Religious pluralism and it's effects on Ghanaian society


Essay, 2018

17 Pages


Free online reading

ABSTRACT

This work is on the effects of religious pluralism on the Ghanaian society. It seeks to discuss how religious pluralism has affected the people of Ghana. It is realized that the lifestyle of the people of Ghana is characterized by the recognition for the religious other. Recognition for and tolerance of other religions is found to be evident in almost all the aspects of the life of the people. The impact of the system of religious tolerance and cooperation on the people has been positive and negative. Thus, religious pluralism has been a mixed blessing to Ghanaians.

Background / Introduction

Religion pervades in all aspects of life so fully that it is not easy or somewhat possible to isolate it matters of religion when talking about the Ghanaian heritage. Thus, the Ghanaian heritage is intensely religious.[1] Looking at the Ghanaian milieu, the nation currently has three recognized religions: African Traditional Religion, Christianity and Islam. These religions are also pluralistic in nature with numerous denominations.[2]

Religious pluralism is the co-existence of different religions with respect and cooperation with one another. In other words, it is a situation or social phenomenon in which a wide variety of religious preferences exist side by side.

In Ghana, different religious practitioners are normally found together in such places as government organizations, educational establishments, business organizations, and during sporting events. During occasions and festivities, private or public, religious people of different faiths attend these ceremonies without checks of religious affiliation.[3]

There is therefore the need to look at how religious pluralism has had impact on the life and behaviour of the Ghanaian society. By so doing, we will look at efforts in fostering religious tolerance and recognition for the religious other. All these will pave way for us to look at the future of religious pluralism in Ghana.

It is our ardent hope that, by the end of the study, readers will get to know much about the nature of religious pluralism in Ghana and they will be informed on the impact of religious pluralism on the Ghanaian society. This will serve as a guide and a reference material for students and other researchers who may research into interfaith relations. Moreover, it will assist Counselors, Religious bodies, and Peace Councils in their activities aimed at ensuring and promoting peace and stability in the society.

The nature of religious pluralism in Ghana

The lifestyle of the people of the Sekyere Kumawu District was found to be characterized by recognition for the religious other. Recognition for and tolerance of other religions is found to be evident in almost all the aspects of the life of the people.

Religious situation

There are three main religious groups in Ghana. They are Christians, Muslims and African Traditional Religionists. These religions are also pluralistic in nature with several divisions and denominations.[4] Christians are dominant, followed by Muslims. Thus, the African Traditional Religionists are few but active in respect of their religious activities. All these religious groups co-exists peacefully exhibiting respect and recognition for the other and their individual religions. Several people had ever in their lives stayed with people of other religions peacefully and barely few people are hesitant to co-exist with people of other religions, although they think there could be ways in which they could reconcile their differences to ensure peace. So it is even common to find followers of African indigenous religions, Christianity and Islam with all different groups of Christianity and Islam co-existing in many homes across Ghana.”[5]

As to why they co-exist, the views of the people are that; (i) because their individual religions teach them and support them to do so, (ii) because they are all human beings and religion must not separate them, (iii) because they are all one people but of different religious convictions, (iv) because the community comprises different religious denominations, (v) because such kind of pluralistic life helps them to socialize with others and become friends, and lastly (vi) because human beings are social beings who cannot live without the company of others.

Social situation

In Ghana, it is common to find adherents of African Traditional Religion, Islam and Christianity living together and even sharing the same house. On several occasions, they associate themselves with people of other religions in doing things to help or develop their community. They do so for the reason that they are all human beings with common interests and hence the need to develop their community and nation together. For example, during child-naming, funeral celebrations and weddings people attend these ceremonies of one another without the question of religious affiliation. Their interest is to share in the joy of either a neighbour’s childbirth or wedding or to share in the pain of the loss of a relative or a loved one. All these social-religious, linguistic and political differences are evidence of a pluralistic society. Almost all these socio-political and religious groups have an undertaking in the country’s social, economic and cultural growth and development.[6]

At each Christian festivity, be it Easter or Christmas, Christians host Muslims in their homes, and they together share in the joy of the birth, death or resurrection of Christ. Christians also pay their Muslim friends or neighbours reciprocal visits during the Id festivities.[7] Usually, jobs and public roles are open and accessible to all qualified persons irrespective of religious affiliation. During public meetings to discuss matters of national interest or to commemorate a remarkable happening, religious leaders of different backgrounds are made to offer prayers in their own respective ways. The adherents of African Traditional Religion pour libation, the Muslims perform Du’a[8] and the Christians also offer prayers in their own way. In several communities in Ghana, all the religious groups come together to embark on communal labour in the common interest of the people. At such moments, there is no issue of religious discrimination because they all unanimously seek to develop the community.

