.3 Urbanization in Durban
3.4.4 Land Conservation in Durban
3.4.5 Energy in Durban
3.4.6 Waste Management in Durban
3.5 COMPARATIVE EVALUATION

CHAPTER 4- CASE STUDY ANLAYSIS
4.1 BRIEF HISTORY OF THE STUDY AREA
4.1.1 Overview of Efforts Agitated towards the Legislative Planning in Lagos State
4.1.2 Urban Development in Lagos State
4.2 SUSTAINABILITY ANALYSIS OF LAGOS CASE STUDY
4.2.1 Built Environment in Lagos
4.2.2 Transportation in Lagos
4.2.3 Urbanization in Lagos
4.2.4 Land conservation in Lagos
4.2.5 Energy in Lagos
4.2.6 Waste management in Lagos

CHAPTER 5- CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 CONCLUSION
5.2 RECOMMENDATIONS

REFERENCES

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

All praise and adoration are due to God Almighty, who has made it possible for me to complete this research. A special thanks goes to my wonderful parents Engr. and Mrs. Oluwafemi for their moral and financial support, may the Lord Almighty grant them peace and long life to reap the fruit of their labor.

It is always amazing how generously people offer their time, encouragement and expertise for others to succeed. I wish to appreciate the efforts of Dr. Gizem Caner, who is more than a supervisor to me in the cause of this project, your interest in this research made it easier and a huge success. May the good Lord continue to bless her abundantly.

Ibrahim Eweje, no one else can do what he does, the way he does it, may God bless you.

To my siblings, Demilade, Damilola, Opeyemi and Ireoluwa, many thanks for their support and contribution towards the success of this project.

To my friends, Dasilva Omolade, Nwabundo Okafor, Christabel Osamor, Eghosa Noel Ekhaese, Olamilekan Adeleke Arowolo, Sonia and Glory, Abdulsalam Ibrahim Shema, Joshua Ogunkola and others, the memory of our togetherness shall remain fresh.

To my loving, cute and wonderful child for always being there for me. Jasmine Toluwani Oluwafemi is my princess forever. I love you so much.

To the entire staff of the Faculty of the Fine Art, Design and Architecture of the Cyprus International University, words cannot express how grateful I am for the knowledge you have impacted me.

ABSTRACT

Sustainable urban development is a wide topic that has been discussed globally. Sustainability draws on politics, economics and philosophy and other social sciences as well as the hard sciences. Sustainability as incorporating economic and social dimensions is widely accepted as the architectural importance to the societies based on the economic growth, social progress and effective protection of the environment.

With the rise of concerns about the consequences of human activity and based on Brundtland report in 1980, Sustainable development paradigm was introduced. This approach in different aspects of economic, social, cultural and environmental has been extended; today in urban planning literature, it has a special place. In order to achieve the sustainable urban development, first concepts, theories and indicators must be identified and examined to be able to provide strategies for the sustainable development of cities. This thesis aims to compare sustainable urban development practices across the globe in order to draw lessons for Lagos. In order to do this, a comparative analysis is carried out. 3 cities have been chosen: Freiburg (Germany) Ahmedabad (India), and Durban, (South Africa). These cities are compared according to the three principles of sustainability, which are environmental protection, social and economic principles. Eventually, Lagos is evaluated according to the same principles in order to determine where it stands with regards to sustainable urban development.

Keywords; sustainability, sustainable development, sustainable urban development, cities.

TABLES

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FIGURES

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ABBREVIATIONS

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CHAPTER 1- INTRODUCTION

Urban development and its influence on the living conditions and the environment itself has been a topic of discussion over the years. However it was not until the 1990s that the term “sustainable cities” surfaced as a key term found in scholarly works. With the birth of the term “sustainable development” which was manifested in the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development (WCED, 1987), “sustainability” continued to receive world recognition and more attention.

