TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Purpose of the Study
1.5 Significance of the Study
1.6 Scope of the Study
1.7 Operational definition of Terms
2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURES
2.1 Conceptual Review
2.2 Concept of Gender
2.2.1 Concept of Gender Equity and Equality
2.2.2 Concept of Capacity-Building and Development
2.2.3 The Concept of Training and Development
2.2.4 Inadequate Capacity
2.2.5 Effectiveness of Capacity Building
2.3 Theoretical framework
2.3.1 The Human Capital Theory
2.4 Empirical Review
2.4.1 Studies of Gender Issues and Equity
2.4.2 Issues on Human Capacity, Training and Development
2.5 Appraisal of Literature
3 RESEARCH METHODS
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Population of the Study
3.3 Sample and Sampling Techniques
3.5 Validity of the Instrument
3.6 Reliability of the Instrument
3.7 Procedure for Data Collection
3.8 Methods of Data Analysis
4 PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA
4.1 Analysis of Respondents' Demographic Characteristics/Variables
4.1.1 Respondents' Age Distribution in terms of Gender
4.1.2 Respondents' Religious Affiliation in terms of Gender
4.1.3 Distribution of Respondents' Educational Levels in terms of Gender
4.2 Testing of Hypotheses
4.2.4 Discussion of Findings
5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.4 Suggestions for Further Studies
This work is dedicated to the glory of ALLAH, Islam and humanity at large
All glories and adorations belong to no one except Allah the sublime, the supreme and the gracious.
I am grateful to my supervisor, Dr Obadara, O.E. for his believe in me and his support and indefatigable efforts to ensure that this work is well researched and properly put together.
I remain indebted to Dr Peleyeju the departmental coordinator at the post graduate school for his understanding and support.
I specially appreciate Prof. Alademerin Edwards for his immense support and unflinching fatherly role and encouragement.
Many thanks to all the lecturers and workers in the Department of Educational Management, Tai Solarin University of Education, Ijagun, Ijebu-Ode, for their time and the priceless knowledge impacted in me.
I appreciate my colleagues and course mates in the department, you are all wonderful people.
I cannot but acknowledge the immense contribution of Dr Yede Frances, Mr, Adebayo Adekunle, Mr. Bright Ighorojeh, Dr Idowu Samuel, Dr Ajape Kazeem all of Micheal Otedola College of Primary Education, Epe, Dr Olayemi of Yabatech, and Dr Ogunleye of Augustine University, Ilara-Epe, your contributions to this work cannot be estimated but appreciate
I cannot forget the brotherly support and immense contribution of my dear friend and brother from another mother Adegbite Qoseem Olawale from University of Texas at San Antonio for the numerous research material supports provided, you are a rare gem that I would always adore and appreciate.
I thank my brother Adeyeye Jamiu (Abu Zaynab) for pushing me this far in life; my success story is not completed without the mention of your name.
I can never forget my mentor and role model Dr Abdul Hakeem Abayomi for bringing out the giant in me intellectually, and raising high my spiritual bar.
I say the biggest thank you to my darling wife and heartthrob Khadijah Oritoke Adunni, for holding the home front especially when I was away for educational pursuit abroad, your steadfastness and uncommon support in all fronts is highly appreciated.
To my world, my future and my life; Adeyeye Abdullahi Jehad, Adeyeye Jamal, Adeyeye Jalal, Adeyeye Junaid and Angel Yasmin Adeyeye, I say a big THANK YOU and Baarakallahu feekum for all your sacrifices.
And finally to everyone who has contributed to this work, my spiritual and ideological students, my friends and colleagues from Al-Azhar University, Sanusi Idowu Daud and other brothers in the struggle for human liberation, I appreciate you all.