This indicates that there is a necessary reciprocal interaction between a faith group in its own originality and its socio-historical environment. By so doing, the Muslim recognizes the validity and fruitfulness of the faith of Christians, while the Christian recognizes the validity and fruitfulness of the faith of Muslims and of their search for the truth. Both Christians and Muslims have to broaden their vision and widen their categories in order to take into account the other tradition’s religious value.[9] The various religions in Ghana are supposed to adapt to the prevailing pluralistic environment in Ghana and know how best to influence the other living faiths in a way that will auger for a mutual recognition of our human commonality and dignity.

Economic life

A visit to several business agencies and establishments both public and private in Ghana, it would be found that the workers, both employers and employees comprised people from different religious backgrounds. It is very common to find the store of Muslim near that of a Christian and vice versa. The customers or consumers also patronize the commodities without reference to religious affiliation of the store owner or keeper. Market days are characterized by fairly pluralistic environment where people of different religions mingle to engage in buying and selling of goods and services. Thus, the interest here was not religious inclination, but the desire to get a means of livelihood or survival.[10]

Educational life

One important sector characterized by pluralistic life is the educational sector in Ghana. There are several public schools many of which are owned by Christian groups and Islamic bodies and there are also community schools monitored by the traditional councils of the various towns in which such schools are located. Students of different religious backgrounds attend these Christian schools, Islamic schools and community schools. He indicated that as part of the subjects, Arabic is taught and both the Muslim and non-muslim students offer it. Also, in Christian mission schools, which both Muslims and non-muslims attend, sermons are given with reference from the Bible during worship, especially on Wednesdays.[11]

The relationship that exists between Christian and Muslim students in the various schools is somewhat peaceful and harmonious. In academic relations, the situation has been largely positive as students who are adherents of the various faiths know full well that their primary aim of coming to school is to study and earn better qualification. On the platform of social relations, interfaith interaction is strong among the students and it sometimes leads to a lifetime relationship which culminates in the adaptation of each other’s traditions, culture, values and religious practices. The students sit in the same classrooms to take their lessons, and in some cases, they sit together and mix up freely without any religious discrimination. They live together in the same dormitories, and some even share the same twin bed and it is inevitable for them to interact. The teachers also belong to different faiths, yet this does not hinder their effective delivery of duty. Whenever a member of staff in the schools under study is bereaved or having a joyful festivity, he or she receives or enjoys the necessary welfare grant or benefit without any discrimination for religious reasons. They are of the conviction that, all people are equal, only that they worship God in different ways and that should not create room for discrimination or victimization.[12]

Political situation

The state of affairs is normally supported by articles in the Constitutions of countries. Almost all the states in Africa have included in their constitutions the right to religious freedom. As the Constitution of Ghana states, equality of treatment is guaranteed in respect of the constitutionally protected rights, and every person in Ghana, irrespective of his race, place of origin, political opinion, colour, religion, creed or gender shall be entitled to the fundamental human rights and freedoms of the individual.[13] The implication of the articles in the Constitution is that the freedom of the individual or group of individuals is, at least in principle, must be exercised with the equal rights and freedom of the other as a boundary, be it religious or otherwise.

For a long time in Ghana, politics has served as a vehicle for the promotion of interfaith harmony among Muslims, Christians and adherents of African Traditional Religions. In the early part of 1954, Muslims in Ghana formed a political party which was named the Muslim Association Party (MAP). Even though its battle cry was “Islam!” “Islam!”, the MAP welcomed Bankole Awoonor Renner and Cobbina Kesse who were all Christians into their leadership.[14] Since then, the coalition among Muslims, Christians and adherents of African Traditional Religion has pervaded dealings of all political parties in Ghana. This has descended down even into the District or Constituency level elections.[15]

During the installation of kings, the people of Kumawu irrespective of their religious background attend the ceremony. For example, during the installation of Sarfo Tweneboah Koduah as the Kumawumanhene (King of Kumawu) in 2014, several Muslims and Christians attended, although it was a traditional occasion. Representatives from the Muslim community and various churches were sent to deliver congratulatory and well-wishing messages to the newly installed monarch. According to the Priest of the Sekyere Kumawu Rectorate of the Catholic Church[16], the Roman Catholic Church in his area sent a goodwill message to the newly enstooled monarch. The Imam of the Sekyere Kumawu Mosque also indicated that the Muslim community did likewise.