Sustainable development summit held in New York, 2015, formed an agenda "2030 agenda of sustainable development", which consisted of 17 sets of sustainable development goals (SDGs), these goals were aimed at ending poverty, fighting inequality injustice, and tackling climate change by 2030. "Goal 11" of the SDGs pinpoint “Sustainable Cities and Communities” –with an aim to make cities and human settlement inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable. The Goal 11 of SDG is a key aspect of this thesis which would be explored in subsequent chapters.

Several challenges have hampered sustainable urban development. Miyazawa (2012), highlights some key factors: the absence of realizing how important sustainable development is, restricted access to capital, inadequate financial and technical capacity for implementation, inappropriate human ability for proper evaluation, restricted awareness of the public and unavailability of change in lifestyles. Rapid growth in cities in most developing countries, coupled with increasing rural to urban migration, has led to a population boom in megacities (Nam, 2015). These factors are in relation to the case study (Lagos) where a rapid growth in the city has create a need to develop sustainably.

The goal of sustainable development is to better the quality of people’s lives and standard of living now and for the generations to come. In other words; Sustainable development means assuming responsibility – both for the present and for future generations, nationally and internationally. Therefore this thesis would be discussing sustainable urban development relating to cities approach towards attaining them. Three cities –sample studies would be used, to investigate the SUD policies and approaches and lesson will be drawn from them to be and suggested implementation to Lagos.

1.1 PROBLEM STATEMENT

In recent years sustainable urban development has become a watchword to urban planners and designers. However with the growing interest in having a viable and sustainable urban environment, a plethora of nations have adopted several principles and approaches to attain some basic categories of a sustainable city: safety of the dwellers; provision of affordable housing; provision of basic services; upgrading of slums, ease of accessibility & transportation, land use, sustainable infrastructure, and the protection of cultural and natural heritage to name a few.

However in Lagos, achieving sustainable urban development has not been effectively progressive. This is mainly due to several reasons: an increase in inhabitable sites, lack of adequate infrastructures, zero to no awareness about the environment, increase in poverty and lack of protection for cultural and natural heritage. This indicates limitation to existing sustainable urban development structure in Lagos, which is the commercial capital of Nigeria, creating an urgent need for a more proactive measure to be taken towards creating a viable and sustainable city.

In line with these sentiments, this research examine sustainable urban development through a comparative study of cities in order to explore their built environment, transportation, urbanization, land conservation and energy and waste management. The same systematic was used to analyze Lagos as a case study where a comparative assessment analysis was considered.

1.2 AIM, OBJECTIVE AND RESEARCH QUESTIONS

This research aims to explore sustainable urban development. The research tends to analyze different cities through comparative analysis, in order to draw lessons and new approaches to be implemented in the Lagos case. The research also aims to identify the research lacuna around sustainable approaches in Lagos and argue the need for this present research in Lagos.

This study also factors idea of the cities in narrative sustainable development techniques in creating a sustainable environment to be adopted in the Lagos case.

Against this background, this study is organized by the following objectives;

(a) To critically examine sustainable urban development;
(b) To determine how to improve sustainable urban development in Lagos;
(c) To posit a framework of different approaches to aid decision makers.

In correspondence to aim and objective of the research the two research questions unfold:

1) Will a comparative analysis provide the necessary information/background to draw lessons from to be adopted in Lagos?
2) What are the policies adopted to accomplished sustainability in cities chosen?
3) What should be sustainable urban development policies adopted to Lagos?

1.3 IMPORTANCE OF THE RESEARCH

Due to several environmental concerns which affect humans on a daily basis, sustainable development offers a wide range of approaches. With the rapid growth of urban development, cities grow in different forms and ways, however, to reduce the high rate of illiteracy and lack of technical know-how on environmental issues facing cities. A need to understand Lagos through its historical movement would aid in controlling and managing its resources towards achieving sustainable urban development.

With the ever rapid state of population growth in Lagos which is a major concern, with an estimated population of 21 million in 2016. This calls for a proactive measure of awareness from the building and planning sector, in order to sustain the urban growth and maintain sustainable urbanization while protecting the life of the people. This research would be critical in achieving credible outcomes adding to a clear understanding of sustainable urban development.