In organizational building human capacity development continue to become a major factor and issue of discourse because of the fundamental role it plays in the economic growth and development of countries in the world. It drives the employment of personnel and the movement towards achieving the organizational goals. It is an undeniable fact that organizational goals are achievable because of the type of staff list of an organization. It is imperative therefore, to assess how gender equity drives human capacity training in organizations using the Local Government Education Authority (LGEA) as a field work. A survey research design was used for the study. The sampled population consisted of 1,314 senior members of staff of twenty (20) LGEAs in Lagos Sate. Five (5) of these LGEAs which is 25% were selected at random using simple random sampling procedure. Then, stratified sampling procedure was used to select the sample size from the chosen LGEAs. The Bowley’s formula was used to calculate the sample in order to have an empirically backed up data. The value obtained as the coefficient of concordance is a very clear indication that the instrumental method is appropriately 82% valid while the value obtained as kuder-Richardson’s estimate of reliability shows that the questionnaire was appropriately 84% reliable in terms of responses supplied by the respondents. The research employed the human capital theory to assess the gender factor among male and female workers if they are open to the same opportunities in the organizational structure. It was found out that gender equity existed among staff of Local Government Education Authority in Lagos State in the aspect of opportunities open to women and men in the area of human capacity training and leadership development except that the degree of association is at a lower percentage compared to the men. It is therefore recommended that the use of eclectic mixture of the equity theory and human capital theory gives a better understanding of not only how equally men and women are treated and given the same opportunities but to clearly measure the extent to which men and women perform on their job towards achievement of organizational goals given the same training and job motivational factors such as same salary and promotion. While suggestion to carry out further studies to assess other gender undercurrents were made.
KEY WORDS: Gender Equity, Human Capacity Training, Local Government
WORD COUNT: 394
1.1 Background of the study
The issue of human capacity training is critical and the scale of need is enormous. Capacity training and building in its broadest intervention encompasses human resource development (HRD) as an essential part of development. It is based on the concept that education and training lie at the heart of development efforts and that without HRD most development interventions will be ineffective. It focuses on a series of actions directed at helping participants in development process to increase their knowledge, skills, and understandings and to develop the attitude needed to bring about the desired developmental change.
Human capacity development or human capital development will continue to be an issue of discourse in the academia, human resource or personnel management, and also in the labour market. Human capacity building plays a fundamental role and remains the most important factor in economic growth and development in countries of the world. Talking about unemployment, one pivotal cause of it is lack of employability skills, talking about technological development and advancement it is definitely possible only because of human capacity development through rigorous personnel training.
Talking about the importance of human capacity development from the economist perspective of it, Bill Gates (2018) at the National Economic Council stated that investments in infrastructure and competitiveness must go hand in hand with investments in people. People without roads, ports, and factories cannot flourish. And roads, ports, and factories without skilled workers to build and manage them cannot sustain an economy.
Human capacity development can only happen when human resources are enhanced by new knowledge through trainings either in the classroom or on-the-job training. Justification for economic growth and development can only be advanced if adequate skills are added on into our stock of human resource. This can be achieved through the concerted efforts of the organization in the area of giving adequate training opportunities to the workforce through workshop attendance, attendance at relevance seminars and furtherance of higher education of the workers. This will improve their skills and on the job performance.
Human capacity building is a development paradigm that is of more significance than the rise or fall of national incomes. It is about creating an environment in which people can develop their full potential and lead productive and creative lives in accord with their needs and interests. Development is thus about expanding the choices people have to leave lives that they value. Therefore, development is much more than economic growth which is only means of enlarging people’s choices (Mahbub ul Haq, 1998 cited in Peter Oludele, 2014).
Today, discuss is about knowledge economy and not necessarily technology or innovation, the bane of this too is still human capital development. The human factor plays a key role in change processes. In this context, the approach of Human Capacity Development (HCD) or Human Resource Development (HRD) is to support and shape both individual learning processes and networking of people.