The same political pursuit prevails in students’ political that go on within the various schools in the District. Student politics are seen to be a forum for interfaith relations in the various schools. The selection of prefect, choice of candidates, campaign and election is rarely based on religious affiliation. There is always the desire of students to elect the most qualified candidate who can help to meet their agitations and fulfill their desires irrespective of the candidate’s religious affiliation. In other words, as long as the candidate is the best choice, whether he or she is a Muslim or Christian, that candidate is always preferred.[17]

Healthcare

Several districts in Ghana have Christian and Muslim mission hospitals which are founded by Christian or Islamic bodies. There are also some healing centres that are Traditional. The people go any length in order to get remedies to their maladies when it comes to seeking for health, without considering the religious background of the healer or the provider. There is a Christian clinic named Jesus’ Care Clinic at Besoro, a town in Ghana, where Muslims and non-muslims avail themselves for medical attention. Even though a Christian hospital, the Christians do not enjoy any preference over their non-christian counterparts when it comes to receiving medical attention. They all queue and consult doctors.[18] In an interview with Nana Obour, the traditional priest of the ‘Black and White Shrine’ at Oyoko, a village in Ghana, several people irrespective of their religious affiliation come to the shrine for medical attention and solutions to their problems. He indicated that he also does not exhibit any favouritism or discrimination. All that he seeks to do is to help the patient get a solution to his or her problems. For him, he does this in view of the fact that African Traditional Religion is a hospitable and an all-encompassing religion and so the spirits or divinities will not forgive him if he discriminates against any person for whatever reason. This confirms Abdul-Hamid’s statement that “when it comes to seeking for health and wellbeing, the place of healing, whether or not a Christian or Muslim is in charge is inconsequential and indeed whether or not the place if cure is a church or mosque is inconsequential”.[19]

The Effects of Religious Pluralism on the Ghanaian society

Religious pluralism has had both positive and negative effects on the Ghanaian society.

Positive Effects

Love

Religious pluralism has ensured and promoted love among the people. According to Ayandokun, “as Africans, there are certain values that are part of our culture which we must cherish, embrace and continue to pursue. One of such is brotherly love among members of same community. Africans live in communities and they are conscious of protecting each other”[20]. Due to religious pluralism; the people accept the responsibility to treat others with courtesy, honour and without moving too far, one person is related to the other, which increases the bond of love. This has promoted fidelity in their human relationships and has ensured interfaith dialogue. Interfaith dialogue here as a characteristic of religious pluralism is not about probing into who is right or wrong, but it is all about sitting down together irrespective of religious differences or diversities to discuss common issues together, to promote justice and peace. It is more about championing a message of love to beat the language of hatred. In such platforms, the Muslim recognizes the validity and fruitfulness of the faith of Christians, while the Christian recognizes the validity and fruitfulness of the faith of Muslims and of their search for the truth. The African Traditional Religionists also stand the chance of being acknowledged and respected by Christians and Muslims.

Peace

The prevalence of religious pluralism has ensured and promoted peace among the various religious groups. Christianity, Islam and African Traditional Religion which are the main religions in Ghana emphasize tolerance and peaceful co-existence among persons. The people tolerate each other without necessarily compromising their faith but being open-minded for interaction. In such an environment, different religious traditions do understand that they can do better than claim an absolute and exclusive possession of the truth: they should share their faith, common and different, and seek fresh ways of presenting their spiritual heritage to people of the world. They see such sharing as a hallmark of world community where hopes of goodwill, trust, peace and brotherhood might be fulfilled. In the words of Dharmaraj and Dharmaraj, different religions have major theological and doctrinal differences. Despite major theological and doctrinal differences, human beings still can peacefully co-exist and non-violently build the Kingdom of God.[21] According to Zeebaway[22], in spite of religious differences, the leaders of the country have been level headed enough to manage religious clashes. We live by the principle of live and let others live. So for Zeebaway, the management of Christian-Muslim clashes and differences has made Ghana enjoy a perfectly religiously pluralistic life and hence the peaceful environment prevailing in Ghana currently.[23]