1.4 LIMITATIONS OF THE RESEARCH

This research focuses mainly on sustainable urban development in cities. The research discusses policies pertaining to improving cities through environmental and social means, thereby not discussing the economic aspect. The scope of this research is limited to environmental aspect of sustainable urban development, therefore the economic aspect dealing with the cost of the approaches shall not be discussed in order to avoid massive economic development.

1.5 METHODOLOGY OF THE RESEARCH

In this research, a qualitative method was adopted, and a comparative analysis is used to describe the phenomena of the case, also a case study approach was applied to showcase the lesson learned from the comparative study into an existing case.

A qualitative research method can be defined as a method which aims and understands an aspect of phenomena in its specific content situation, and also viewed as a method use for complex situations (Barrett & Sutrisna, 2009). Meanwhile a comparative analysis is the illustrative enthusiasm of gaining a better comprehension of the causal procedures engaged with the creation of an event, highlight or relationship. Commonly it accomplishes this by presenting (or expanding) variety in the informative variable or variables (Pickvance, 2005).

In this research an individualizing comparison type of comparative analysis (Tilly, 1984) is adopted to contrasts between three cities in order to grasp the peculiarities of each sustainable urban development (SUD) approach based on the factors driven from Goal 11 targets.

The study includes analytical approaches through texts, images, and maps on the sample studies. Sample studies are also used to identify basic character of SUD approaches and policies.

According to the aim of the research, data’s collected were from the sample studies from three cities (Freiburg in Germany, Ahmedabad in India and Durban in South Africa). Data in this research were presented in form of tables and proposed framework for the case study (Lagos). Data were collected and evaluated according to the six factors or target of the Goal 11.

1.6 SCOPE OF THE THESIS

The research was carried out to examine sustainable urban development practices in different cities and draw lessons from them using a comparative analysis process, in order to draw lessons for Lagos. To attain the slated aim and objectives, this research is organized as follows:

In chapter one - An introductory appraisal of the research subject is highlighted. The subject of sustainable urban development and Goal 11 of the SDGs was introduced to give an insight on the research. The chapter defined the problems, aims, objectives, importance, limitations, and methodology of the study.

In chapter two - Academic literature on the subject of sustainable development and sustainable urban development was reviewed. This shows a brief description of how cities work towards attaining sustainable development, it also gives a historical background of sustainable urban development.

In chapter three - Comparative approach adopted for this research is handled. Where the use of a qualitative research method and a comparative analytical approach were adopted. Here related studies were examined and analyzed in reference to the sample studies, and the sustainable urban development approaches regarding the 6 aspects (built environment, transportation, urbanization, land conservation, water management and energy). Lessons were drawn from the comparative analysis to use in the case study.

In chapter 4- It discusses the case study (Lagos) through lessons learned from the sample studies. The data obtained were used to propose a framework of the sustainable urban development approaches. Aiming at achieving sustainable development in Lagos to assist in the tackling environmental and social concerns in the city.

In chapter 5 - Conclusions are drawn from the research, and recommendations are presented to guide future research aimed at examining sustainable urban development in Lagos.

CHAPTER 2 - LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 HISTORY OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

Sustainable development is defined as a development that "meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs" (Brundtland Report, 1987).

In this chapter, sustainable urban development is introduced through a historical narrative in a chronological order as seen in Figure 2.1.

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Figure 2.1. Chronological timeline of sustainable development

Following the industrial era, ecological dilapidation accelerated which showed itself in the decline of natural resources: non-renewable energy source, an expansion in the waste volume, the quality of water and soil were outcomes of a quick, and over populated development. In the mid twentieth century the impacts of this environmental dilapidation and climatic change became known and humans began to secure their environment through technological means to control the overuse of the situations. During this phase a plethora of activities, seminars and conference occurred that shifted the tides and brought about sustainable development. The following will give a brief description on the evolution of the concept according to the timeline given in Figure 2.1.