The issue of ICT skill is needed for the workers to adequately harness the opportunity and the availability of ICT to connect to recent technologies and innovations in doing their jobs. Thus, optimal effects on the organizational and systemic level are assured, as well as independent and effective contribution for integrated capacity development within the partner institutions is provided.
A country’s human capital constitutes its most formidable asset and resources in striving towards sustainable development in all its facets. Countries such as Singapore have excelled both economically and socially as a result of heavy and sustained investments in their human resources, despite a limited natural resources endowment (Wadda, 2000 cited in Larry, 2014).
The good leadership issue is very important in order to achieve a good, effective and compliant workforce which will bring about virile and smooth school service development and other services delivery.
In other to maximize the productivity and efficiency of the organization, every executive manager or supervisor in a public or private enterprise has the responsibility and indeed the bounding duty to ensure the development of men and women who have requisite knowledge and expertise through a periodic in-service training. The aim is to enable them to contribute their full measure to the welfare, health and development of the enterprise.
Onah (2008) Staff training and development in the organization is strictly attached to the personnel department of the HR managers. This builds up the manpower or human resource planning of the organization either public or private to achieve organizational goals.
Employee training and development based on the principles of equity, should be the fulcrum of employee utilization, productivity, commitment, motivation and growth. Many employees have failed in organizations because their need for training was not identified and provided for as an indispensable part of management function.
It is worthy of mention that the manpower needs of the local government be identified at different stages, each corresponding to a particular need or duty showing clearly the urgent need for the staff training and development periodically.
Consequently, Denhardt and Denhardt (2009) stressed motivation while discussing leadership and management skills in public administration. They opined that expected job performance of members of an organization depends partly on ability and partly on motivation. Personnel must possess or be able to learn the right mix of skills and ability to do a job and must be motivated to do the job well. When you can help develop your employees’ skill through instruction, training programmes, and so forth, you are likely to have a significantly greater impact on their motivation and therefore, improved work attitude.
On the other hand, Okoli and Onah (2010) view development as progression, movement, and advance towards something better. It is improvement on the material and non material aspects of life. It involves action, reaction and motion. To support this Armstrong (2010) defined development as an unfolding process that enables people to progress from a present state of understanding and capability to a future state of which higher-level skills, knowledge and competencies are required. It takes the form of learning activities that prepare people to exercise wider and increased responsibilities.
Therefore, while staff training takes the format of the on the job and some other forms of in – service training resulting or intended to develop knowledge or expertise, greater confidence and indeed a huge pedigree of performance, staff development on the other hand, is the growth and acquisition of wide experience for future strategic advantage of the public service or organization. Any organization that has no plan for the training and development of its staff is less than dynamic. Planning and learning is a continuous process which stresses that acquired skills get obsolete if not updated – thus the need for periodic training.
In some areas, however, progress toward gender equity has been limited even in developed countries. According to World Development Report (2012) Women now represent more than 40 percent of the global labor force, 43 percent of the agricultural workforce, and more than half of the world’s university students. For an economy to be viable and functioning at its optimum, women’s skills and talents should be engaged in activities that make the best use of those abilities. But, as the stories of many women illustrate, this is not always the case. Women’s labour is underused or misallocated. They face discrimination in markets or societal institutions that prevent them from completing their education, entering certain occupations and earning the same income as men. Economic losses and social inequality, therefore, are the result. The belief that the sexes are vastly different with different needs, values, and abilities has been a hallmark throughout the history of women and men in the workplace and in the home front (Barnett, 2004 cited in Marcia, 2014).
Beyond the household, women have limited access to communal resources, they are believed to be under-represented in public decision-making bodies, have limited bargaining power in markets (such as the labour market), and often lack opportunities to improve their socioeconomic positions. Therefore, efforts to reduce gender inequity are required on multiple fronts. Over the last decades, a number of strategies have emerged and evolved to promote gender equity in development efforts. Yet, debates regarding the relative efficacy of these strategies remain. Women on the other hand are keys to developmental challenges. They remain social actors that can change choices and make institutions more representative of a range of choices.