Tolerance

The prevalence of religious pluralism has ensured and promoted tolerance among the people in the Ghanaian society. According to Stuart, while maintaining the integrity of upholding the faith to which each one is committed, religious pluralism creates and fosters an atmosphere of tolerance and friendliness, wherein people can pool common resources to work for the greater good of humanity. It makes people break away from their self-made barriers and pave the way to establish sincere friendship at the secular and spiritual levels between people of living faiths.[24] Living together in the same neighbourhood and sometimes in the same houses, the people exchange greetings and pleasantries, assist in domestic chores, eat and drink together and sometimes assist in economic activities. When ceremonies like weddings, child namings and funerals are celebrated, the people attend without prejudice and they share and exchange gifts. When religious festivals such as Easter and Christmas for Christians, and Id-ul-Fitr and Id-ul-Adha for Muslims are held, there are visits, exchange of gifts and expression of greetings and good wishes. The people board buses together without discrimination on the basis of one’s religious background.

Unity and Solidarity

The presence of religious pluralism has ensured and promoted unity and solidarity among the people. To build a tension-free society assumes that giving room to freedom of religion in full and not in part will help for peaceful co-existence. This step gives room for freedom of conscience and tolerance among the people with the goal of unity in diversity. In the African sense, it is important seeking to guarantee and respect plurality in the search for national unity. Religious pluralism helps to establish a national pact with a formula for living together. It allows for encounter or dialogue which would allow cultural and historical genius to express itself on behalf of the popular will to build an organic unity in a pluralist context. It guarantees freedom of religion and encourage the development of each religious community. Interactions with people in the Ghanaian society will unveil that contact among the various religionists is strong and it sometimes leads to a lifetime relationship which culminates in the adaption of each other’s traditions, culture, values and religious practices. The people live together in the same houses having in mind or taking into cognizance the fact that they should not give room for religious differentiation or disunite tem.

Reduction of discrimination

Abdul Rahim[25] indicated that there are some families or households in Ghana where the members belong to different religions. However, such people have refused to allow for religious polarization and discrimination because they believe the binding force of blood tie is stronger than religion. This confirms the statement made by Samwini[26] that ‘what is keeping Ghanaians united is their blood ties, for they give much credence to blood relations than religious inclinations’. In view of this, hardly will an individual discriminate against the other for the sake of religious affiliation, especially when they belong to the same family.

Freedom to practice individual religions

To build a tension-free society assumes that giving room to freedom of religion in full and not in part will help for peaceful co-existence. One should judge people based on to their actions, not solely on their faiths or religious affiliation.[27] This shows that religious pluralism should be without boundaries in the society. This means that an individual or a group can believe, worship and witness as they wish, change their beliefs or their religion at any time; and associate with others to express their beliefs without oppression. If a society extends tolerance to adherents of all religions then everyone will certainly enjoy religious freedom. This means that people extend religious freedom to people of all religious traditions, even though they probably will disagree with the beliefs and practices. But when that happens, it would be appropriate to seek settlement through dialogue over the matter so that the distorted relationship can be straightened.[28] This step gives room for freedom of conscience and tolerance among the people with the goal of unity in diversity. Though this freedom is not without its attendant challenges, at least it has made the individual feel secured in their environment with the full awareness and assurance that they can practise their faith without any form of harassment from anyone in the society.

Increase in productivity

The prevalence of religious pluralism has increased productivity at workplaces as people of different religious backgrounds come together to embark on common economic activities. Economic activities are engaged in without considering the religious affiliation of the seller or the buyer. During local market days, people in spite of their varied religions come together to engage in business transactions with the aim of increasing profits. At the workplaces, individual religionists come together to engage in productive activities.

Development

Progress and development is achieved through a united approach and effort. Having in mind the equality of humanity, people irrespective of the religious background come together and with one accord engage in meaningful activities with the aim of ensuring and promoting development in their society. This is common in Ghana in the sense that there are times that all the people in spite of their religious affiliations come together to engage in communal labour and embark on some developmental projects.[29] Almost all the people in spite of their ethnic, political and socio-religious background have a stake in the nation’s socio-economic and cultural growth and development.[30]

Negative Effects

Aside the positive effects of religious pluralism on the people, it has also to some extent affected the people negatively.