Earth Day

Earth day is by all accounts one of the principal belief system trying to clear and illuminate the world about the natural environment. This day and a progression of it after which is presently held overall set the tone for a more prominent mindfulness level about the natural environment. In the UNESCO Gathering at San Francisco 1969, John McConnell first named 21st of March as the “earth day” for the first time. In any case, another date for the "Earth day" came through Gaylord Neslson at that point, a U.S congressperson from Wisconsin after he saw an assault of oil spillage in Santa Clause Barba, California 1969. April 22 of every 1970 started an across the board advocate in the Assembled States and turned into a worldwide development (Anon. 2016). This introduced the celebration of earth day top the world, thereby understanding the need to protect the earth.

The Stockholm Declaration (1972)

The United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, held in Stockholm (5-6 June 1972), was one of the main substantial scaled meetings for sustainable development rules and standards for the world to protect and upgrade its human-natural habitat. The conference was based on twenty-six standards which would help to achieve sustainable development. Topics such as educational awareness, racial segregation, air contamination, protection of the natural resources, equity, financial and social advancement, were the main purposes of consideration in the gathering. Subsequently this set the pace for sustainable practices (UNEP, 1972).

HABITAT I -Vancouver Declaration on Human Settlements (1976)

The United Nations held the first habitat conference in 1976 in Vancouver, Canada, 31st of May – 11th of June on “the issue of physical and spatial organization of human life on this planet, and on the national and international actions needed to accommodate the growing number of population in urban and rural communities”.

The product of HABITAT comprises three elements:

- The Vancouver Declaration on Human Settlements, 1976: a statement of principles intended to influence national government objectives;

- Recommendations for National Action: a set of 64 recommendations, addressed directly to national governments, which propose concrete ways for national improvement of human settlements;
- Programs for International Co-Operation: proposals to set up mechanisms for international co-operation on human settlements matters, programs of study and research, exchange of technology, skills and experience. (ESCAP, 2016).

First World Climate Conference (1979)

The initial World Climate Conference about global climate issue from 12th -23rd of February 1979, in Geneva was held by The World Meteorological Association (WMO). The gathering concentrated mostly on how climate change may influence people, members thought of a critical determination in the historical backdrop of climate change universally, and at this stage it recognized carbon dioxide as a reason for global warming for the first time (Koo, 2011).

Brundtland Report (1987)

World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED) was set up by United Nations after the decay of human environment and natural resources has been gained widespread attention. UN chose to build up the Brundtland repot “Our Common Future": which set forth the meaning of sustainable development (WCED, 1987), pinpointing the birth of the term “sustainable development”. The report became a reference point for discussion on sustainable development over the years and had been a standard for widespread usage and citations (Dernbach J. C., 1998; Dernbach J. C., 2003; Cerin, 2006; Stoddart, 2011).

Rio earth summit (1992)

The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) was held in Rio de Janerio, Brazil, from 3 - 14 June 1992, it’s also known as the Earth Summit (Yudelson, 2010). The first major effort agitated towards developing urban sustainability began from the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, where 27 principles where established to guide in the pursuit of sustainability. Agenda 21 was implemented as an action plan for propelling these principles, (Chapter 28 of the Agenda). Specified municipal expectations were drawn up for the specific local government representatives (UNCED, 1992).

HABITAT II - Second United Nations conference on human settlements (1996)

The second United Nations Conference on Human Settlements (HABITAT II) was held in Istanbul, 3-14 June 1996. Habitat II concluded in the adoption of the Istanbul Declaration on Human Settlements (UN, 1997). Due to the commitment towards attaining urban sustainability, HABITAT II concentrated on building up a universal agreement for the quest for sustainable settlements. As on account of the general talks on sustainable development, a basic issue that rose amid Habitat II was the significance of approach incorporation; the capacity of manageable urban policies to address financial, social and natural environmental worries in urban areas, their districts, while guaranteeing the impartial access to resources between generations (Borja et al., 2017).