The main question to be asked here is that are women exposed to the same level of training and other staff developmental plan that their male counterparts are exposed to? This question is necessary if women are to develop on the same proportion as their male counterparts in such a way that the principle of equity will have been justifiably applied. The answer to this question therefore will come handy in assessing the outcome of equitable distribution of opportunity, on the job training and same pay policy for the job performance of both sex-divides.
The study centers on the Local Government Education Authorities (LGEAs) in Lagos State, focusing on gender equity in human capacity training among staff in the LGEA.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Over the years, especially in Nigeria socio-political landscape, there had been agitation in the area of traditional beliefs and practices that constrain job opportunity and professional aspirations to certain gender divide, the debate on whether certain job opportunity and professional aspiration should be reserved for women on the one hand and man on the other hand had raged in the field of gender study.
So many advocates of gender equity had argued on the basis that what is good for the goose is equally good for the gander, that what a man can do a woman can equally do better and as such men and women should be exposed and be given equal opportunity in taking up jobs and in pursuing technical and professional aspirations, and this sensibility had taken up a strong root in the western nations. This study therefore assessed how far the philosophy of gender equity had been embraced in human capacity training among staff of selected local government education authorities in Nigeria and with a special focus on Lagos state.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study was to assess gender equity in relation to human capacity training among staff of Local Government Education Authorities (LGEAs). Specifically, the study:
(i) examined the training opportunities given to men and women among the staff of the LGEAs;
(ii) investigated the education furtherance and leadership opportunity available to men and women among the staff of the LGEAs;
(iii) investigated the training financial supports given to men and women among the staff of the LGEAs;
(iv) identified the gender imbalance in opportunities given to men and women among the staff.
The following hypotheses were formulated in their null forms and tested individually using appropriate statistical tools:
H 01 : There is no significant difference between the training and workshop opportunities given to women and men staff of local government education authority (LGEA) in Lagos State.
H 02 : There is no significant difference in the opportunity given to women to hold leadership position as their men counterpart in local government education authority (LGEA) in Lagos State.
H 03 : There is no significant difference between education furtherance opportunity opened to men and woman staff of LGEAs in Lagos State.
1.5 Significance of the Study
The significance of this research work epitomized the value or contribution of the research to the existing knowledge. The research will stimulate future readers in the task of complementing the work already done. This is because it has the potentials of contributing greatly to the growth of existing theories in social sciences particularly in public administration and human resources management by helping to enrich the wealth of knowledge through its reliable findings on the assessment of gender equity on human capacity training.
This is to say that the outcome of this research study would assist in improving the frontiers of knowledge especially in the management of the Nigerian public service.
Again, the research work has the ability to contribute immensely to the existing body of literatures on this subject matter. Literature on gender equity and staff capacity training contributed well to the swift development of this work.
Empirically, this research work will serve as the foundation or platform for future researchers who will in due time embark on the investigation on assessing the impact of gender equity or equality on staff training and capacity building in the local government education authorities. In other words, this research will serve the academia as a useful and veritable bibliographical reference which will stimulate research for other related studies in relation to gender equity and human capacity training among staff in LGEAs of Lagos State.
1.6 Scope of the Study
The scope of this research study focused on the assessment of gender on human capacity training among staff of local government education authorities in Lagos state.
The study covered five (5) LGEAs namely Ikorodu, Badagry, Ikeja, Lagos Island and Epe LGEAs of Lagos State, Nigeria.
It extensively covered the assessment of gender preference as it relates to equity and human capacity development among staff of local government education authorities (LGEAs) in the State.
The scope of the study involved staff of the Lagos State Education Authorities, targeting the senior staffs from grade level 07 to level 16.
1.7 Operational definition of Terms
There are terms within this study that need to be defined for the purpose of this study.
Gender Equity: It is the term used in addressing the imbalance in the benefits available to men and women.