As a result of religious pluralism, some religious groups have had no cause to complain even in times of disturbances made by other religious groups. In the towns, villages and cities, some Muslims complain bitterly about the noise made by some churches located near the Muslim community. The vice versa is applicable in the sense that, some Christians nearby get disturbed by the sound of the Adhan (the Islamic call to prayer). However, in the name of religious tolerance and the barely inescapable religiously pluralistic society in which they live, they have to cope with such situation. Nana Obour[31] of the ‘Black and White shrine’ indicated that the presence of some Pentecostal and charismatic churches nearby has been troubling him and his deities. He indicated that he established a shrine and settled there even before the advent of these two churches. He complained greatly that even in times of traditional activities and times when the gods need rest and peace of mind, the vociferous sound made by these churches do not make them know peace.

Also, the prevalence of various religions in the area has resulted in waste of money during public meetings and festivities. In national festivities, in the name of fairness, impartiality and religious tolerance, the various religious groups have to be given equitable time and opportunity to offer prayers in their respective ways. In Ghana where we don’t have a state religion, during public events such as Independence Day, Farmers’ Day and other social programmes, the various religious groups offer prayers in turns.[32]

Moreover, as a result of the pluralistic life experienced in Ghana, there have been intermarriages between people of different religions. Some Muslims find their marriage partners in a Christian home and vice versa. Although, Islam permits marriage between a Muslim man and a Jew or Christian woman, religious pluralism has brought about a situation where some Muslim women break barns to marry non-muslims or Christian men. This is a violation of the Islamic principle on marriage.

The Future of Religious Pluralism in the Sekyere Kumawu District

Regarding the future of religious pluralism, some Ghanaians are of the view that the type of pluralism witnessed in Ghana has a bright future. Their opinions were based on the advantages or the good effects of such religious phenomenon. As a result, they wish such situation of peaceful co-existence and collaboration between the different religions continued.

However, a handful of Ghanaians are also of the view that the future of religious tolerance and collaboration in the Ghanaian society is in doubt and thus shaky. This is as a result of the challenges in relating and cooperating with people of other religions. The views of such people on such matter are: (i) some people still maintain fundamental thoughts thereby thinking that their religious faith is the only true one, (ii) such people also think people of other religions are lost, (iii) they posit that it is sinful to associate with people of other religions, and lastly (iv) they claim without hesitation that other religions aside their own should not be tolerated.

Moreover, the problems posed by religious pluralism have made the future of good relations and cooperation to be in doubt. Religious pluralism hinders strong commitment to individual religions. In the words of Abdul Rahim, it makes some believers “who are controlled by their desires and emotions” doubt the beliefs and practices in their respective religions. This is as a result of the fact that the people in their quest to tolerate several religious views, beliefs and principles end up having their minds being preoccupied or stocked with varying beliefs and principles to choose from. They then struggle with making choices as to which beliefs and religious principles to harbour.

It could be observed in the Ghanaian society that, in spite of the religious tolerance and collaboration, there are incidences of isolation on religious grounds. People especially Christians and adherents of African Traditional Religion give indecent names to the Muslim counterparts. They normally call them “Otani” which according to some respondents means “an uncouth or uncivilized person”.[33] This normally makes Muslims feel uncomfortable in the midst or gathering of non-Muslims. One would therefore wonder if such collaboration between Muslims and non-muslims can continue. Moreover, the pother religious groups still see Islam as a violent religion and therefore hesitate to collaborate fully with them. For non-muslims in such contexts, relations with Muslims “are not merely challenging but grim matters of survival”.[34]

The African Traditional Religionists usually express their grievances stemming from the verbal atrocities, stigmatization and somewhat blackmailing they experience or suffer from the other religious groups. According to Nana Obour[35], African Traditional Religion has been regarded by the Muslims and Christians as heathen, uncouth and satanic. He observed that the adherents of the African Traditional Religion are regarded as “next to the devil”. It can therefore be deduced from the above presentation that the future of religious tolerance and collaboration in Ghana is in doubt.

After a critical look at the effects of religious pluralism, both positive and negative, as discussed so far, the researcher believes it would not be out of place to posit that religious pluralism is a mixed blessing. This means that such religious phenomenon cannot be overly praised as an angelic occurrence. It would therefore be rational to indicate that the issue of religious pluralism must be looked at holistically from all perspectives and viewpoints and proper measures should be instituted to deal with the negative side of it. This will make people appreciate the full benefit of religious pluralism.