Rio+10 (2002)

"Rio+10" conference was held in Johannesburg in 2002, to review progress towards sustainable development. The focus was on poverty and the access of people to safe drinking water and sanitation. Specific agreement on issues like transport were discussed, “Implement transport strategies for sustainable development...so as to improve the affordability, efficiency and convenience of transportation, as well as improving urban air quality and health, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions.” (WSSD, 2002).

A set of objectives defined in the meeting are as follows:

- “To reduce the number of people that are not connected to clean drinking water supplies from over 1 billion to 500 million by the year 2015.
- To halve the number of people without proper sanitation to 1.2 billion.
- To increase the use of sustainable energy sources and restore depleted fish stocks” (CIEC, 2017).

Rio+20 (2012)

The United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (UNCSD or “Rio+20”) was held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil June 20-22, 2012. This conference marked the 20th anniversary of the U.N. Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio which was held in 1992 (Leggett & Carter, 2012).

The Conference likewise received pivotal rules on green economy approaches. Governments additionally have chosen to set up an intergovernmental procedure under the General Assembly to get ready choices on a technique for sustainable advancement financing.

Rio+20 was based on the objectives of sustainable development of the 1992 Rio conference that had not been achieved.

Rio+20 were based on three objectives:

- Securing renewed political commitment to sustainable development,
- Assessing the progress and implementation gaps in meeting already agreed commitments, and
- Addressing new and emerging challenges (Leggett & Carter, 2012).

The United Nation Sustainable Development Summit (UNSDS) (2015)

UNSDS was held in New York 25th – 27th September 2015. The theme was “Transforming Our World for People and Planet”. The agenda called for action by all countries, poor, rich and middle-income. It addresses a range of social needs: social protection, health, education, job opportunities, housing etc. while addressing climate change and environmental protection. It also covers issues such as inequality, infrastructure, energy, consumption, biodiversity, oceans and industrialization (United Nation, 2015).

They adopted the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development that includes 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) namely:

“Goal 1. End poverty in all its forms everywhere;
Goal 2. End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture;
Goal 3. Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages;
Goal 4. Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all;
Goal 5. Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls;
Goal 6. Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all;
Goal 7. Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all;
Goal 8. Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all;
Goal 9. Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation;
Goal 10. Reduce inequality within and among countries;
Goal 11. Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable;
Goal 12. Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns;
Goal 13. Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts;
Goal 14. Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development;
Goal 15. Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss;
Goal 16. Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels;
Goal 17. Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development” (United Nations, 2015).
With goal 11 strongly related to cities and its development. The research focuses on this goal and will be further discussed in the thesis.

2.2 AN OVERVIEW OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

As stated earlier the Brundtland report defined sustainable development as a development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generation to meet their own needs. Therefore, with a specific end goal to satisfy human needs and to enhance the nature of human life, advancement is of crucial significance.

Sustainable development is an example of development in which resources are used to address human issues while preserving the environment with the goal that these necessities can be met only in the present, yet in addition for generations to come. Making a sustainable society and environment does not simply mean going green, it implies creating society and environment with lasting worth that contribute to the gainful development and positive strength of the groups in which we live.

Sustainability implies addressing our own needs without trading off the capacity of future ages to address their own issues. According to Potter et al (2004), sustainability is presently comprehended to lie in the perplexing interdependencies of natural, social and financial improvement. Notwithstanding environmental resource, we likewise require social and economic resources.

Oritz et al (2009) defines sustainable development as development that enhances the quality of life and thus allows people to live in a healthy environment and improve social, economic and environmental conditions for present and future generations. Carley and Christie’s (2000:48) on the other hand, defined sustainable development as “a continuing process of mediation among social, economic and environmental needs which results in positive socioeconomic change that does not undermine the ecological and social systems upon which communities and society are dependent”. Sebake (2009) states that sustainable development is a process tending to the experience between securing, protecting natural resources, and the environment, while reacting to the advancement needs of the general public. From their perceptions, sustainable development would not be conceivable without handling issues like need and social value. They noticed that sustainable development definitions are regularly comparative in setting and can be effortlessly connected in various countries. The research therefore looks through this approach while defining its sustainable urban development in different cities.