Human Capacity Training: It is just one element of capacity development. It usually focuses on providing skills for specific problems. It deals with the activities undertaken to expose an employee to perform additional duties and assume positions of importance in the organizational hierarchy. Training of employee is not continuous, but it is periodical and given in specific time. Generally training will be given by an expert or professional in related field or job. It is organizational effort aimed at helping an employee to acquire basic skills required for the efficient execution of the activities functions for which he is hired.
Local government Education Authority: This refers to the institution that was put in place by decree no 3 of 1991 by the federal government of Nigeria for the effective management of primary schools to prevail over all militating factors against effective teaching and learning process that was denying the required standard set by the government as contained in the national policy on education in the area of providing guidelines, establishment of new schools, acquiring and distribution of materials, staff personnel administration, effective supervision among many others. This decree contains a repeal of decree 31 of 1988 which empowered the national primary education commission to manage primary education.
2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURES
2.1 Conceptual Review
This chapter reviews various literature by examining the conceptual review of pass works of the major concepts of the study; the concept of gender, gender equity, gender equality and the difference between gender equity and equality. It equally explains the thin line that separates gender and sex.
2.2 Concept of Gender
The term gender is used to describe a set of qualities and behaviors expected from men and women by their societies. A person's social identity is formed by these expectations. These expectations stem from the idea that certain qualities, behaviour, characteristics, needs and roles are 'natural' for men, while certain other qualities and roles are 'natural' for women. Gender is not biological – girls and boys are not born knowing how they should look, dress, speak, behave, think or react. Their “gendered” masculine and feminine identities are constructed through the process of socialization, which prepares them for the social roles they are expected to play . These social roles and expectations differ from culture to culture and at different periods in history. They can and do change.
Bola (2004) stated that the evolution of these concepts and theories are better known via the tag-names of Women in Development (WID), Women and Development (WAD), Gender in Development (GID) and more recently, Gender and Development (GAD). While the first school of thought (WID) simply looks at the lives of women within the development space, or viewed women as objects of interest or subject of analysis (Feminist Africa, 2002), the WAD school went further to recognize the problems that face women within their given space in social and economic spheres as problems for development. The result of this was the development of 'turn-key' programmes to alleviate the sufferings of women, mostly from a welfarist perspective.
Gender concepts rapidly advanced beyond these earlier schools of thought by shifting the understanding of issues beyond women and their problems to the problem of inequality between men and women and how such gaps short-changed capacities of women and their households. The earlier of the gender-based concepts (Gender in Development or GID) recognizes gender inequality as a problem and recommends empowerment tools to close gaps. Gender and Development - (GAD) further sees gender equality not only as an issue of social equity but also as a cost to the development process and the centrality of closing gender gaps as the only way to move development forward in a sustainable way. Integration of gender in the mainstream of development thinking is a sine qua non for pre-empting such negative effects. This is in the sense that, inequality of capabilities, assets and opportunities of segments of the population, short-changes efficiency of the mainstream of economies, reinforces national poverty profiles and impacts negatively on growth (Seguino, 2000 cited in Bola, 2004).
There is a fundamental difference between gender and sex. Sex refers to the biological differences between women and men. It is biologically determined by birth and it is generally unchanging and universal. Gender refers to the socially constructed roles, responsibilities and identities for women and men. Gender roles and identities are learned in the family, school, religious institutions and through the media. They are historically and socially specific. In other words, what is expected of our grandparents as women and men may not be the same for our grandchildren. Similarly, the appropriate roles and identities for women and men in one cultural setting may be different from those in another cultural setting.
Gender and sex are different in the sense that sex is natural, universal and unchanging, while gender is learned and varies in time and space. That is, we are born as female and male, but as we grow up as girls and boys, we are taught to be women and men with appropriate behavior, attitudes, roles and activities pertaining to each sex. Moreover, since gender roles, responsibilities and identities are learned, they can also be changed.