Suggestions and Recommendations

After a critical analysis of the study, we would like to make the following suggestions and recommendations.

First, the world in our contemporary times has developed the need for peace and social cohesion. At the international level, organizations like the United Nations are calling for a lasting peace and social cohesion. The Ghanaian society is not an exception to the earnest desire for peace and harmony. Based on this, the researcher would suggest that religion is capable of promoting that peace through decent interfaith dialogue because the religious adherents in the country are more than those who claim not to belong to any religion. Islam, Christianity and African Traditional Religion are invaluable instruments of reconciliation and of peace because they teach necessary values such as peace, forgiveness, mercy, love and so on. Ghanaians appear to have obedience and reverence for the leadership of his religious group and is prepared to obey their directives. Religious leaders should articulate the religious beliefs and practices of other religions. They should include in their programmes sermons and activities aimed at directing or guiding the people on positive ways of relating to people of other faiths.

Second, as Ghanaians and Africans therefore, there are certain values that are part of our cultures which we must cherish, embrace and continue to pursue. Among such values are brotherly love, tolerance and peaceful co-existence among members of the same community. Ghanaians live in community and they should be conscious of tolerating and protecting each other. They should accept and honour the responsibility of treating each other with courtesy and others. Therefore, in our inescapable pluralistic community in which they find themselves, Ghanaians should learn to accept, respect and tolerate each other without necessarily compromising their faith.

Third, Ghanaians should not be swollen headed or complacent of the current peace and interreligious harmony they are enjoying now. The world of late has become global and upon following the media in Ghana, one may not be wrong to conclude that the traditional culture of tolerance for dissenting views is giving way to harsh and impolite language and approach to authority. The culture of neighbourliness and brotherly love is giving way to individualism with emphasis on the individual interest than the we-feeling. Ghanaians should also not act indifferent to the current social, economic and political crisis the country is facing. Such crisis calls for collaborative efforts of every person irrespective of religious affiliation or convictions to come together in unison to holistically confront the challenges of our time. The first step to such a religious and compulsory mission is to promote and enhance interreligious tolerance and dialogue.

Fourth, the researcher would suggest that the study of ‘Interfaith Relations and Dialogue’ should be enshrined in the Religious and Moral Education syllabus. It could also be treated as an elective subject in the senior high schools and tertiary level. This will help students gain much insight in interfaith relations. This will help them to know how to relate or deal with people of different faiths aside their own. This is greatly due to the fact that, in the pluralistic society in which we find ourselves now, the students after graduating from school and entering into their respective professions will definitely meet or encounter people of other religions. So having foreknowledge in interfaith relations and dialogue will enable them to express ingenuousness and acceptance of other religious adherents and a commitment to have open conversations with people who will approach them. Thus, they will be able to treat the people they encounter diligently and honour their duties decently to ensure national development and a peaceful nation.

Fifth, it should be noted that human life matters most and no community or nation can progress without the effort or contribution of her diverse groups. Ghanaians should give much priority to their blood ties or relations than their religious associations. We would agree with those who are of the view that what is keeping Ghana peaceful in spite of religious differences is the people’s inclination to blood ties. This practice should be intensified. Ghanaians should keep to the philosophy of “”I am because we are” and that one’s life is incomplete without the community life. The people should respect their gregariousness as human beings who can exist and cope only in the company of others. Such a phenomenon is central to sound, harmonious and indomitable interfaith relations and dialogue.

REFERENCES

Abdul-Hamid, 2002. “Theatres of Love & The Nexus between Christianity and Islam: The case of Ghana”, WAATI Papers No. 7 on Christian-Muslim Relations in West Africa, 2012

Celene, Ayat Lizzio, 2014. “The Need for and Importance of Dialogue of Life in Community Building: The case of Selected West African Nations”, Journal of Interreligious Dialogue: A forum for academic, social, and timely issues affecting religious communities around the world, Volume 3, No 1

Esther O. Ayandokun, 2012. “Building a Tension-free Society for Mutual Relationship: Our Religious Differences Notwithstanding”, WAATI Papers No. 7 on Christian-Muslim Relations in West Africa

Glory, E. Dharmaraj, and Jacob, S. Dharmaraj, 1999. Christianity and Islam: A Missiological Encounter, Delhi: ISPCK