Newman and Kenworthy (1999), defines sustainable development through a political process, by combining three major needs of the present generation: “(1) the need for economic development to overcome poverty; (2) the need for environmental protection of air, water, soil, and biodiversity, upon which we all ultimately depend; and (3) the need for social justice and cultural diversity to enable local communities to express their values in solving these issues”. This definition allows to comprehend the three pillar of sustainable development.

2.2.1 Pillars of sustainable development

The pillars of sustainable development are threefold; environment, economy and social. The tripartite portrayal has by and large constituted the broadly acknowledged meaning of sustainable development since the Rio conference in 1992 (OECD, 2001b & Commission of the European Communities, 2001).

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Figure 2.2 Pillars of Sustainability

(Source: Author, 2018)

Elkington (1997) develops his definition of sustainable development into the triple bottom line principle, by integrating the three arm of sustainable development. The triple bottom line principle identifies the three lines (environmental- planet, social- people and economic- cost, Figure 2.2) and regards all on equal amount of emphasis, which would initiate a better balanced and consistent structure (Elkington, 1997; Savitz & Weber, 2006).

Environmental Pillar

The environmental pillar of sustainable development includes the practices that do not compromise the environmental resources for future generations. It involves the efficient use of energy resources, recycling and better waste management, renewable and reusable material selection, reducing fossil fuel consumption and minimizing the greenhouse gas emission (Harris, 2000).

As it can be observed, there is a variety of issues related with environmental pillar of sustainable development from pollution to the administration of natural resources. The fundamental purpose is to reduce the effect of human activities to environment and moreover support the restoration and protection the natural habitat.

Economic Pillar

This pillar focuses on strengths and opportunities for a vibrant, diverse and dynamic economy which attracts and retains businesses and skilled employees, contributes to global knowledge, incubates innovation, and brings new goods and services to market. It is imperative however to strengthen and advance it with training projects, research and illuminating people in general. Additionally, much accentuation ought to be put on different regions, for example, diminishing pointless spending.

The economic pillar of sustainable development is presented through the economy, capital & operation costs, the efficiency of use, durability, flexibility, life cycle cost, life cycle profit, project budget and maintenance (Ali and Al Nsairat, 2009; Alwaer and Clements-Croome, 2010; Chen et al., 2010).

Social Pillar

The social aspect of sustainability focuses on balancing the needs of the individual with the needs of the group. This pillar supports initiatives like social justice, reducing poverty and other grassroots movements that promote social equity (Chiu, 2003; McKenzie, 2004; Chan and Lee 2008).

2.3 SUSTAINABLE URBAN DEVELOPMENT

In order to understand sustainable development in urban area, the term sustainable urban development was coined to focus on the approaches that help improve sustainable development in cities. Sustainable urban development is as an outcome of environmental debate done on challenges facing the urban environment, which was displayed in forms of sustainable development hypothesis to help the assets for the environment.

The objective of Sustainable Urban Development (SUD) is to enable ruined regions to gain access to nourishment in a sustainable way in urbanized territories. Sustainable urban development contributes "to bearable, gainful and inclusive urban areas which grasp social harmony, economic essentialness and environmental sustainability". Sustainable urban development has realized an adjustment in the nature of development, the conservation and minimization of the depletion of non-inexhaustible assets and a merging of economic decisions with those on the environment (Kong et al., 2005).

Sustainability is presently widely utilized as a part of the worldwide context to allude to the human and regular frameworks to have the capacity to get by in the inaccessible future (Bahraini, 2001), however Hall (1993) defines it as the present state of development that can guarantee the future continuous development of urban communities and urban groups.

Camagni (2017) defines sustainable urban development “as a process of synergetic integration and co-evolution among the great subsystems making up a city (economic, social, physical and environmental), which guarantees the local population a non-decreasing level of wellbeing in the long term, without compromising the possibilities of development of surrounding areas and contributing by this towards reducing the harmful effects of development on the biosphere”. Here the three pillars of sustainable development are applied to shape the urban scale in sustainable urban development.