2.2.1 Concept of Gender Equity and Equality
Historically, women have been seen as the weaker sex, that they need protection from the cruelties of the outside world, whereas men have been seen as stronger, more able, and better suited to the rigors of the workplace. Women have also been viewed as being better at taking care of the household and the children (Barrett, 2014 cited in Marcia, 2014).
There are also stereotypical perceptions that women are not as effectively viable or disposable to discharging highly tasked duties and job responsibilities as men, that they do not possess the necessary characteristics and might required. Women have comparatively been subjected to marginalization, oppression and injustice both in public and private life. Although the Millennium Declaration underscored the importance of eliminating all forms and shades of discrimination, exploitation, social harassment and gender bias as well as all situations that encourage the infringement on the rights of women through government policies and decisions.
Gender equality (and women’s empowerment) has become one of the central themes in global treaties, covenants and declarations principally due to the understanding that it is a catalyst to clear-cut development strategies which is targeted at poverty reduction, improved living standards, good governance and profitable productive investments that are critical to the creation of an enlarged capacity that provide men and women with equal opportunity and unrestrained access to decision-making and policy implementation institutions and processes (Kelly, 2013).
Gender equality as a major development goal and as explicitly stated in many global policies, is a result of almost three decades of recognizing, situating and assessing impacts of gender on various aspects of human life (Bola, 2004).
The concept of gender equity refers to “fairness of treatment for women and men, according to their respective needs. This may include equal treatment or treatment that that is different but which is considered equivalent in terms of right, benefits, obligations and opportunities” (International Labour Office [ILO], 2000). It is distinct and different from the concept of gender equality, which is the effective equality between men and women that entails the concept that all human beings, both men and women, are free to develop their personal abilities and make choices without the limitations set by stereotypical views, rigid gender roles, and prejudices.
Gender equality means that the different behavior, aspirations, and needs of women and men are considered, valued, and favored equally. It does not mean that women and men have to become the same but that their rights, responsibilities, and opportunities will not depend on whether they are born male or female (ILO, 200).
Olufunmilayo and Omoniyi (2017) therefore noted that in place of discrimination, gender equity makes it possible for the two sexes to find strength in their diversity, sharing between them those things that make them unique entities.
According to Badey (2013), gender equity is to ensure that men and women operate on a level playing ground. There is need to acknowledge the fact that gender equity and gender equality is closely related. However, there exists between the two concepts a slight difference. Gender equality though, does not mean that men, and women become the same, it is to emphasize that their rights, responsibilities, and opportunities do not depend on whether they are males or females.
In McDonald (2000), the distinction between gender equity and gender equality was discussed and it was argued that gender equity is the appropriate concept to be applied. Gender equality is a straightforward concept. It can be measured simply by comparing outcomes for men and women in areas such as education, employment, wages, participation, health, and so on.
According to Reeves and Baden (2000), equity leads to equality. This is premised on the fact that gender equity emphasizes fairness, recourse to principles of justice to correct and supplement law, to take specific measures for the purpose of eliminating inequalities between men and women and also justifies equity as the starting point to gender equality.
2.2.2 Concept of Capacity-Building and Development
UNDP (2003) defined capacity building to cover human resources development and the strengthening of managerial systems, institutional development that involves community participation and creation of an enabling environment. Capacity building in the context of development implies a dynamic process which enables individuals and agencies to develop the critical social and technical capacities to identify and analyze problems as well as proffer solutions to them. Specifically, capacity building encompasses the country’s human, scientific, technological, organizational, institutional and resource capabilities.
A fundamental goal of capacity building is to enhance the ability to evaluate and address the crucial question related to policy choices and modes of implementation among development options, based on an understanding of environment potentials and limits and of the county concerned. (Capacity Building- Agenda 21s definition, chapter 37, UNCED, 1992)
The World Customs Organization (WCO) defines ‘Capacity Building’ as activities which strengthen the knowledge, abilities, skills, and behavior of individuals and improve institutional structures and processes such that organization can efficiently meet its mission and goals in a sustainable way.