Kwame Gyekye, 1996. African Cultural Values: An Introduction. Accra-Ghana: Sankofa Publishing Company,

Mustapha Abdul-Hamid, 2012. “Theatres of Love & The Nexus between Christianity and Islam: The Case of Ghana”, WAATI Papers No. 7 on Christian-Muslim Relations in West Africa

Samwini, Nathan Iddrisu, 2006. The Muslim Resurgence in Ghana since 1950 and its effects upon Muslims and Muslim-Christian relations. Berlin: LIT VERLAG

Samwini, Nathan Iddrisu, 2014. “The Need for and Importance of Dialogue of Life in Community Building: The case of Selected West African Nations”, Journal of Interreligious Dialogue: A forum for academic, social, and timely issues affecting religious communities around the world, Volume 3, No 1

Samwini, Nathan Iddrisu, 2014. “I am Because We Are: A Precondition to Peace in a Religious and Political Pluralistic West African Country”, Journal of Applied Thought: A Multidisciplinary Approach, Volume 3, No 1

Samuel Pengyi Ango, 2002. “The Conversion of Saul of Tarsus: A Hope for Christian-Muslim Relations”, WAATI Papers No. 7 on Christian-Muslim Relations in West Africa

Stuart, E. Brown, 1989. The Challenge of the Scriptures: The Bible and the Quran. Maryknoll-New York: Orbis Books.

Interview with Zakaria Zeebaway, a Lecturer in the Department of Religious Studies at the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology. Interview date: 23/09/18.

Interview with John Abban Bonsu, the Priest of the Sekyere Kumawu Rectorate of the Catholic Church. Interview date: 09/01/15

Interview with Manu Ishaq, the Basic Schools Coordinator of the Sekyere Kumawu District. Interview date: 13/10/15.

Interview with Abdul Rahim, the Imam of the Kumawu Mosque. Interview date: 19/01/18

Interview with market women and men at the Bodomase market. Interview date: 09/01/15.

Interview with Sasu George, the School and Staff Welfare Officer of the Sekyere Kumawu District. Interview date: 12/01/15.

Interview with Nathan Iddrisu Samwini. Samwini is a member of the Programme for Christian-Muslim Relations in Africa (PROCMURA). Interview date: 15/12/2015.

Interview with some elders in the Kumasi city in Ghana. Interview date: 17/01/15.

Interview with Nana Obour is the priest of the ‘Black and White shrine’ at Oyoko, a suburb of Kumawu in Ghana. Interview date: 15/01/15.

Interview with some youths in the Kumasi city in Ghana. Interview date: 09/01/15.

[1] Kwame Gyekye, African Cultural Values: An Introduction. Accra-Ghana: Sankofa Publishing Company, 1996, p.1

[2] Samwini, Nathan Iddrisu, “I am Because We Are: A Precondition to Peace in a Religious and Political Pluralistic West African Country”, Journal of Applied Thought: A Multidisciplinary Approach, Volume 3, No 1, 2014, p.44

[3] Samwini, Nathan Iddrisu, “The Need for and Importance of Dialogue of Life in Community Building: The case of Selected West African Nations”, Journal of Interreligious Dialogue: A forum for academic, social, and timely issues affecting religious communities around the world, Volume 3, No 1, 2014, p. 1

[4] Samwini, Nathan Iddrisu, “I am Because We Are: A Precondition to Peace in a Religious and Political Pluralistic West African Country”, Journal of Applied Thought: A Multidisciplinary Approach, Volume 3, No 1, 2014, p.44

[5] Samwini, Nathan Iddrisu, “The Need for and Importance of Dialogue of Life in Community Building: The Case of Selected West African Nations, p.2

[6] Samwini, Nathan Iddrisu, 2014, “The Need for and Importune of Dialogue of life in Community Building: The Case of Selected West African Nations”, Journal of Interreligious Dialogue, Volume 3,No 1

[7] Mustapha Abdul-Hamid, “Theatres of Love & The Nexus between Christianity and Islam: The Case of Ghana”, WAATI Papers No. 7 on Christian-Muslim Relations in West Africa, 2012, p.37

[8] Du’a refers to s upplication to Allah in the form of prayer.

[9] Stuart, E. Brown. The Challenge of the Scriptures: The Bible and the Quran. Maryknoll-New York: Orbis Books, 1989, p. 9

[10] An interview with ten market women and five men at the Bodomase market. Interview date: 09/01/15.