Sustainable urban development ought to be guided by a sustainable planning and administration vision that advances interconnected green spaces, multi-modular transportation framework, and blended utilize development (Tang et al.,2016). Various open and private associations ought to be utilized to make sustainable and reasonable groups that ensure memorable, social, and environmental assets. In addition, policymakers, controllers and developers should bolster sustainable site planning and construction procedures that decrease pollution and make a harmony amongst manufactured and regular frameworks.

For a sustainable community to exist, Academy for Sustainable Communities identified that “most people want to live in a place where they know their neighbors and feel safe. A place with good homes, local shops, lots of jobs and opportunities for young people to get a good education” (ASC, 2007). Meanwhile (Dominski & Clark et al., 1992) went further by connecting SUD to a more rounded social, economic environmental and community balance. Stating that “sustainability may be defined as a dynamic balance among three mutually interdependent elements: protection and enhancement of natural ecosystems and resources; economic productivity; and provision of social infrastructure such as jobs, housing, education, medical care and cultural opportunities”.

Egan (2004), produced a framework to create sustainable communities in an urban design. The Egan wheel comprises of 8 categories that defines sustainable communities (Figure 2.3). The Egan wheel shows a framework which should be observed while developing a sustainable community. The framework identified eight components: social and cultural; governance; transport & connectivity; services; environmental; equity; economy; and housing &the built environment. These component comprehend the three pillars of sustainable development.

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Figure 2.3. EGAN Wheel of Sustainable Communities

Source: Mersal, 2016.

Other concepts related to sustainable urban development will be discussed to give a broad understanding such as: sustainable city and urban sustainability.

2.3.1 The Concept of a Sustainable City

The idea of sustainable city developed as a political activity in light of the urban environment degradation within the 20th century. In this way, the issues identified with the management and planning of human settlements were of urgency to United Nations conference held in Stockholm in 1972. UN established a center for human settlements in order to promote and bolster feasible patterns in urban and rural communities (Saha and Paterson, 2008).

Cities are center points for thoughts, business, culture, science, efficiency, social improvement and substantially more, this empowers individuals to progress socially and financially. They are the establishment of Civilization. ‘Cities are at an intersection, standing up to memorable difficulties postured by rising populaces, quickening environmental change, expanding disparity, and very frequently vacillating reasonableness' (Gardner, 2016).

Pradhan (2017) defined sustainable city as a city designed based on environmental deliberations with a limited use of water, energy, food consumption and also a limited output of waste, soil, air and water pollution. UN further describes it as a city that is capable of retaining it supply of natural resources while achieving its social, economic and physical progress, and also staying safe against environmental hazards that can hinder its development (Hassan et al., 2015).

Rogers (2008) defines sustainable city as a city which meets the environmental, cultural, social and political needs, in parallel with the physical and economic objectives, while guaranteeing fair access to all services by occupants, without depleting the resources of different urban areas and the district. Meanwhile, Murrain (1993) defines it as a town where the layout of the town is decided by the residents, but not at the expense of other occupants.

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Details

Title
Sustainable Urban Development. Drawing Lessons for Lagos City
Subtitle
A Comparative Analysis of Freiburg (Germany), Ahmedabad (India) and Durban (South Africa)
College
Cyprus International University  (GRADUATE STUDIES)
Course
ARCHITECTURE
Grade
3.52
Author
Year
2018
Pages
107
Catalog Number
V453265
ISBN (eBook)
9783668870574
ISBN (Book)
9783668870581
Language
English
Tags
sustainable, urban, development, drawing, lessons, lagos, city, comparative, analysis, freiburg, germany, ahmedabad, india, durban, south, africa
Quote paper
Toluwani Oluwafemi (Author), 2018, Sustainable Urban Development. Drawing Lessons for Lagos City, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/453265

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Title: Sustainable Urban Development. Drawing Lessons for Lagos City


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