According to the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) in the global context, capacity building refers to the ability of individuals and institutions to make and implement decisions and perform functions in an effective, efficient and sustainable manner. At the individual level, capacity building refers to the process of changing attitudes and behaviors-imparting knowledge and developing skills while maximizing the benefits of participation, knowledge exchange and ownership. At the institutional level it focuses on the overall organizational performance and functioning capabilities, as well as the ability of an organization to adapt to change. It aims to develop the institution as a total system, including individual groups and the organization itself.
Azikiwe (2006) defines capacity building as the process by which an individual, irrespective of sex, are equipped with skills and knowledge they need to perform effectively and efficiently in their different callings. It is noted also that capacity building could also be defined as the ability to enable the people to make use of their creative potentials, intellectual capacities and leadership abilities for personal as well as national growth and development.
Capacity building therefore means planning for people to acquire knowledge and advanced skills that are critical to a country’s economic growth, its standard of living and individual empowerment. It is the planned programmes that will impart skills which will enable the recipient put the knowledge and skills acquired into productive uses to solve wide range of individual and national problems.
Capacity building from the human capital point of view could be akin to when people possess the needed knowledge and advanced skills that are critical to individual growth as well as the country’s growth and development. The capacity needed by any country for sustainable development is primarily dependent on the adequacy and relevance of its entrepreneurship (Nwazor, 2012).
Capacity-building is the process of increasing the abilities and resources of individuals, organizations and communities to manage change (Matachi, 2006). It is the elements that give fluidity, flexibility and functionality of a programme/organization to adapt to changing needs of the population that is served.
According to the World Bank (2003), capacity-building occurs when relevant community of practice consciously use their stock of human and social capital and their access to financial, physical and natural capital to improve a problematic situation, and improve the stock of capital in the process.
For individuals, capacity building may relate to leadership development, advocacy skills, training/speaking abilities, technical skills, organization skills and other areas of personal and professional development (Linnell, 2003; Udu, 2009).
Capacity development emphasizes the overall policy framework in which individuals and organizations operate and interact with the external environment, as well as the formal and informal relationships of institutions. Capacity is not the mere existence of potential but rather existing potential must be harnessed and utilized to identify and solve problems in order to be considered as capacity.
Capacity development, according to (Madavo, 2006), is the proven ability of key actors in a society to achieve socio-economic goals on their own. This is demonstrated through the functional presence of a combination of most of the following factors: viable institutions and respective organizations; commitment and vision of leadership; financial and material resources; skilled human resources.
From the above definitions, one deduces that: (i) Capacity development is a process of change; hence, about managing transformation. (ii) There can be a short-term results; even so, must be supported by a sustained resource and political commitment to yield longer term results that truly impact on existing capacities. (iii) Capacity development takes place at different levels: the individual levels the organizational level and the societal level, which are interlinked and interdependent. (iv) Capacity development is about whom and where the decisions are made, management takes place, services are delivered and results are monitored and evaluated. It is primarily an endogenous process, and whilst supported and facilitated by the international development community; it cannot be owned or driven from outside.
Capacity building is much more than training and includes the following; Human resources development, the process of equipping individuals with the understanding, skills and access to information, knowledge and training that enables them to perform effectively. Organizational development, the elaboration of management structures, processes and procedures, not only within the organizations but also the management of relationships between the different organizations and sectors (public, private and community). Institutional and legal framework development making legal and regulatory changed to enable organizations, institutions and agencies at all levels and in all sectors to enhance their capacities.
The issue of capacity is critical and the scale of need is enormous, while the appreciation of the problem is low. The needs for capacity building are always changing. There are no ready solutions, and any programme must be appropriate for the situation and organization.