[11] Interview with Manu Ishaq, the Basic Schools Coordinator of the Sekyere Kumawu District. Interview date: 13/10/15.

[12] Interview with Sasu George, the School and Staff Welfare Officer of the Sekyere Kumawu District. Interview date: 12/01/15.

[13] Samwini, The Muslim Resurgence in Ghana since 1950 and its effects upon Muslims and Muslim-Christian relations, p225

[14] Abdul-Hamid, “Theatres of Love & The Nexus between Christianity and Islam: The case of Ghana”, WAATI Papers No. 7 on Christian-Muslim Relations in West Africa, 2012, p.39

[15] In a visit to the political parties’ offices of the National Democratic Congress (NDC) and the New Patriotic Party (NPP) in Kumasi in the Ashanti Region of Ghana, the researcher found posters of people of different religious backgrounds vying for various positions in the respective political parties at the constituency level.

[16] Interview with John Abban Bonsu, the Priest of the Sekyere Kumawu Rectorate of the Catholic Church. Interview date: 09/01/15

[17] Interview with Manu Ishaq, the Basic Schools Coordinator of the Sekyere Kumawu District. Interview date: 13/10/15.

[18] Interview with Abdul Rahim, the Imam of the Kumawu Mosque. Interview date: 19/01/18

[19] Abdul-Hamid, “Theatres of Love & The Nexus between Christianity and Islam: The case of Ghana”, p.37

[20] Esther O. Ayandokun, “Building a Tension-free Society for Mutual Relationship: Our Religious Differences Notwithstanding”, WAATI Papers No. 7 on Christian-Muslim Relations in West Africa, 2012, p.108

[21] Dharmaraj and Dharmaraj. Christianity and Islam: A Missiological Encounter, p294

[22] Interview with Zakaria Zeebaway, a Lecturer in the Department of Religious Studies at the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology. Interview date: 23/09/18.

[23] Interview with Zakaria Zeebaway. Interview date: 23/09/14.

[24] Stuart, E. Brown, Meeting in Faith, p11

[25] Interview with Abdul Rahim, the Imam of the Kumawu Mosque. Interview date: 19/01/15

[26] Interview with Nathan Iddrisu Samwini. Samwini is a member of the Programme for Christian-Muslim Relations in Africa (PROCMURA). Interview date: 15/12/2015.

[27] Celene, Ayat Lizzio, “The Need for and Importance of Dialogue of Life in Community Building: The case of Selected West African Nations”, Journal of Interreligious Dialogue: A forum for academic, social, and timely issues affecting religious communities around the world, p.1

[28] Samwini, Nathan Iddrisu. The Muslim Resurgence in Ghana since 1950 and its effects upon Muslims and Muslim-Christian relations. p332

[29] This was known from an interview with some elders in the Kumawu town. Interview date: 17/01/15.

[30] Samwini, Nathan Iddrisu, “I am Because We Are: A Precondition to Peace in a Religious and Political Pluralistic West African Country”, Journal of Applied Thought: A Multidisciplinary Approach, Volume 3, No 1, 2014, p.44

[31] Nana Obour is the priest of the ‘Black and White shrine’ at Oyoko, a suburb of Kumawu in Ghana. Interview date: 15/01/15.

[32] According to Sheikh Abdul Rahim, the Imam of the Kumawu Mosque, during the meetings of the community leaders to deliberate on issues pertaining to the Kumawu town, all the religious groups are given turns to offer their prayers. Interview date: 09/01/15.

[33] This was known through an interview with some youths in the Kumawu town. Interview date: 09/01/15.

[34] Samuel Pengyi Ango, “The Conversion of Saul of Tarsus: A Hope for Christian-Muslim Relations”, WAATI Papers No. 7 on Christian-Muslim Relations in West Africa, 2012, p.18

[35] Nana Obour is the priest of the ‘Black and White shrine’ at Oyoko, a suburb of Kumawu. Interview date: 15/01/15.

17 of 17 pages

Details

Title
Religious pluralism and it's effects on Ghanaian society
Author
Year
2018
Pages
17
Catalog Number
V454170
ISBN (Book)
9783668876736
Language
English
Tags
religious, ghanaian
Quote paper
Adam Konadu (Author), 2018, Religious pluralism and it's effects on Ghanaian society, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/454170

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